Dalgimar Beserra de Menezes

Universidade Federal do Ceará, Ceará, Ceará, Brazil

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Publications (36)67.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The venom of the snake Philodryas nattereri is a mixture of proteins and toxic peptides with several important local and systemic actions, which are similar to those occurring in Bothrops snake bites. The mechanisms involved in the local and systemic actions of this venom are unknown. The aims of the work were to initial characterization of P. nattereri venom and investigate the effects of the poison in the renal perfusion system and in cultured renal tubular cells of the type MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney). The P. nattereri venom is composed majority of proteins (86,3%) and this poison promoted changes in all the evaluated renal parameters, mainly decreasing renal perfusion pressure (PP) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) and increasing urine flow (UF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The most relevant result was that this venom was highly detrimental to the renal tubules independent of the PP reduction, which was shown by a decrease in sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl−) electrolyte transport in the studied concentrations. The glomeruli and tubules contain protein bodies and blood extravasation, which were observed by histological analysis. The venom of P. nattereri reduced viability of the MDCK cells only at high concentrations (50 and 100 μg/mL) with an IC50 of 169,5 μg/mL.
    Toxicology Reports 12/2014; 1. DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.09.005
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    ABSTRACT: Pyogenic liver abscesses caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, although rare, can occur especially in patients with pre-existing hepatobiliary disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastatic liver tumors. We present a case of Salmonella liver abscesses complicating metastatic melanoma in a 24-year-old alcoholic male.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 03/2014; 90(4). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0573 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sulfated polysaccharides from red marine algae have presented a variety of potentially therapeutic biological effects, however, their antinocicpetive and anti-inflammatory properties are not well understood. Methods: Male Swiss mice were pretreated with a sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from the marine alga Acanthophora muscoides (AmII) (1, 3 or 9 mg/kg, iv) 30 min prior to either receiving an injection of 0.8% acetic acid or 1% formalin or prior to a thermal stimulus. AmII (1, 3 or 9 mg/kg, sc) was evaluated on carrageenan-, dextran- bradykinin-, histamine- and serotonin-induced rat paw edema models. AmII (500 μg, sc) was also injected into the paw. Additionally, mice were treated with the total sulfated polysaccharides from A. muscoides (Am-TSP) (20 mg/kg, ip) for 14 days. Results: AmII reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhes and licking time in the second phase of the formalin test, but it did not alter the response latency in the hot plate test, suggesting that its antinociceptive action occurs through a peripheral mechanism. AmII did not reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and MPO activity. However, it reduced dextran-, histamine- and serotonin-induced paw edemas, but not bradykinin-induced edema, suggesting that histamine is the major target of AmII anti-edematogenic activity. AmII injected into the paw did not evoke local edema. Furthermore, Am-TSP induced no consistent signs of systemic damage, as revealed by body mass, organs wet weight and by biochemical, hematological and histopathological analyses. Conclusion: AmII has important antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and represents an important therapeutic agent warranting future studies.
    Pharmacological reports: PR 05/2013; 65(3):600-13. DOI:10.1016/S1734-1140(13)71037-5 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bixa orellana L., urucum, or urucu, a native tropical tree of Central and South American rain forests is used to treat various diseases in popular medicine. In Ceará, Northeast of Brazil, the seeds of urucum have been used for the treatment of high lipid blood levels. The present study investigated the effects of the aqueous extract from Bixa orellana seeds (AEBO) in mice with hyperlipidemia induced by tyloxapol, fructose and ethanol. In hyperlipidemia induced by Triton WR1339, 400 and 800 mg/kg AEBO reduced triglycerides (TG) serum levels at 24 h and 48 h. In the study of hypertriglyceridemia induced by fructose, AEBO in doses of 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg reduced TG levels by 48.2% and 48.7%, respectively. Finally, the ethanol experimental model with 400 mg/kg AEBO promoted a reduction of 33.6% of TG levels, while the 800 mg/kg concentration reduced hypertriglyceridemia in 62.2%. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of the seeds of Bixa orellana was capable of reversing the hypertriglyceridemia induced by Triton, fructose and ethanol, demonstrating a hypolipidemic effect. However, further studies are necessary to discover the precise mechanism of action. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 01/2013; 27(1). DOI:10.1002/ptr.4675 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report 7 uterine cavity calcification cases and systematically review the literature on cases presenting this finding. In our series of cases, mean age of patients was 31.6 ± 5.4 years, with an infertility period ranging from 2 to 8 years. None of our patients had a history of intrauterine contraceptive device use, and 3 had undergone operative termination of pregnancy. Diagnostic and therapeutic hysteroscopy with complete removal of the calcifications was performed in all patients, with fertility restoration in 5 of them. Our review included 35 articles published from 1989 to 2013 reporting endometrial calcification cases, with a total of 85 cases. Analyzed variables included patient age, abortion antecedents, clinical presentation, diagnostic method, treatment and outcome. Mean age of the analyzed cases was 34.3 years, ranging from 19 to 62 years. Abortion antecedents were present in most patients (76.5%). The most frequently used diagnostic methods were ultrasound (88.5% of articles) and hysteroscopy (85.7%). Regarding the clinical presentation, infertility was the most common feature (72.9% of cases), followed by menstrual abnormalities (30.3%). Hysteroscopic removal, whether alone or combined with other techniques, was the most used method for removal of osseous tissue (70.6% of cases), followed by curettage (27.1%). After removal of the bony fragments, 55.6% of the infertile patients achieved a pregnancy. A total of 14 cases reported relief of symptoms other than infertility. All of the data concerning outcome was stratified according to the treatment modality used. We conclude that endometrial calcifications in the uterine cavity are a relevant cause of secondary infertility, which can generally be properly diagnosed and treated through hysteroscopy, with successful restoration of fertility in most cases.
    Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology 01/2013; 21(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jmig.2013.11.001 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain cancer is the second neurological cause of death. A simplified animal brain tumor model using W256 (carcinoma 256, Walker) cell line was developed to permit the testing of novel treatment modalities. Wistar rats had a cell tumor solution inoculated stereotactically in the basal ganglia (right subfrontal caudate). This model yielded tumor growth in 95% of the animals, and showed absence of extracranial metastasis and systemic infection. Survival median was 10 days. Estimated tumor volume was 17.08 ± 6.7 mm(3) on the 7(th) day and 67.25 ± 19.8 mm(3) on 9(th) day post-inoculation. Doubling time was 24.25 h. Tumor growth induced cachexia, but no hematological or biochemical alterations. This model behaved as an undifferentiated tumor and can be promising for studying tumor cell migration in the central nervous system. Dexamethasone 3.0 mg/kg/day diminished significantly survival in this model. Cyclosporine 10 mg/kg/day administration was safely tolerated.
    Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria 01/2012; 70(1):52-8. DOI:10.1590/S0004-282X2012000100011 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seaweeds have attracted special interest as good sources of sulphated polysaccharides (SP) for use in pharmaceutical industries and biotechnology. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SP from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea (Gc-TSP) in nociceptive and inflammatory models. In mice, Gc-TSP (3, 9 or 27 mg/kg) significantly reduced nociceptive responses, as measured by the number of writhes, at all tested doses. In a formalin test, Gc-TSP significantly reduced licking time in both phases of the test at a dose of 27 mg/kg. In a hot-plate test, the antinociceptive effect was observed only in animals treated with 27 mg/kg of Gc-TSP, suggesting that the analgesic effect occurs through a central action mechanism at the highest dose. Gc-TSP (3, 9 or 27 mg/kg) caused only a slight reduction in neutrophil migration in the rat peritoneal cavity. However, lower doses of Gc-TSP (3 and 9 mg/kg) significantly inhibited paw oedema induced by carrageenan, especially at 3 hr after treatment. Reduction in oedema was confirmed by myeloperoxidase activity in the affected paw tissue. In addition, treatment (s.c.) of animals with different doses of Gc-TSP inhibited paw oedema induced by dextran within the first hour in all doses tested. After 14 consecutive days of intraperitoneal administration of Gc-TSP (9 mg/kg), we measured the wet weight of the liver, kidney, heart, spleen and thymus and performed biochemical, haematological and histopathological evaluations. No systemic damage was found. These results indicate that Gc-TSP possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and is a potentially important tool worthy of further study.
    Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 10/2011; 110(4):335-41. DOI:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00811.x · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is a report of disseminated bacillary angiomatosis (BA) in a 23-year-old female patient, who is HIV-positive and with fever, weight loss, hepatomegaly, ascites, and papular-nodular skin lesions. The clinical and diagnostic aspects involved in the case were discussed. Bacillary angiomatosis must always be considered in the diagnosis of febrile cutaneous manifestations in AIDS.
    Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 10/2011; 44(5):641-3. DOI:10.1590/S0037-86822011000500025 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the hemoxigenase-1 (HO-1) pathway in the anti-inflammatory action of a sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed Gracilaria birdiae (SP-Gb). SP-Gb (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) was administered to Wistar rats in a peritonitis model using carrageenan or a paw edema model using carrageenan or dextran. To analyze the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory activity of SP-Gb, the animals were pretreated subcutaneously with a specific HO-1 inhibitor (ZnPP IX). To evaluate the systemic effects, SP-Gb (10 mg/kg) was administered to mice intraperitoneally before waiting for 48 h or for 14 days. SP-Gb (10 mg/kg) caused an anti-inflammatory effect that was evidenced by a decrease in leukocytes in the peritoneal cavity. SP-Gb also reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan and inhibited the paw edema induced by dextran in the first half-hour. After being inhibited by ZnPP IX, the anti-inflammatory effect of SP-Gb on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was not observed. SP-Gb did not cause mortality or significant changes in the biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters. SP-Gb may be used as a tool for further investigations into the inflammatory processes associated with the hemoxigenase-1 pathway.
    Agents and Actions 08/2011; 60(12):1121-30. DOI:10.1007/s00011-011-0376-8 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural intoxication of livestock by ingestion of Ipomoea asarifolia leaves has been reported to occur widely in Brazil. Previous studies carried out by our research group provided strong evidence that a lectin could be involved with the toxic properties of I. asarifolia. To reinforce this hypothesis, a lectin-enriched fraction (LEF) was isolated from I. asarifolia leaves and its toxic effects were assessed. Leaves of I. asarifolia were excised from plants growing widely in the field, mechanically wounded and maintained in a chamber at 25 ± 3 °C for 72h in the dark, under near 100% relative humidity. The leaf proteins were extracted, ammonium sulfate precipitated, chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose and Phenyl-Sepharose to produce LEF that under SDS-PAGE showed a molecular mass of 44.0 kDa and after N-terminal amino acid analysis a primary sequence composed of AGYTPVLDIGAEVLAAGEPY. The in vivo toxicity of LEF assessed by intraorbital injection in mice showed induced severe uncoordinated movements without death. LEF reduced the muscular contraction in a dose depend way and at 29.8 μg/mL (CE(50)) it produces 50% inhibition of contraction, suggesting that LEF blunts autonomic neurotransmission. Isolated rat kidneys were perfused with LEF and no effects on the perfusion pressure or renal vascular resistance were observed, but urinary flow and glomerular filtration rate increased. Moreover, the percentage of tubular transport of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) decreased. Histological examination of the kidneys perfused with LEF exhibited little alterations. These toxic effects observed above were concomitant with the increase of LEF hemagglutination activity, which strongly suggest that one of the toxic principles of I. asarifolia is a lectin present in its leaves.
    Toxicon 08/2011; 58(6-7):502-8. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.08.011 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, there is renewed interest in plant-based medicines and functional foods for the prevention and cure of obesity and its associated risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the search for potential anti-obesity compounds from natural sources, the effects of ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely found in medicinal herbs and fruits, was evaluated for its effects on blood glucose, lipids, and abdominal fat deposition in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Adult male Swiss mice treated or not with UA (0.05%, 50 mg/L, in drinking water) were fed HFD for 15 weeks. A sibutramine (SIB)-treated group (0.05% in drinking water) was included as the positive control. Weekly body weights and food and water consumption were measured, and at the end of the study period, the levels of blood glucose and lipids, the plasma hormones insulin, ghrelin, and leptin, and the abdominal fat accumulation were analyzed. Mice treated with UA and fed HFD showed significantly (P<.05) decreased body weights, visceral adiposity, and levels of blood glucose and plasma lipids relative to their respective controls not fed UA. Also, a significant increase was observed in plasma leptin with a decrease in ghrelin, as well as of amylase and lipase activities. The SIB-treated group also manifested effects similar to those of UA except for the blood glucose level, which was not different from the HFD control. These findings suggest that UA ameliorates abdominal adiposity and decreases the levels of blood glucose and plasma lipids in mice and thus manifests an anti-obesity potential through absorptive and metabolic targets.
    Journal of medicinal food 05/2011; 14(11):1375-82. DOI:10.1089/jmf.2010.0267 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by extracellular deposits of a material composed of aggregates of amyloid--a poorly coupled protein--far from the site of synthesis, causing target organ dysfunction and clinical disease. Systemic amyloidosis A (AA), secondary to infections and chronic inflammation, especially rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is the most common form of amyloid deposition. Treatment of AA consists in the control or resolution of the baseline condition. The objective of the present study was to report a case of secondary renal amyloidosis in a patient with long-term refractory RA who presented sustained clinical improvement after the use of anti-TNFα (etanercept).
    Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia 04/2010; 50(2):205-10. DOI:10.1590/S0482-50042010000200009 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the search for potential antiobese agents from natural sources, this study investigated the effects of betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene from Clusia nemorosa L. (Clusiaceae), in mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Adult male Swiss mice (n = 8) treated or not with BA (50 mg/L, in drinking water) were fed a HFD during 15 weeks. Mice treated with BA and fed a HFD showed significantly (P < 0.05) decreased body weights, abdominal fat accumulation, blood glucose, plasma triglycerides, and total cholesterol relative to their respective controls fed no BA. Additionally, BA treatment, while significantly elevating the plasma hormone levels of insulin and leptin, decreased the level of ghrelin. However, it caused a greater decrease in plasma amylase activity than the lipase. These findings suggest that BA has an antiobese potential through modulation of fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and it may be a suitable lead compound in the treatment of obesity.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2009; 57(19):8776-81. DOI:10.1021/jf900768w · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sea anemones contain a variety of biologically active substances. Bunodosoma caissarum is a sea anemone from the Cnidaria phylum, found only in Brazilian coastal waters. The aim of the present work was to study the biological effects of PLA(2) isolated from the sea anemone B. caissarum on the isolated perfused kidney, the arteriolar mesenteric bed and on insulin secretion. Specimens of B. caissarum were collected from the São Vicente Channel on the southern coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Reverse phase HPLC analysis of the crude extract of B. caissarum detected three PLA(2) proteins (named BcPLA(2)1, BcPLA(2)2 and BcPLA(2)3) found to be active in B. caissarum extracts. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of BcPLA(2)1 showed one main peak at 14.7 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of BcPLA(2)1 showed high amino acid sequence identity with PLA(2) group III protein isolated from the Mexican lizard (PA23 HELSU, HELSU, PA22 HELSU) and with the honey bee Apis mellifera (PLA(2) and 1POC_A). In addition, BcPLA(2)1 also showed significant overall homology to bee PLA(2). The enzymatic activity induced by native BcPLA(2)1 (20 microg/well) was reduced by chemical treatment with p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB) and with morin. BcPLA(2)1 strongly induced insulin secretion in presence of high glucose concentration. In isolated kidney, the PLA(2) from B. caissarum increased the perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow, glomerular filtration rate, and sodium, potassium and chloride levels of excretion. BcPLA(2)1, however, did not increase the perfusion pressure on the mesenteric vascular bed. In conclusion, PLA(2), a group III phospholipase isolated from the sea anemone B. caissarum, exerted effects on renal function and induced insulin secretion in conditions of high glucose concentration.
    Toxicon 06/2009; 54(4):413-20. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.05.005 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thalassophryne nattereri (niquim) is a venomous fish responsible for numerous accidents involving fishermen in northern and northeastern Brazil. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the action of antivenom on renal effects caused by Thalassophryne nattereri venom. Isolated kidneys of Wistar rats were perfused with a previously dialyzed Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6 g% bovine serum albumin. The antivenom action was studied through perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), urinary flow (UF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The niquim venom (1 µg/mL), the antivenom alone (1 µg/mL) or the venom incubated with antivenom were added to the system 30 minutes after the beginning of each perfusion. Previous works have shown venom induced-alterations of renal function parameters. In the isolated rat kidney, T. nattereri venom (1 µg/mL) increased the perfusion pressure and renal vascular resistance at 60, 90 and 120 minutes. UF and GFR also increased at 60, 90 and 120 minutes when compared with the control group; however, no effects were observed on the percent of sodium (%TNa+control = 81.1 ±0.86; %TNa+60 = 78.04 ±1.18; %TNa+90 = 76.16 ±3.34; %TNa+120 = 79.49 ±0.87) and potassium (%TK+control = 72.29 ±1.12; %TK+60 = 75.41 ±0.65; %TK+90 = 71.23 ±2.55; %TK+120 = 76.62 ±1.04) tubular transport. The administration of the antivenom (1 µg/mL) incubated with venom (1 µg/mL) reduced the changes in PP, RVR, UF and GFR provoked by Thalassophryne nattereri venom. The group perfused with venom alone showed a moderate deposit of a proteinaceous material in the tubules and urinary space. The group perfused with the antivenom presented similar results to the control group. In conclusion, the antivenom was able to decrease the effects induced by T. nattereri venom in isolated rat kidney.
    Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 01/2009; 15(1). DOI:10.1590/S1678-91992009000100011 · 0.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crotalus durissus cascavella is a snake that is usually found in the scrublands of northeast Brazil. The components of its venom may have effects on the vascular and renal systems. Recently, a new bradykinin inhibitory peptide has been identified in the venom of the Crotalinae family. The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal and vascular effects of the natriuretic peptide isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus cascavella (NP2_Casca). The chromatographic profile showed the fractionation of substances identified as convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin and crotamine, as well as fractions V and VI. The electrophoretic profile of fraction V consisted of several bands ranging from approximately 6 kDa to 13 kDa, while fraction VI showed only two main electrophoretic bands with molecular weights of approximately 6 and 14 kDa. Reverse-phase chromatography showed that NP2_Casca corresponds to about 18% of fraction VI and that this fraction is the main natriuretic peptide. NP2_Casca was compared to other natriuretic peptides from other sources of snake venom. All amino acid sequences that were compared showed a consensus region of XGCFGX, XLDRIX and XSGLGCX. The group treated with NP2_Casca showed an increase in perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow and glomerular filtration rate. The percent of total and proximal tubular transport of sodium was reduced significantly after administration of the peptide. The mean arterial pressure showed a dose-dependent decrease after infusion of NP2_Casca, and an increase in nitrite production. In the aortic ring assay, NP2_Casca caused a relaxant effect in endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine in the presence and absence of isatin. NP2_Casca failed to relax the aortic rings precontracted with an isosmotic potassium Krebs–Henseleit solution. In conclusion, the natriuretic peptide isolated from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom produced renal and vascular effects. NP2_Casca reduced total and proximal sodium tubular transport, leading to an increase in sodium excretion, thereby demonstrating a diuretic action. A hypotensive effect was displayed in an arterial pressure assay, with an increase in nitrite production, suggesting a possible vasoactive action.
    Toxicon 10/2008; 52(7-52):737-744. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.08.014 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Castleman's disease is a rare disorder of the lymphoid tissue. We report the case of a female patient with bilateral otosclerosis, no respiratory symptoms, and pleural effusion discovered as an incidental finding on a chest X-ray. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a mediastinal mass. The biopsy findings demonstrated that it was a plasmacytic variant of Castleman's disease. The patient underwent mediastinal mass resection. This resulted in near-total resolution of the effusion, which remained as a small loculation within the left pleural space.
    Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 09/2008; 34(8):626-30. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 08/2008; 34(8). DOI:10.1590/S1806-37132008000800014 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary sequestration represents an abnormal pulmonary mass that does not communicate with the tracheobronchial tree. It is a rare malformation (MF), accountable for 0.15%-6.45% of pulmonary congenital MFs. When it has its own pleural covering, it is called extralobar (EBPS). This work describes two cases of EBPS in stillbirths (SB), at 32 (1) and 34 (2) weeks' gestation, with clinical diagnosis of intrauterine hypoxia and cystic adenomatosis, respectively. It also reviews the literature on the subject. The diagnosis involved ultrasonographic, syndromic, macroscopic and microscopic analysis. The macroscopy showed a supradiaphragmatic mass in the left hemithorax linked to thoracic aorta (1) and diaphragm (2). The associated MFs were: thymic agenesis (2), pulmonary hypoplasia (2), clubfoot (1) and achondroplasia (2). Microscopy demonstrated, in both cases, immature pulmonary tissue and vascularized and innervated pedicle.
    Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial 06/2008; 44(3):199-203.
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    ABSTRACT: Bothrops insularis is a snake from Ilha da Queimada Grande, an island located about 20 miles away from the Southeastern coast of Brazil. Compared with other Brazilian species of Bothrops, the toxinology of B. insularis is still poorly understood, and so far, no fraction from this venom with amino acid oxidase activity had been isolated or its biological activity tested. We investigated the biochemical and biological effects of one l-amino acid oxidase enzyme isolated from B. insularis snake venom (BiLAO), which was purified using HPLC and sequence grade. We also evaluated the renal effects induced by BiLAO. Chromatographic profile of B. insularis whole venom disclosed seven main fractions (I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII) and the main LAO enzymatic activity was detected in fraction II. The group treated with BiLAO showed a decrease in perfusion pressure (C(120)=110.28+/-3.69; BiLAO(120)=82.2+/-5.6 mmHg*); renal vascular resistance (C(120)=5.48+/-0.53; BiLAO(120)=4.12+/-0.42 mmHg/mL/g/min*), urinary flow (C(120)=0.160+/-0.020; BiLAO(120)=0.064+/-0.012 mL/g/min*), glomerular filtration rate (C(120)=0.697+/-0.084; BiLAO(120)=0.176+/-0.017 mL/g/min*), sodium (C(120)=79.76+/-0.56; BiLAO(120)=65.39+/-6.19%*), potassium (C(120)=69.94+/-6.86; BiLAO(120)=60.26+/-2.24%*) and chloride tubular reabsortion (C(120)=78.53+/-2.33; BiLAO(120)=64.58+/-6.68%*). Acute tubular necrosis foci were observed in the group treated with the LAO fraction of the B. insularis snake venom. Some findings have the same morphological aspect of apoptosis, more evident cortically; otherwise, reversible degenerative phenomena represented by hydropic ballooning with extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization and discontinuity of the cell brush borders in the proximal tubular epithelium were observed; furthermore, necrotic detachment of these cells into the tubular lumina, and increased amount of protein deposits in the distal and proximal tubules were observed. In conclusion, the slowness of blood flow and of glomerular filtration resulted in more time for filtration and tubular reabsorption, with elevation of the total percentage of sodium and chlorine reabsorption. The maintenance of the decrease in glomerular filtration rate would determine the subsequent decreases, which were noticed in these parameters. The necrosis observed was the result of damage cell induced by l-amino acid oxidase isolated from B. insularis venom.
    Toxicon 03/2008; 51(2):199-207. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2007.09.003 · 2.58 Impact Factor