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Publications (5)63.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines will be dependent on the immunity conferred against prevalent and emergent variants causing severe diarrheal disease. Longitudinal surveillance of disease-causing strains is a prerequisite to intervention. Molecular characterization was conducted on rotavirus-positive stool samples from children admitted with diarrhea to a rural district hospital during 2002-2004. Extracted viral RNA was separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and rotavirus VP4 (P types) and VP7 (G types) specificities were determined. Among 558 investigated cases, the predominant genotype was P[8]G1 (42%), followed by P[8]G9 (15%), P[4]G8 (7%), P[6]G8 (6%), and P[8]G8 (4%), with 10% mixed strains. Overall, there were 6 different P types and 7 G types. No association was identified between genotype and child age, sex, or severity of diarrhea. The P and G genotypes and polyacrylamide gel electropherotypes showed significant temporal variation in frequency: P[8]G1 decreased from 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43%-58%) in 2002 to 30% (95% CI, 24%-37%) in 2004, and P[4]G8 increased from 2% (95% CI, 0%-5%) in 2002 to 13% (95% CI, 9%-19%). Quarterly data revealed seasonally endemic and emergence and/or decay patterns. Our study of rotavirus strains causing severe diarrhea in rural Kenyan children showed a predominance of P[8]G1 and confirms the importance of G8 and G9 strains in sub-Saharan Africa. Considerable genetic diversity of rotavirus strains was observed, including substantial mixed and unusual types, coupled with significant temporal strain variation and emergence. These results warn of variable vaccine efficacy and the need for long-term surveillance of circulating rotavirus genotypes.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2010; 202 Suppl:S180-6. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in sub-Saharan Africa. Comparative estimates of the contribution of causative pathogens to the burden of disease are essential for targeted vaccine development. To determine the viral etiology of severe pneumonia among infants and children at a rural Kenyan hospital using comprehensive and sensitive molecular diagnostic techniques. Prospective observational and case-control study during 2007 in a rural Kenyan district hospital. Participants were children aged 1 day to 12 years, residing in a systematically enumerated catchment area, and who either were admitted to Kilifi District Hospital meeting World Health Organization clinical criteria for severe pneumonia or very severe pneumonia; (2) presented with mild upper respiratory tract infection but were not admitted; or (3) were well infants and children attending for immunization. The presence of respiratory viruses and the odds ratio for admission with severe disease. Of 922 eligible admitted patients, 759 were sampled (82% [median age, 9 months]). One or more respiratory viruses were detected in 425 of the 759 sampled (56% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 52%-60%]). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was detected in 260 participants (34% [95% CI, 31%-38%]) and other respiratory viruses were detected in 219 participants (29%; 95% CI, 26%-32%), the most common being Human coronavirus 229E (n = 51 [6.7%]), influenza type A (n = 44 [5.8%]), Parainfluenza type 3 (n = 29 [3.8%]), Human adenovirus (n = 29 [3.8%]), and Human metapneumovirus (n = 23 [3.0%]). Compared with well control participants, detection of RSV was associated with severe disease (5% [corrected] in control participants; adjusted odds ratio, 6.11 [95% CI, 1.65-22.6]) while collectively, other respiratory viruses were not associated with severe disease (23% in control participants; adjusted odds ratio, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.64-2.52]). In a sample of Kenyan infants and children admitted with severe pneumonia to a rural hospital, RSV was the predominant viral pathogen.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2010; 303(20):2051-7. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although necessary for developing a rationale for vaccination, the burden of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in children in resource-poor settings remains poorly defined. We conducted prospective surveillance of severe and very severe pneumonia in children aged <5 years admitted from 2002 through 2007 to Kilifi district hospital in coastal Kenya. Nasal specimens were screened for RSV antigen by immunofluorescence. Incidence rates were estimated for the well-defined population. Of 25,149 hospital admissions, 7359 patients (29%) had severe or very severe pneumonia, of whom 6026 (82%) were enrolled. RSV prevalence was 15% (20% among infants) and 27% during epidemics (32% among infants). The proportion of case patients aged 3 months was 65%, and the proportion aged 6 months was 43%. Average annual hospitalization rates were 293 hospitalizations per 100,000 children aged <5 years (95% confidence interval, 271-371 hospitalizations per 100,000 children aged <5 years) and 1107 hospitalizations per 100,000 infants (95% confidence interval, 1012-1211 hospitalizations per 100,000 infants). Hospital admission rates were double in the region close to the hospital. Few patients with RSV infection had life-threatening clinical features or concurrent serious illnesses, and the associated mortality was 2.2%. In this low-income setting, rates of hospital admission with RSV-associated pneumonia are substantial; they are comparable to estimates from the United States but considerably underestimate the burden in the full community. An effective vaccine for children aged >2 months (outside the age group of poor responders) could prevent a large portion of RSV disease. Severity data suggest that the justification for RSV vaccination will be based on the prevention of morbidity, not mortality.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/2009; 49(9):1341-9. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rotavirus, predominantly of group A, is a major cause of severe diarrhoea worldwide, with the greatest burden falling on young children living in less-developed countries. Vaccines directed against this virus have shown promise in recent trials, and are undergoing effectiveness evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa. In this region limited childhood data are available on the incidence and clinical characteristics of severe group A rotavirus disease. Advocacy for vaccine intervention and interpretation of effectiveness following implementation will benefit from accurate base-line estimates of the incidence and severity of rotavirus paediatric admissions in relevant populations. The study objective was to accurately define the incidence and severity of group A rotavirus disease in a resource-poor setting necessary to make informed decisions on the need for vaccine prevention. Between 2002 and 2004 we conducted prospective surveillance for group A rotavirus infection at Kilifi District Hospital in coastal Kenya. Children < 13 y of age were eligible as "cases" if admitted with diarrhoea, and "controls" if admitted without diarrhoea. We calculated the incidence of hospital admission with group A rotavirus using data from a demographic surveillance study of 220,000 people in Kilifi District. Of 15,347 childhood admissions 3,296 (22%) had diarrhoea, 2,039 were tested for group A rotavirus antigen and, of these, 588 (29%) were positive. 372 (63%) rotavirus-positive cases were infants. Of 620 controls 19 (3.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-4.7) were rotavirus positive. The annual incidence (per 100,000 children) of rotavirus-positive admissions was 1,431 (95% CI 1,275-1,600) in infants and 478 (437-521) in under-5-y-olds, and highest proximal to the hospital. Compared to children with rotavirus-negative diarrhoea, rotavirus-positive cases were less likely to have coexisting illnesses and more likely to have acidosis (46% versus 17%) and severe electrolyte imbalance except hyponatraemia. In-hospital case fatality was 2% among rotavirus-positive and 9% among rotavirus-negative children. In Kilifi > 2% of children are admitted to hospital with group A rotavirus diarrhoea in the first 5 y of life. This translates into over 28,000 vaccine-preventable hospitalisations per year across Kenya, and is likely to be a considerable underestimate. Group A rotavirus diarrhoea is associated with acute life-threatening metabolic derangement in otherwise healthy children. Although mortality is low in this clinical research setting this may not be generally true in African hospitals lacking rapid and appropriate management.
    PLoS Medicine 07/2008; 5(7):e153. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effectiveness of a measles vaccine campaign in rural Kenya, based on oral-fluid surveys and mixture-modelling analysis. Specimens were collected from 886 children aged 9 months to 14 years pre-campaign and from a comparison sample of 598 children aged 6 months post-campaign. Quantitative measles-specific antibody data were obtained by commercial kit. The estimated proportions of measles-specific antibody negative in children aged 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years were 51%, 42% and 27%, respectively, pre- campaign and 18%, 14% and 6%, respectively, post-campaign. We estimate a reduction in the proportion susceptible of 65-78%, with approximately 85% of the population recorded to have received vaccine. The proportion of 'weak' positive individuals rose from 35% pre-campaign to 54% post-campaign. Our results confirm the effectiveness of the campaign in reducing susceptibility to measles and demonstrate the potential of oral-fluid studies to monitor the impact of measles vaccination campaigns.
    Epidemiology and Infection 07/2008; 137(2):227-33. · 2.87 Impact Factor