[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphoid tissue inducer cells are members of an emerging family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC). Although these cells were originally reported to produce cytokines such as interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22, we demonstrate here that human CD127(+)RORC(+) and CD56(+)CD127(+) LTi-like ILC also express IL-2, IL-5, and IL-13 after activation with physiologic stimuli such as common γ-chain cytokines, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands, or IL-23. Whereas TLR2 signaling induced IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22 expression in a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner, IL-23 costimulation induced only IL-22 production. CD127(+) LTi-like ILC displayed clonal heterogeneity for IL-13 and IL-5 production, suggesting in vivo polarization. Finally, we identified a role for autocrine IL-2 signaling in mediating the effects of TLR2 stimulation on CD56(+)CD127(+) and CD127(+) LTi-like ILC. These results indicate that human LTi-like ILC can directly sense bacterial components and unravel a previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity among this important population of innate lymphoid cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells are required for lymph node formation during fetal development, and recent evidence implies a role in mucosal immunity in the adult. LTi cells share some phenotypic features of conventional natural killer (NK; cNK) cells; however, little is known to date about the relationship between these two cell types. We show that lineage(-) (Lin(-)) CD127(+)RORC(+) LTi-like cells in human tonsil are precursors to CD56(+)CD127(+)RORC(+)NKp46(+) cells, which together comprise a stable RORC(+) lineage. We find that LTi-like cells and their CD56(+) progeny can be expanded and cloned ex vivo without loss of function and without conversion into cNK cells. Clonal analysis reveals heterogeneity of cytokine production within the CD127(+) LTi-like population. Furthermore, we identify within the tonsil a cNK precursor population that is characterized as Lin(-)CD117(+)CD161(+)CD127(-) cells. Overall, we propose that CD127(+)RORC(+) cells, although they share some characteristics with cNK cells, represent a functionally and developmentally distinct lineage.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/2010; 207(2):281-90. DOI:10.1084/jem.20091509 · 12.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin 22 (IL-22) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that is involved in inflammatory and wound healing processes. Originally considered a T helper type 1 (T(H)1)-associated cytokine, IL-22 has since been shown to be produced mainly by IL-17-producing helper T cells (T(H)-17 cells). Here we describe a previously uncharacterized IL-22-producing human helper T cell population that coexpressed the chemokine receptor CCR6 and the skin-homing receptors CCR4 and CCR10. These cells were distinct from both T(H)-17 cells and T(H)1 cells. Downregulation of either the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or the transcription factor RORC by RNA-mediated interference affected IL-22 production, whereas IL-17 production was affected only by downregulation of RORC by RNA-mediated interference. AHR agonists substantially altered the balance of IL-22- versus IL-17-producing cells. This subset of IL-22-producing cells may be important in skin homeostasis and pathology.