[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide. Many women have become more aware of the benefits of increasing fruit consumption, as part of a healthy lifestyle, for the prevention of cancer. The mechanisms by which fruits, including berries, prevent breast cancer can be partially explained by exploring their interactions with pathways known to influence cell proliferation and evasion of cell-death. Two receptor pathways, estrogen receptor (ER) and tyrosine kinase receptors, especially the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, are drivers of cell proliferation and play a significant role in the development of both primary and recurrent breast cancer. There is strong evidence to show that several phytochemicals present in berries such as cyanidin, delphinidin, quercetin, kaempferol, ellagic acid, resveratrol, and pterostilbene interact with and alter the effects of these pathways. Furthermore, they also induce cell death (apoptosis and autophagy) via their influence on kinase signaling. This review summarizes in vitro data regarding the interaction of berry polyphenols with the specific receptors and the mechanisms by which they induce cell death. This paper also presents in vivo data of primary breast cancer prevention by individual compounds and whole berries. Finally, a possible role for berries and berry compounds in the prevention of breast cancer and a perspective on the areas that require further research are presented.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2012; · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fulvestrant (ICI 182,780; ICI) is approved for the treatment of advanced metastatic breast cancer that is unresponsive to other endocrine therapies. Berries are frequently consumed for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer potential. In this study, we tested the efficacy of two berry extracts (Jamun-EJAE and red raspberry-RRE) and their bioactive compounds (Delphinidin-Del and Ellagic acid-EA) to inhibit cell proliferation with or without a sublethal dose of ICI in various breast cancer cell lines. ICI-sensitive (LCC1, ZR75-1, and BT474) and -resistant (LCC9, ZR75-1R) cells were subjected to treatment with berry extracts alone (0.1-100 μg/mL) or with a sub-lethal dose of ICI (<IC(50) dose; 1 nM for sensitive; 1 μM for resistant cells). Extracts and Del enhanced the effect of ICI in sensitive ZR75-1 and BT474 cells primarily in an additive fashion (measured by relative index (RI)~1). In ZR75-1R cells, both EJAE and RRE synergistically enhanced the effects of ICI (15-50%; P < 0.05; RI > 1). EA, in doses tested, did not have any significant effects on any of the cell lines. Finally, we found that the extracts were more effective at lower, physiologically relevant concentrations than at higher experimental doses.
International journal of breast cancer. 01/2012; 2012:147828.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bile acids are implicated as etiologic agents in esophageal cancer. We sought to analyze the impact of bile acid exposure on esophageal epithelial cells, Barrett's metaplastic cells (BE), esophageal adenocarcinoma cells (EAC), and esophageal squamous carcinoma cell (ESC). We sought to determine if cellular resistance is related to manganese superoxide dismutase expression.
Cells were exposed to sodium choleate (CA), sodium deoxycholate (DCA), sodium glycocholate (GCA), sodium taurocholate (TCA), or a 1:1 mixture (MIX) of reagents at concentrations in the range 0.2-0.8 mM. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) expression was analyzed by Western blot. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS ver. 17.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL.
Bile salt exposure inhibited cell viability in esophageal squamous cells in time- and growth-dependent manner. There was a 50% decrease in cell viability from 4 to 24 h. BE, EAC, and ESC cell lines were more resistant to bile insult. In untreated cell lines, MnSOD expression was significantly decreased in EAC and ESC cell lines compared with esophageal squamous epithelial cells and BE cells (P=0.002). Exposure of ESC cells to bile salt increased MnSOD expression.
The confirmation of the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bile acids in esophageal carcinogenesis has interesting implications for chemoprevention in patients with reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus. Further studies are necessary to assess the preventative role of antioxidant supplementation.
Journal of Surgical Research 12/2011; 171(2):623-30. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Curcuma longa is a perennial member of the Zingiberaceae family, and cultivated mainly in India, and Southeast Asia. The hypothesis for this study is that turmeric will have distinctive effects from curcumin due to the presence of other bioactive compounds. Thirty Eight-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into three oral feeding groups. Group 1, standard rat chow, Control diet - AIN 93M, group 2 - Curcumin - 700ppm or 0.7g/kg diet, and group 3 - Turmeric - 14,000ppm or 14g/kg diet for a total of 3weeks. One group of rats were feed all three diets only and another group underwent esophagoduodenal anastomosis to evaluate the effects of bioavailability. Curcumin diet did not increase the transcription of mRNA of TNF-alpha, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2. The average fold change in the mRNAs level was not significant. Whereas turmeric diet increases the levels of IL-6 (1.9-fold, p=0.05), iNOS (4.39-fold, p=0.02), IL-8 (3.11-fold, p=0.04), and COX-2 (2.02-fold, p=0.05), suggesting that turmeric either was more bioavailable or had more affect on pro-inflammatory genes compare to curcumin diet. We have demonstrated the molecular effects of curcumin and turmeric in the role as an anti-inflammatory therapy. However, significant bioavailable differences do occur and must be considered in further chemopreventative investigative trials the setting of reflux esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and other upper gastrointestinal cancers.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2011; 50(2):227-31. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in humans is increasing more rapidly than any other malignancy in the United States. Animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of freeze-dried berry supplementation on carcinogen-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in rats; however, no such studies have been done in esophagoduodenal anastomosis (EDA), an animal model for reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) development. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: EDA + control diet (EDA-CD; n = 10); EDA + 2.5% black raspberry diet (EDA-BRB; n = 11) and EDA + 2.5% blueberry diet (EDA-BB; n = 12). After 2 wk of feeding the respective diets, the rats underwent EDA surgery to induce gastroesophageal reflux and then continued the diet. Measurement of feed intake suggested that all EDA-operated animals had lower feed intake starting at 10 wk after surgery and this was significant close to termination at 24 wk. There were no significant differences in either reflux esophagitis (RE), intestinal metaplasia (IM) (70% in CD, 64% in BRB, and 66% in BB; P = 0.1) or EAC incidence (30% for CD, 34% for BRB, and 25% for BB; P = 0.2) with supplementation. Berry diets did not alter COX-2 levels, but BB diet significantly reduced MnSOD levels (1.23 ± 0.2) compared to control diet (2.05 ± 0.14; P < 0.05). We conclude that a dietary supplementation of freeze-dried BRB and BB at 2.5% (w/w) was not effective in the prevention of reflux-induced esophageal adenocarcinoma in this EDA animal model.
Nutrition and Cancer 11/2011; 63(8):1256-62. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux of bile acids plays an important role in the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE)-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Cigarette smoke has been demonstrated to exacerbate the effects of reflux and thus the initial stages of EAC carcinogenesis. To date, no in vivo studies have been conducted to look at the concomitant effects of cigarette smoke and bile acids on EAC incidence.
In this pilot study, rats that underwent esophagoduodenal anastomosis (EDA) surgery to induce reflux were exposed to whole-body cigarette smoke 3 weeks after surgery. Smoke exposure (135 mg/m³/day) was done for 4 h/day for 5 consecutive days and animals were euthanized after a 48-h recovery period.
Exposure to EDA-smoke accelerated the development of BE when compared to EDA-air. The presence of reflux caused a significant 3.5-fold increase in nuclear factor-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) staining (1.47 ± 0.6; p = 0.01). Animals with both reflux and smoking had the highest (10-fold; 4 ± 0.9) induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression (p < 0.05). Similarly, there was a 10-fold increase in 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) protein adducts identified in all smoke-exposed animals (p < 0.01).
Cigarette smoke aggravates reflux-induced BE and potentially accelerates the progression of BE to EAC through the loss of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and overexpression of NF-κB- and COX-2-mediated factors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lack of understanding of endocrine resistance remains one of the major challenges for breast cancer researchers, clinicians, and patients. Current reductionist approaches to understanding the molecular signaling driving resistance have offered mostly incremental progress over the past 10 years. As the field of systems biology has begun to mature, the approaches and network modeling tools being developed and applied therein offer a different way to think about how molecular signaling and the regulation of critical cellular functions are integrated. To gain novel insights, we first describe some of the key challenges facing network modeling of endocrine resistance, many of which arise from the properties of the data spaces being studied. We then use activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) following induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress in breast cancer cells by antiestrogens, to illustrate our approaches to computational modeling. Activation of UPR is a key determinant of cell fate decision making and regulation of autophagy and apoptosis. These initial studies provide insight into a small subnetwork topology obtained using differential dependency network analysis and focused on the UPR gene XBP1. The XBP1 subnetwork topology incorporates BCAR3, BCL2, BIK, NFκB, and other genes as nodes; the connecting edges represent the dependency structures amongst these nodes. As data from ongoing cellular and molecular studies become available, we will build detailed mathematical models of this XBP1-UPR network.
Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation 03/2011; 5(1):35-44.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esophageal cancer consists of two distinct types, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and squamous cell carcinoma, both of which differ significantly in their etiology. Freeze-dried black raspberry (BRB) has been consistent in its ability to modulate the biomarkers and reduce the incidence of carcinogen-induced squamous cell carcinoma in rats. In our previous studies in the esophagoduodenal anastomosis (EDA) model, we have shown that the early modulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) significantly correlates with the development of reflux-induced EAC in rats. In this study we looked at the short-term effects of a BRB-supplemented diet on the modulation of antioxidant enzymes in reflux-induced esophagitis.
Male SD rats (8 wk old; n = 3-5) were randomized into three groups--sham-operated, fed control AIN-93M diet (SH-CD), EDA operated and fed either control diet (EDA-CD) or 2.5% (w/w) BRB diet (EDA-BRB). The effect of both reflux and dietary supplementation was analyzed 2 and 4 wk after EDA surgery.
Animals in the EDA groups had significantly lower weight gain and diet intake compared to SH-CD (P < 0.05). The sham-operated animals received an average esophagitis score of 0.1 ± 0.1; this increased significantly in EDA-CD animals to 1.8 ± 0.14 (P < 0.001 versus SH-CD) and in EDA-BRB group to 1.7 ± 0.06 (P < 0.001 versus SH-CD), with BE changes also present. However, dietary supplementation of BRB did not alter or ameliorate the grade of esophagitis or the induction of BE. BRB diet caused a 43% increase in MnSOD levels compared to EDA-CD (0.73 ± 0.16; P = 0.09); however, this effect was not statistically significant and at 4 wk, EDA-CD (0.58 ± 0.12) showed an increase in MnSOD expression compared to SH-CD (0.34 ± 0.01).
In conclusion, our data suggest that dietary BRB does not increase the levels of cellular antioxidant enzymes or reduce the levels of lipid peroxidation compared to a control diet, in a short-term study of gastroesophageal reflux induction in the EDA animal model. However, it remains to be tested whether this is indicative of its ineffectiveness to inhibit reflux-induced EAC incidence over the long term.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed and the most prevalent cancer among women worldwide. There are several million
women who could potentially benefit from prevention of both primary and recurring breast tumors. The female reproductive hormone
17ß-estradiol (E2) has been implicated as a causative agent in breast cancer. ACI rats are susceptible to mammary adenocarcinomas induced by
physiological levels of E2, making it a preclinical model with a high applicability for clinical translation. We have shown that diets supplemented with
blueberry or black raspberry (1, 2.5 and 5% w/w) show significant reduction in the latency, incidence, number, and volume
of tumors in this animal model of E2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis. Berry phytochemicals provide this protection by modulating E2-metabolizing enzymes, preventing DNA damage, increasing DNA repair, reducing E2-induced cell proliferation, lowering the levels of circulating prolactin, and by eliciting an anti-estrogenic effect. Further,
upon conversion of effective rodent doses to human equivalents using allometry, it was found that a woman with an average
caloric intake of 2,000kcal/day may require only 1/2 to 1 cup of fresh or frozen berries to achieve significant protection
against the risk posed by E2. This dose can be effectively applied in a community setting to achieve primary prevention as well as in a clinical setting
to prevent recurrence.
KeywordsHormonal breast cancer-ACI rat model-Prevention-Blueberry-Black raspberry-Ellagic acid allometric scaling
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the ability of curcumin to counteract the impact of bile acids on gene expression of esophageal epithelial cells.
An esophageal epithelial cell line (HET-1A) was treated with curcumin in the presence of deoxycholic acid. Cell proliferation and viability assays were used to establish an appropriate dose range for curcumin. The combined and individual effects of curcumin and bile acid on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-1 and SOD-2) gene expression were also assessed.
Curcumin in a dose range of 10-100 micromol/L displayed minimal inhibition of HET-1A cell viability. Deoxycholic acid at a concentration of 200 micromol/L caused a 2.4-fold increase in COX-2 gene expression compared to vehicle control. The increased expression of COX-2 induced by deoxycholic acid was partially reversed by the addition of curcumin, and curcumin reduced COX-2 expression 3.3- to 1.3-fold. HET-1A cells exposed to bile acid yielded reduced expression of SOD-1 and SOD-2 genes with the exception that high dose deoxycholic acid at 200 mumol/L led to a 3-fold increase in SOD-2 expression. The addition of curcumin treatment partially reversed the bile acid-induced reduction in SOD-1 expression at all concentrations of curcumin tested.
Curcumin reverses bile acid suppression of gene expression of SOD-1. Curcumin is also able to inhibit bile acid induction of COX-2 gene expression.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2010; 16(33):4152-8. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent 17beta-estradiol (E(2))-induced mammary tumors by altering estrogen metabolism, we randomized August-Copenhagen Irish rats (n = 6 per group) into five groups: sham implant + control diet, E(2) implant + control diet (E(2)-CD), E(2) + 2.5% black raspberry (E(2)-BRB), E(2) + 2.5% blueberry (E(2)-BB), and E(2) + 400 ppm ellagic acid (E(2)-EA). Animals were euthanized at early (6 wk), intermediate (18 wk), and late (24 wk) phases of E(2) carcinogenesis, and the mammary tissue was analyzed for gene expression changes using quantitative real-time PCR. At 6 weeks, E(2) treatment caused a 48-fold increase in cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1; P < 0.0001), which was attenuated by both BRB and BB diets to 12- and 21-fold, respectively (P < 0.001). E(2) did not alter CYP1B1 levels, but both berry and EA diets significantly suppressed it by 11- and 3.5-fold, respectively, from baseline (P < 0.05). There was a 5-fold increase in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 7 (17betaHSD7), and this was moderately abrogated to approximately 2-fold by all supplementation (P < 0.05). At 18 weeks, CYP1A1 was elevated by 15-fold in E(2)-CD and only E(2)-BB reduced this increase to 7-fold (P < 0.05). Catechol-O-methyltransferase expression was elevated 2-fold by E(2) treatment (P < 0.05), and all supplementation reversed this. At 24 weeks, CYP1A1 expression was less pronounced but still high (8-fold) in E(2)-treated rats. This increase was reduced to 3.2- and 4.6-fold by E(2)-BRB and E(2)-EA, respectively (P < 0.05), but not by E(2)-BB. Supplementation did not alter the effect of E(2) on steroid receptors. The diets also significantly suppressed mammary tumor incidence (10-30%), volume (41-67%), and multiplicity (38-51%; P < 0.05). Berries may prevent mammary tumors by suppressing the levels of E(2)-metabolizing enzymes during the early phase of E(2) carcinogenesis.
Cancer Prevention Research 06/2010; 3(6):727-37. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the fastest growing cancer in terms of incidence and has a high mortality rate. The animal model to study EAC uses esophagoduodenal anastomosis (EDA) to induce mixed-reflux (bile/acid) causing esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and EAC sequence within 6 mo. However, the lack of fully functional stomach in these rats leads to the development of malnutrition.
We have assessed the ability of a chemically pure, purified ingredient diet (AIN-93M) to reduce surgery-associated malnutrition in rats that have undergone the EDA-surgery. Animals were either sham- (SH) or EDA-operated and fed either a grain-based rodent diet (RD) (SH-RD, n=3; EDA-RD, n=10) or a purified diet (PD) (SH-PD, n=4; EDA-PD, n=11). The animals were weighed periodically for assessment of weight gain and euthanized at the end of 24 wk to measure esophageal tumor incidence.
Animals that underwent sham surgery continued to gain weight throughout the study period and no tumors were detected. The EDA-operated animals had significantly lower weight gain compared with sham animals. There was no significant difference in weight gain among EDA animals fed two different types of diets until 9 wk after the surgery. After 9 wk, EDA-RD continued to lose weight significantly, whereas the weight loss leveled in EDA-PD (P<0.001). At termination, neither tissue histopathology nor tumor incidence was significantly different between the groups.
These results show that compared with a natural ingredient diet, a purified ingredient diet can reduce surgery-associated weight loss in rats with a compromised alimentary tract. This reduction in malnutrition has the potential to reduce the confounding effects of weight loss on future animal studies reported.
Journal of Surgical Research 09/2009; 168(1):42-8. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on >95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG) and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17ss-estradiol and CuCl(2) in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 microM) than that for 8-oxodG (100 microM). In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6) were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm) and dehydrated berries (5% w/w) with varying ellagic acid contents - blueberry (low), strawberry (medium) and red raspberry (high), for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%). However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001) and 48% (p < 0.01), respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA), DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5) and DNA ligase III (DNL3). These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 04/2008; 9(3):327-41. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen acts as a complete mammary carcinogen in ACI rats. Prevention studies in this model allowed us to identify agents that are effective against estrogen-induced mammary carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated efficacy of dietary berries and ellagic acid to reduce estrogen-mediated mammary tumorigenesis. Female ACI rats (8-9 wk) were fed either AIN-93M diet (n = 25) or diet supplemented with either powdered blueberry (n = 19) and black raspberry (n = 19) at 2.5% wt/wt each or ellagic acid (n = 22) at 400 ppm. Animals received implants of 17beta-estradiol 2 wk later, were palpated periodically for mammary tumors, and were euthanized after 24 wk. No differences were found in tumor incidence at 24 wk; however, tumor volume and multiplicity were reduced significantly after intervention. Compared with the control group (average tumor volume = 685 +/- 240 mm3 and tumor multiplicity = 8.0 +/- 1.3), ellagic acid reduced the tumor volume by 75% (P < 0.005) and tumor multiplicity by 44% (P < 0.05). Black raspberry followed closely, with tumor volume diminished by > 69% (P < 0.005) and tumor multiplicity by 37% (P = 0.07). Blueberry showed a reduction (40%) only in tumor volume. This is the first report showing the significant efficacy of both ellagic acid and berries in the prevention of solely estrogen-induced mammary tumors.
Nutrition and Cancer 01/2008; 60(2):227-34. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hormone 17ss-estradiol (E(2)) causes oxidative DNA damage via redox cycling of its metabolites such as 4-hydroxy estradiol (4E(2)). In this study, ACI rats (8 wk old) were fed either AIN-93M diet or diets supplemented with 0.5% each of mixed berries (strawberry, blueberry, blackberry, and red and black raspberry), blueberry alone (BB; 2.5%), or ellagic acid (EA; 400 ppm) from 2 wk prior to and up to 12 wk of E(2) treatment. The liver DNA was analyzed for the presence of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxodG) and other polar adducts by 32P-postlabeling. Compared to sham treatment, E(2) significantly increased the levels of both 8-oxodG and P-1 subgroup (259% and 214%, respectively; P< 0.05). EA diet significantly reduced E(2)-induced levels of 8-oxodG, P-1, P-2, and PL-1 by 79, 63, 44, and 67%, respectively (P< 0.001). BB diet also significantly reduced the levels of P-1, P-2, and PL-1 subgroups by 77, 43, and 68%, respectively (P< 0.001). Mixed berries were, however, ineffective. In addition, aqueous extracts of berries (2%) and EA (100 microM) were tested for their efficacy in diminishing oxidative DNA adducts induced by redox cycling of 4E(2) catalyzed by copper chloride in vitro. EA was the most efficacious (90%), followed by extracts of red raspberry (70%), blueberry, and strawberry (50% each; P< 0.001).
Nutrition and Cancer 01/2008; 60 Suppl 1:36-42. · 2.70 Impact Factor