[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: This study was designed to examine the spread of local anesthetic (LA) via magnetic resonance imaging after a standardized ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral blockade. METHODS:: Ten volunteers were enrolled in the study. We performed ultrasound-guided single-shot paravertebral blocks with 20 ml mepivacaine 1% at the thoracic six level at both sides on two consecutive days. After each paravertebral blockade, a magnetic resonance imaging investigation was performed to investigate the three-dimensional spread of the LA. In addition, sensory spread of blockade was evaluated via pinprick testing. RESULTS:: The median (interquartile range) cranial and caudal distribution of the LA relative to the thoracic six puncture level was 1.0 (2.5) and 3.0 (0.75) [=4.0 vertebral levels] for the left and 0.5 (1.0) and 3.0 (0.75) [=3.5 vertebral levels] for the right side. Accordingly, the LA distributed more caudally than cranially. The median (interquartile range) number of sensory dermatomes which were affected by the thoracic paravertebral blockade was 9.8 (6.5) for the left and 10.7 (8.8) for the right side. The sensory distribution of thoracic paravertebral blockade was significantly larger compared with the spread of LA. CONCLUSIONS:: Although the spread of LA was reproducible, the anesthetic effect was unpredictable, even with a standardized ultrasound-guided technique in volunteers. While it can be assumed that approximately 4 vertebral levels are covered by 20 ml LA, the somatic distribution of the thoracic paravertebral blockade remains unpredictable. In a significant percentage, the LA distributes into the epidural space, prevertebral, or to the contralateral side.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although azithromycin is extensively used in the treatment of respiratory tract infections as well as skin and skin-related infections, pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in extracellular space fluid of soft tissues, i.e. one of its therapeutic target sites, are not yet fully elucidated. In this study, azithromycin concentration versus time profiles in extracellular space of muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue, but also in plasma and white blood cells were determined at days 1 and 3 of treatment as well as 2 and 7 days after end of treatment. Of all compartments, azithromycin concentrations were highest in white blood cells, attesting for intracellular accumulation. However, azithromycin concentrations in both soft tissues were markedly lower than in plasma both during and after treatment. Calculation of AUC(0-24h)/MIC(90) ratios for selected pathogens suggests that azithromycin concentrations measured in the present study are subinhibitory at all time points in both soft tissues and at the large majority of observed time points in plasma. Hence, it might be speculated that azithromycin's clinical efficacy relies not only on elevated intracellular concentrations but possibly also on its known pleotropic effects including immuno-modulation and influence on bacterial virulence factors. However, prolonged subinhibitory azithromycin concentrations at target site, as observed in the present study, might favor the emergence of bacterial resistance and should therefore be considered with concern. In conclusion, this study has added important information to the pharmacokinetic profile of the widely used antibiotic drug azithromycin and evidentiates the need for further research on its potential for induction of bacterial resistance.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reliable drug concentration measurements at the target site are increasingly demanded and can be achieved by microdialysis. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the proof of principle of long-term subcutaneous microdialysis in humans. For long-term microdialysis, a special setting implementing both concentric and linear catheters has been developed ensuring good clinical practice compliance, tolerability, and convenience for participants and personnel. As a model compound, moderately lipophilic voriconazole was selected as a well-characterized drug in in vitro microdialysis experiments. Multiple in vivo relative recovery (RR) determinations for microdialysis were performed by retrodialysis during the entire study (n = 48 samples). Continuous microdialysis was successfully applied and well tolerated over 87 h in three adults for the first time. RR revealed low intra-individual (coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.4-12.5%) and inter-individual variability (CV = 4.3-12.5%) across all samples and catheters. Lower RR values were consistently determined for linear catheters. One catheter leakage was managed without an impact on the reliability of the RR values. Overall, RR values were calculated to be 73.3% (linear: CV = 18.5%, n = 23) and 84.9% (concentric: CV = 5.6%, n = 23). Long-term microdialysis application over almost 4 days was feasible by reliable multiple RR (proof of principle), well tolerated, and reduced the burden in humans avoiding several catheter insertions, thereby allowing to monitor concentration-time courses continuously. Moreover, a moderately lipophilic drug has been proven suitable for in vivo microdialysis, as previously suggested by in vitro microdialysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For macrolides, clinical activity but also the development of bacterial resistance has been attributed to prolonged therapeutic and subtherapeutic concentrations. Although erythromycin is a long-established antimicrobial, concomitant determination of the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin and its metabolites in different compartments is limited. To better characterize the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin and its anhydrometabolite (anhydroerythromycin [AHE]) in different compartments during and after the end of treatment with 500 mg of erythromycin four times daily, concentration-time profiles were determined in plasma, interstitial space of muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and white blood cells (WBCs) at days 1 and 3 of treatment and 2 and 7 days after end of therapy. In WBCs, concentrations of erythromycin exceeded those in plasma approximately 40-fold, while free concentrations in plasma and tissue were comparable. The observed delay of peak concentrations in tissue might be caused by fast initial cellular uptake. Two days after the end of treatment, subinhibitory concentrations were observed in plasma and interstitial space of both soft tissues, while 7 days after the end of treatment, erythromycin was not detectable in any compartment. This relatively short period of subinhibitory concentrations may be advantageous compared to other macrolides. The ratio of erythromycin over AHE on day 1 was highest in plasma (2.81 ± 3.45) and lowest in WBCs (0.27 ± 0.22). While the ratio remained constant between single dose and steady state, after the end of treatment the concentration of AHE declined more slowly than that of the parent compound, indicating the importance of the metabolite for the prolonged drug interaction of erythromycin.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2011; 56(2):1059-64. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a regional anesthetic technique used for pain control following abdominal surgical procedures. While a minimum of systemic side effects is usually expected after local anesthesia, it is unknown to which extent systemic absorption and redistribution to the abdominal wall contributes to the effects of anesthetics. The aim of this study was to determine concentration-time profiles of ropivacaine after the injection of 150 mg of ropivacaine into the lateral abdominal wall in various compartments.
The microdialysis technique was used to measure ropivacaine in plasma as well as at abdominal wall sites cranial from the injection site (below the 12th rip) and caudal from the injection site (cranial from the iliac crest) and in the skeletal muscle tissue of the contra lateral thigh of eight healthy volunteers.
The mean exposure to ropivacaine measured as the area under the concentration-time curve was significantly higher at the two abdominal sites (240.9 ± 409.1 and 86.18 ± 133.50 μg h/mL, respectively) than in plasma (5.1 ± 1.0 μg h/mL) or in peripheral tissue (1.1 ± 1.2 μg h/mL). While the high mean concentrations of ropivacaine measured at the abdominal wall sites support the topical concept of the TAP block, the observed variability was striking.
While the systemic pharmacokinetics was comparable between subjects, the local distribution of ropivacaine was highly variable after TAP block.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2011; 68(4):419-25. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • Therapy with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) relies on the ability of the active drug to penetrate the skin in sufficiently high amounts to exert a clinical effect, which is linked to the specific galenic properties of the formulation.
• This phase 1 study characterizes the transdermal penetration and plasma exposure of different dose levels with galenic differences of a novel topical diclofenac formulation under development and indicates greater diclofenac penetration through the skin when compared with a commercially available formulation.
To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C).
This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren Emulgel gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4.
All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren Emulgel and were approximately 30-40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was 2.71 times greater than for Voltaren Emulgel (90% CI 99.27, 737.46%). Mild erythema at the application site was the most frequent adverse event associated with DCF100C. There were no local symptoms after treatment with the reference formulation.
DCF100C formulations were safe and facilitated greater diclofenac penetration through the skin compared with the commercial comparator. DCF100C represents a promising alternative to oral and topical diclofenac treatments that warrants further development.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2011; 71(6):852-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ralfinamide is an α-aminoamide derivative with ion channel blocking properties, acting both peripherally and centrally through different molecular targets important in pain control. Absorption, blood and plasma time courses, and urinary and faecal excretion of total radioactivity were assessed in 6 male healthy volunteers administered a single oral dose of 320 mg ¹⁴C-(S)-ralfinamide. Pharmacokinetics of the parent drug were investigated over 120 h, urinary and plasma metabolites up to 192 h post-dose. ¹⁴C-(S)-ralfinamide was rapidly and completely absorbed. Ralfinamide and the dealkylated ralfinamide metabolite (NW-1716) represented the majority of plasma radioactivity. Plasma elimination of the parent compound occurred mono-exponentially (half-life approx. 15 h). ¹⁴C-radioactivity was eliminated in a bi-phasic manner (terminal half-life of 60 and 24 h for plasma and whole blood, respectively). Plasma-concentrations of unchanged ralfinamide were significantly lower than radioactivity concentrations, indicating metabolism of the parent compound. At 192 h post-dose the total balance of radioactivity was almost complete (95%). The main route of excretion was via the kidneys (94% of the dose). Major metabolites identified in urine and plasma were the N-dealkylated acid of ralfinamide and deaminated ralfinamide acid (NW-1799). Other metabolites, in particular the product of glucuronide conjugation N-dealkylated-β-glucuronide, were identified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This randomized, double-blinded volunteer study was designed to evaluate the ED(99) volume of local anaesthetic for sciatic nerve blocks using a step-up/step-down methodology.
A maximum of 20 volunteers were included to receive an ultrasound-guided sciatic nerve block with mepivacaine 1.5% and a starting volume of 0.2 ml mm(-2) cross-sectional nerve area. In cases of a complete sensory block, the volume was reduced by 0.02 ml mm(-2) cross-sectional nerve area until the first block failed. Thereafter, the volume of local anaesthetic was increased by 0.02 ml mm(-2) cross-sectional nerve area. After three cycles of successful/failed blocks, the ED(99) volume of local anaesthetic could be calculated by a probability function. The influence of the volumes of local anaesthetics on sensory onset times and duration of sensory block was evaluated by linear regression.
The ED(99) volume of local anaesthetic for sciatic nerve block was calculated with 0.10 ml mm(-2) cross-sectional nerve area. The correlation between the volume of local anaesthetic and the sensory onset time was weak (r=0.14), whereas the correlation between the volume of local anaesthetic and the duration of sensory block was moderate (r=0.65).
This is the first study where an ED(99) volume of local anaesthetic for sciatic nerve block has been evaluated. The resulting local anaesthetic volume of 0.10 ml mm(-2) cross-sectional nerve area seems to have no impact on sensory onset time, whereas the duration of sensory block is shorter.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 02/2010; 104(2):239-44. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 32 (Hsp32), also known as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), is a stress-related anti-apoptotic molecule, that has been implicated in enhanced survival of neoplastic cells and in drug-resistance. We here show that Hsp32 is expressed in most solid tumors and hematopoietic neoplasms and may be employed as a new therapeutic target as evidenced by experiments using specific siRNA and a Hsp32-targeting pharmacologic inhibitor. This Hsp-32 targeting drug, SMA-ZnPP, was found to inhibit the proliferation of neoplastic cells with IC(50) values ranging between 1 and 50 microM. In addition, SMA-ZnPP induced apoptosis in all neoplastic cells examined. Furthermore, SMA-ZnPP was found to synergize with other targeted and conventional drugs in producing growth-inhibition. Resulting synergistic effects were observed in all tumor and leukemia cells examined. Interestingly, several of the drug partners, when applied as single agents, induced the expression of Hsp32 in neoplastic cells, suggesting that synergistic effects resulted from SMA-ZnPP-induced ablation of a Hsp32-mediated survival-pathway that is otherwise used by tumor cells to escape drug-induced apoptosis. Together, Hsp32 is an important survival factor and target in solid tumors and hematopoietic neoplasms, and may be used to optimize anticancer therapy by combining conventional or targeted drugs with Hsp32-inhibitors. Based on these data, it seems desirable to explore the value of Hsp32-targeting drugs as anti-cancer agents in clinical trials.
Current cancer drug targets 09/2009; 9(5):675-89. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein 32 (Hsp32), also known as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), is a stress-related anti-apoptotic molecule, that has been implicated in enhanced survival of neoplastic cells and in drug-resistance. We here show that Hsp32 is expressed in most solid tumors and hematopoietic neoplasms and may be employed as a new therapeutic target as evidenced by experiments using specific siRNA and a Hsp32-targeting pharmacologic inhibitor. This Hsp-32 targeting drug, SMA-ZnPP, was found to inhibit the proliferation of neoplastic cells with IC50 values ranging between 1 and 50 μM. In addition, SMA-ZnPP induced apoptosis in all neoplastic cells examined. Furthermore, SMA-ZnPP was found to synergize with other targeted and conventional drugs in producing growth-inhibition. Resulting synergistic effects were observed in all tumor- and leukemia cells examined. Interestingly, several of the drug partners, when applied as single agents, induced the expression of Hsp32 in neoplastic cells, suggesting that synergistic effects resulted from SMA-ZnPPinduced ablation of a Hsp32-mediated survival-pathway that is otherwise used by tumor cells to escape drug induced apoptosis. Together, Hsp32 is an important survival factor and target in solid tumors and hematopoietic neoplasms, and may be used to optimize anticancer therapy by combining conventional or targeted drugs with Hsp32-inhibitors. Based on these data, it seems desirable to explore the value of Hsp32-targeting drugs as anti-cancer agents in clinical trials.
Current Cancer Drug Targets 07/2009; 9(5):675-689. · 4.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical antipsychotics have been linked to a higher risk for glucose intolerance, and consequentially the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We have therefore set out to investigate the acute effects of oral administration of olanzapine and ziprasidone on whole body insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. Using the standardized hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique we compared whole body insulin sensitivity of 29 healthy male volunteers after oral intake of either olanzapine 10 mg/day (n = 14) or ziprasidone 80 mg/day (n = 15) for 10 days. A significant decrease (p<0.001) in whole body insulin sensitivity from 5.7 ml/h/kg ( = mean, SM = 0.4 ml/h/kg) at baseline to 4.7 ml/h/kg ( = mean, SM = 0.3 ml/h/kg) after oral intake of olanzapine (10 mg/day) for 10 days was observed. The ziprasidone (80 mg/day) group did not show any significant difference (5.2+/-0.3 ml/h/kg baseline vs 5.1+/-0.3 ml/h/kg) after 10 days of oral intake. Our main finding demonstrates that oral administration of olanzapine but not ziprasidone leads to a decrease in whole body insulin sensitivity in response to a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic challenge. Our finding is suggestive that not all atypical antipsychotics cause acute direct effects on glucose disposal and that accurate determination of side effect profile should be performed when choosing an atypical antipsychotic.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) containing formulations represent a cornerstone in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. A novel formulation with an Eudragit L/S mixture coating has been developed to provide selective release of 5-ASA to the ileo-caecal region and the colon.
To determine the release of 5-ASA during the gastrointestinal transit.
A single oral dose of mesalazine EC 500 mg gastroresistant tablets (Asamax) was administered to eight healthy male volunteers. Gastrointestinal transit and tablet disintegration were monitored by scintigraphy. 5-ASA release was verified by assessing plasma pharmacokinetics.
Initial tablet disintegration was observed 5.65 +/- 0.86 h after dosing, corresponding to the detection of 5-ASA in plasma. This occurred in the ileo-caecal region in three subjects and the ascending colon in the remaining five. The relative percentage of 5-ASA absorption was more pronounced in the ascending colon (41 +/- 27.4%) than the ileo-caecal region (6.6 +/- 9.2%).
This mesalazine EC gastroresistant tablets release locally active 5-ASA specifically in the ileo-caecal region and the ascending colon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear at the present time whether hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors; statins) exert a protective effect on low-density lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation in vivo. In addition, it is speculated that pharmacological differences between statins may account for differences in their antioxidative capacities. This is of clinical relevance, because there is strong evidence that oxidized LDL initiates the atherosclerosis process.
In a controlled, randomized, double-blind study we compared the effects of three different statins (simvastatin, pravastatin and atorvastatin) on the ability to protect LDL from oxidation in 70 hypercholesterolemic but otherwise healthy subjects. Statins were administered in doses which were nearly equi-effective in lowering LDL-cholesterol. Changes in LDL oxidation were measured using diene conjugation (DIENES) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at entry and three months after beginning therapy with the statins.
Levels of DIENES, usually generated during the early phases of lipid peroxidation, were significantly reduced by 10.2 +/- 5.5% (mean +/- SEM; p < 0.03), 6.0 +/- 2.0% (p < 0.005) versus baseline in the case of pravastatin and atorvastatin but simvastatin had no significant effect with a mean reduction of 5.5 +/- 6.4% (p > 0.23). Levels of TBARS, reflecting late phases of LDL oxidation, showed no significant changes against baseline (p > 0.34). Pooled data (n = 70) indicated that statins reduce DIENES levels by approximately 9% versus baseline (p < 0.005) but had no significant effect on TBARS levels (p > 0.29) after three months of therapy.
This study showed that atorvastatin and pravastatin were capable of protecting LDL from oxidation in vivo in the early treatment phase. Pooled data levels of DIENES were significantly affected by statin therapy over a period of 3 months. No protective effect appeared to be present in the late phases of oxidation evaluated using measurement of TBARS but it should be noted that the clinical impact of such observations are currently discussed controversially in the literature.
International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 01/2006; 43(12):551-7. · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because many drugs possess an intracellular site of action, the knowledge of intracellular concentration-time profiles is desirable. In the present study, PET, which measures total (i.e., intracellular, extracellular, and intravascular) concentrations of radiolabeled drugs in tissue, and microdialysis, which determines unbound drug concentrations in the extracellular space fluid of tissue, were combined to describe the intracellular pharmacokinetics of a model compound--that is, the (18)F-labeled antibiotic (18)F-ciprofloxacin--in vivo in humans.
Ten healthy male volunteers received a mixture of 687 +/- 50 MBq of (18)F-ciprofloxacin and 200 mg of unlabeled ciprofloxacin as an intravenous bolus infusion over 10 min. The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in skeletal muscle tissue were assessed by means of combined PET and in vivo microdialysis for 5 h after drug administration. A 3-compartment pharmacokinetic model was fitted to the tissue concentration-time profiles of ciprofloxacin measured by PET to estimate the rate constants of ciprofloxacin uptake and transport.
In muscle tissue, mean total and extracellular peak concentration (C(max)) values of ciprofloxacin of 1.8 +/- 0.4 microg/mL and 0.7 +/- 0.2 microg/mL were attained at 95 +/- 34 min and 48 +/- 20 min after drug administration, respectively. The extracellular-to-intracellular exchange appeared to be very fast, with an estimated rate constant k(3) of 1.69 +/- 0.25 min(-1). An intracellular-to-extracellular concentration ratio (C(intra)/C(extra)) of 3.2 +/- 0.8 was reached at 110 min after injection and followed by sustained intracellular retention of the antibiotic for the remainder of the experiment. The predicted extracellular concentration-time profiles from the compartmental modeling were in good agreement with the measured microdialysis data.
The results obtained in the present study were in accordance with previous in vitro data describing cellular ciprofloxacin uptake and retention. The presently used PET/microdialysis combination might be useful during research and development of new drugs, for which knowledge of intracellular concentrations is of interest.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 12/2005; 46(11):1835-41. · 5.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The suitability of the 18F-labelled fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin ([18F]ciprofloxacin) for imaging of bacterial infections with positron emission tomography (PET) was assessed in vitro and in vivo.
For the in vitro experiments, suspensions of various E. coli strains were incubated with different concentrations of [18F]ciprofloxacin (0.01-5.0 microg/ml) and radioactivity retention was measured in a gamma counter. For the in vivo experiments, 725 +/- 9 MBq [18F]ciprofloxacin was injected intravenously into four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections of the lower extremities and time-radioactivity curves were recorded in infected and uninfected tissue for 5 h after tracer injection.
Binding of [18F]ciprofloxacin to bacterial cells was rapid, non-saturable and readily reversible. Moreover, bacterial binding of the agent was similar in ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible clinical isolates. These findings suggest that non-specific binding rather than specific binding to bacterial type II topoisomerase enzymes is the predominant mechanism of bacterial retention of the radiotracer. PET studies in the four patients with microbiologically proven bacterial soft tissue infections demonstrated locally increased radioactivity uptake in infected tissue, with peak ratios between infected and uninfected tissue ranging from 1.8 to 5.5. Radioactivity was not retained in infected tissue and appeared to wash out with a similar elimination half-life as in uninfected tissue, suggesting that the kinetics of [18F]ciprofloxacin in infected tissue are governed by increased blood flow and vascular permeability due to local infection rather than by a binding process.
Taken together, our results indicate that [18F]ciprofloxacin is not suited as a bacteria-specific infection imaging agent for PET.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 03/2005; 32(2):143-50. · 5.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free gemifloxacin concentrations in the interstitial space fluid of skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured by means of in vivo microdialysis to characterize the ability of gemifloxacin to penetrate human soft tissues. Twelve healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 320 mg of gemifloxacin. The mean areas under the concentration-time curves from 0 to 10 h (AUC(0-10)) were significantly higher for soft tissue than for unbound gemifloxacin in plasma (P < 0.05). The ratios of the mean AUC(0-10) for tissue to the AUC(0-10) for free gemifloxacin in plasma were 1.7 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- standard deviation) for skeletal muscle and 2.4 +/- 1.0 for adipose tissue. The AUC(0-24) ratios for free gemifloxacin in tissues to the MIC at which 90% of frequently isolated bacteria are inhibited were close to or higher than 100 h. Therefore, based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic calculations, we conclude that gemifloxacin might be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of soft tissue infections.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2004; 48(11):4246-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study addressed the ability of moxifloxacin to penetrate into healthy and inflamed subcutaneous adipose tissues in 12 patients with soft tissue infections (STIs). Penetration of moxifloxacin into the interstitial space fluid of healthy and inflamed subcutaneous adipose tissues was measured by use of in vivo microdialysis following administration of a single intravenous dosage of 400 mg in six diabetic and six nondiabetic patients with STIs. For the entire study population, the mean time-concentration profile of free moxifloxacin in plasma was identical to the time-concentration profile of free moxifloxacin in tissue (P was not significant). For healthy and inflamed adipose tissues for the diabetic subgroup, the mean moxifloxacin areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) from 0 to 8 h (AUC(0-8)s) were 8.1 +/- 7.1 and 3.7 +/- 1.9 mg.h/liter, respectively (P was not significant). The ratios of the mean AUC(0-8) for inflamed tissue/AUC(0-8) for free moxifloxacin in plasma were 0.5 +/- 0.4 for diabetic patients and 1.2 +/- 0.8 for nondiabetic patients (P was not significant). The ratios of the AUCs from 0 to 24 h for free moxifloxacin in plasma/MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited were >58 and 121 h for Streptococcus species and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Concentrations of moxifloxacin effective against clinically relevant bacterial strains are reached in plasma and in inflamed and healthy adipose tissues. Thus, the pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin in tissue and plasma support its use for the treatment of STIs in diabetic and nondiabetic patients.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2003; 47(10):3099-103. · 4.57 Impact Factor