Dalgimar B de Menezes

Universidade Federal do Ceará, Ceará, Ceará, Brazil

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Publications (19)43.75 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sulfated polysaccharides from red marine algae have presented a variety of potentially therapeutic biological effects, however, their antinocicpetive and anti-inflammatory properties are not well understood. Methods: Male Swiss mice were pretreated with a sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from the marine alga Acanthophora muscoides (AmII) (1, 3 or 9 mg/kg, iv) 30 min prior to either receiving an injection of 0.8% acetic acid or 1% formalin or prior to a thermal stimulus. AmII (1, 3 or 9 mg/kg, sc) was evaluated on carrageenan-, dextran- bradykinin-, histamine- and serotonin-induced rat paw edema models. AmII (500 μg, sc) was also injected into the paw. Additionally, mice were treated with the total sulfated polysaccharides from A. muscoides (Am-TSP) (20 mg/kg, ip) for 14 days. Results: AmII reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhes and licking time in the second phase of the formalin test, but it did not alter the response latency in the hot plate test, suggesting that its antinociceptive action occurs through a peripheral mechanism. AmII did not reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and MPO activity. However, it reduced dextran-, histamine- and serotonin-induced paw edemas, but not bradykinin-induced edema, suggesting that histamine is the major target of AmII anti-edematogenic activity. AmII injected into the paw did not evoke local edema. Furthermore, Am-TSP induced no consistent signs of systemic damage, as revealed by body mass, organs wet weight and by biochemical, hematological and histopathological analyses. Conclusion: AmII has important antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and represents an important therapeutic agent warranting future studies.
    Pharmacological reports: PR 05/2013; 65(3):600-13. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bixa orellana L., urucum, or urucu, a native tropical tree of Central and South American rain forests is used to treat various diseases in popular medicine. In Ceará, Northeast of Brazil, the seeds of urucum have been used for the treatment of high lipid blood levels. The present study investigated the effects of the aqueous extract from Bixa orellana seeds (AEBO) in mice with hyperlipidemia induced by tyloxapol, fructose and ethanol. In hyperlipidemia induced by Triton WR1339, 400 and 800 mg/kg AEBO reduced triglycerides (TG) serum levels at 24 h and 48 h. In the study of hypertriglyceridemia induced by fructose, AEBO in doses of 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg reduced TG levels by 48.2% and 48.7%, respectively. Finally, the ethanol experimental model with 400 mg/kg AEBO promoted a reduction of 33.6% of TG levels, while the 800 mg/kg concentration reduced hypertriglyceridemia in 62.2%. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of the seeds of Bixa orellana was capable of reversing the hypertriglyceridemia induced by Triton, fructose and ethanol, demonstrating a hypolipidemic effect. However, further studies are necessary to discover the precise mechanism of action. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2012; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain cancer is the second neurological cause of death. A simplified animal brain tumor model using W256 (carcinoma 256, Walker) cell line was developed to permit the testing of novel treatment modalities. Wistar rats had a cell tumor solution inoculated stereotactically in the basal ganglia (right subfrontal caudate). This model yielded tumor growth in 95% of the animals, and showed absence of extracranial metastasis and systemic infection. Survival median was 10 days. Estimated tumor volume was 17.08 ± 6.7 mm(3) on the 7(th) day and 67.25 ± 19.8 mm(3) on 9(th) day post-inoculation. Doubling time was 24.25 h. Tumor growth induced cachexia, but no hematological or biochemical alterations. This model behaved as an undifferentiated tumor and can be promising for studying tumor cell migration in the central nervous system. Dexamethasone 3.0 mg/kg/day diminished significantly survival in this model. Cyclosporine 10 mg/kg/day administration was safely tolerated.
    Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria 01/2012; 70(1):52-8. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seaweeds have attracted special interest as good sources of sulphated polysaccharides (SP) for use in pharmaceutical industries and biotechnology. In this study, we evaluated the effects of SP from the red seaweed Gracilaria cornea (Gc-TSP) in nociceptive and inflammatory models. In mice, Gc-TSP (3, 9 or 27 mg/kg) significantly reduced nociceptive responses, as measured by the number of writhes, at all tested doses. In a formalin test, Gc-TSP significantly reduced licking time in both phases of the test at a dose of 27 mg/kg. In a hot-plate test, the antinociceptive effect was observed only in animals treated with 27 mg/kg of Gc-TSP, suggesting that the analgesic effect occurs through a central action mechanism at the highest dose. Gc-TSP (3, 9 or 27 mg/kg) caused only a slight reduction in neutrophil migration in the rat peritoneal cavity. However, lower doses of Gc-TSP (3 and 9 mg/kg) significantly inhibited paw oedema induced by carrageenan, especially at 3 hr after treatment. Reduction in oedema was confirmed by myeloperoxidase activity in the affected paw tissue. In addition, treatment (s.c.) of animals with different doses of Gc-TSP inhibited paw oedema induced by dextran within the first hour in all doses tested. After 14 consecutive days of intraperitoneal administration of Gc-TSP (9 mg/kg), we measured the wet weight of the liver, kidney, heart, spleen and thymus and performed biochemical, haematological and histopathological evaluations. No systemic damage was found. These results indicate that Gc-TSP possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and is a potentially important tool worthy of further study.
    Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 10/2011; 110(4):335-41. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural intoxication of livestock by ingestion of Ipomoea asarifolia leaves has been reported to occur widely in Brazil. Previous studies carried out by our research group provided strong evidence that a lectin could be involved with the toxic properties of I. asarifolia. To reinforce this hypothesis, a lectin-enriched fraction (LEF) was isolated from I. asarifolia leaves and its toxic effects were assessed. Leaves of I. asarifolia were excised from plants growing widely in the field, mechanically wounded and maintained in a chamber at 25 ± 3 °C for 72h in the dark, under near 100% relative humidity. The leaf proteins were extracted, ammonium sulfate precipitated, chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose and Phenyl-Sepharose to produce LEF that under SDS-PAGE showed a molecular mass of 44.0 kDa and after N-terminal amino acid analysis a primary sequence composed of AGYTPVLDIGAEVLAAGEPY. The in vivo toxicity of LEF assessed by intraorbital injection in mice showed induced severe uncoordinated movements without death. LEF reduced the muscular contraction in a dose depend way and at 29.8 μg/mL (CE(50)) it produces 50% inhibition of contraction, suggesting that LEF blunts autonomic neurotransmission. Isolated rat kidneys were perfused with LEF and no effects on the perfusion pressure or renal vascular resistance were observed, but urinary flow and glomerular filtration rate increased. Moreover, the percentage of tubular transport of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) decreased. Histological examination of the kidneys perfused with LEF exhibited little alterations. These toxic effects observed above were concomitant with the increase of LEF hemagglutination activity, which strongly suggest that one of the toxic principles of I. asarifolia is a lectin present in its leaves.
    Toxicon 08/2011; 58(6-7):502-8. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, there is renewed interest in plant-based medicines and functional foods for the prevention and cure of obesity and its associated risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. In the search for potential anti-obesity compounds from natural sources, the effects of ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid widely found in medicinal herbs and fruits, was evaluated for its effects on blood glucose, lipids, and abdominal fat deposition in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Adult male Swiss mice treated or not with UA (0.05%, 50 mg/L, in drinking water) were fed HFD for 15 weeks. A sibutramine (SIB)-treated group (0.05% in drinking water) was included as the positive control. Weekly body weights and food and water consumption were measured, and at the end of the study period, the levels of blood glucose and lipids, the plasma hormones insulin, ghrelin, and leptin, and the abdominal fat accumulation were analyzed. Mice treated with UA and fed HFD showed significantly (P<.05) decreased body weights, visceral adiposity, and levels of blood glucose and plasma lipids relative to their respective controls not fed UA. Also, a significant increase was observed in plasma leptin with a decrease in ghrelin, as well as of amylase and lipase activities. The SIB-treated group also manifested effects similar to those of UA except for the blood glucose level, which was not different from the HFD control. These findings suggest that UA ameliorates abdominal adiposity and decreases the levels of blood glucose and plasma lipids in mice and thus manifests an anti-obesity potential through absorptive and metabolic targets.
    Journal of medicinal food 05/2011; 14(11):1375-82. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the search for potential antiobese agents from natural sources, this study investigated the effects of betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene from Clusia nemorosa L. (Clusiaceae), in mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Adult male Swiss mice (n = 8) treated or not with BA (50 mg/L, in drinking water) were fed a HFD during 15 weeks. Mice treated with BA and fed a HFD showed significantly (P < 0.05) decreased body weights, abdominal fat accumulation, blood glucose, plasma triglycerides, and total cholesterol relative to their respective controls fed no BA. Additionally, BA treatment, while significantly elevating the plasma hormone levels of insulin and leptin, decreased the level of ghrelin. However, it caused a greater decrease in plasma amylase activity than the lipase. These findings suggest that BA has an antiobese potential through modulation of fat and carbohydrate metabolism, and it may be a suitable lead compound in the treatment of obesity.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2009; 57(19):8776-81. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sea anemones contain a variety of biologically active substances. Bunodosoma caissarum is a sea anemone from the Cnidaria phylum, found only in Brazilian coastal waters. The aim of the present work was to study the biological effects of PLA(2) isolated from the sea anemone B. caissarum on the isolated perfused kidney, the arteriolar mesenteric bed and on insulin secretion. Specimens of B. caissarum were collected from the São Vicente Channel on the southern coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Reverse phase HPLC analysis of the crude extract of B. caissarum detected three PLA(2) proteins (named BcPLA(2)1, BcPLA(2)2 and BcPLA(2)3) found to be active in B. caissarum extracts. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of BcPLA(2)1 showed one main peak at 14.7 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of BcPLA(2)1 showed high amino acid sequence identity with PLA(2) group III protein isolated from the Mexican lizard (PA23 HELSU, HELSU, PA22 HELSU) and with the honey bee Apis mellifera (PLA(2) and 1POC_A). In addition, BcPLA(2)1 also showed significant overall homology to bee PLA(2). The enzymatic activity induced by native BcPLA(2)1 (20 microg/well) was reduced by chemical treatment with p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB) and with morin. BcPLA(2)1 strongly induced insulin secretion in presence of high glucose concentration. In isolated kidney, the PLA(2) from B. caissarum increased the perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow, glomerular filtration rate, and sodium, potassium and chloride levels of excretion. BcPLA(2)1, however, did not increase the perfusion pressure on the mesenteric vascular bed. In conclusion, PLA(2), a group III phospholipase isolated from the sea anemone B. caissarum, exerted effects on renal function and induced insulin secretion in conditions of high glucose concentration.
    Toxicon 06/2009; 54(4):413-20. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thalassophryne nattereri (niquim) is a venomous fish responsible for numerous accidents involving fishermen in northern and northeastern Brazil. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the action of antivenom on renal effects caused by Thalassophryne nattereri venom. Isolated kidneys of Wistar rats were perfused with a previously dialyzed Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6 g% bovine serum albumin. The antivenom action was studied through perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), urinary flow (UF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The niquim venom (1 µg/mL), the antivenom alone (1 µg/mL) or the venom incubated with antivenom were added to the system 30 minutes after the beginning of each perfusion. Previous works have shown venom induced-alterations of renal function parameters. In the isolated rat kidney, T. nattereri venom (1 µg/mL) increased the perfusion pressure and renal vascular resistance at 60, 90 and 120 minutes. UF and GFR also increased at 60, 90 and 120 minutes when compared with the control group; however, no effects were observed on the percent of sodium (%TNa+control = 81.1 ±0.86; %TNa+60 = 78.04 ±1.18; %TNa+90 = 76.16 ±3.34; %TNa+120 = 79.49 ±0.87) and potassium (%TK+control = 72.29 ±1.12; %TK+60 = 75.41 ±0.65; %TK+90 = 71.23 ±2.55; %TK+120 = 76.62 ±1.04) tubular transport. The administration of the antivenom (1 µg/mL) incubated with venom (1 µg/mL) reduced the changes in PP, RVR, UF and GFR provoked by Thalassophryne nattereri venom. The group perfused with venom alone showed a moderate deposit of a proteinaceous material in the tubules and urinary space. The group perfused with the antivenom presented similar results to the control group. In conclusion, the antivenom was able to decrease the effects induced by T. nattereri venom in isolated rat kidney.
    Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 01/2009; 15(1). · 0.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crotalus durissus cascavella is a snake that is usually found in the scrublands of northeast Brazil. The components of its venom may have effects on the vascular and renal systems. Recently, a new bradykinin inhibitory peptide has been identified in the venom of the Crotalinae family. The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal and vascular effects of the natriuretic peptide isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus cascavella (NP2_Casca). The chromatographic profile showed the fractionation of substances identified as convulxin, gyroxin, crotoxin and crotamine, as well as fractions V and VI. The electrophoretic profile of fraction V consisted of several bands ranging from approximately 6 kDa to 13 kDa, while fraction VI showed only two main electrophoretic bands with molecular weights of approximately 6 and 14 kDa. Reverse-phase chromatography showed that NP2_Casca corresponds to about 18% of fraction VI and that this fraction is the main natriuretic peptide. NP2_Casca was compared to other natriuretic peptides from other sources of snake venom. All amino acid sequences that were compared showed a consensus region of XGCFGX, XLDRIX and XSGLGCX. The group treated with NP2_Casca showed an increase in perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow and glomerular filtration rate. The percent of total and proximal tubular transport of sodium was reduced significantly after administration of the peptide. The mean arterial pressure showed a dose-dependent decrease after infusion of NP2_Casca, and an increase in nitrite production. In the aortic ring assay, NP2_Casca caused a relaxant effect in endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine in the presence and absence of isatin. NP2_Casca failed to relax the aortic rings precontracted with an isosmotic potassium Krebs–Henseleit solution. In conclusion, the natriuretic peptide isolated from Crotalus durissus cascavella venom produced renal and vascular effects. NP2_Casca reduced total and proximal sodium tubular transport, leading to an increase in sodium excretion, thereby demonstrating a diuretic action. A hypotensive effect was displayed in an arterial pressure assay, with an increase in nitrite production, suggesting a possible vasoactive action.
    Toxicon 10/2008; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal changes determined by Lys49 myotoxin I (BmTx I), isolated from Bothrops moojeni are well known. The scope of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in the production of these effects by using indomethacin (10 microg/mL), a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, and tezosentan (10 microg/mL), an endothelin antagonist. By means of the method of mesenteric vascular bed, it has been observed that B. moojeni myotoxin (5 microg/mL) affects neither basal perfusion pressure nor phenylephrine-preconstricted vessels. This fact suggests that the increase in renal perfusion pressure and in renal vascular resistance did not occur by a direct effect on renal vasculature. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats, weighing 240-280 g, were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution. The infusion of BmTx-I increased perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow and glomerular filtration rate. Sodium, potassium and chloride tubular transport was reduced after addition of BmTx-I. Indomethacin blocked the effects induced by BmTx-I on perfusion pressure and renal vascular resistance, however, it did not revert the effect on urinary flow and sodium, potassium and chloride tubular transport. The alterations of glomerular filtration rate were inhibited only at 90 min of perfusion. The partial blockade exerted by indomethacin treatment showed that prostaglandins could have been important mediators of BmTx-I renal effects, but the participation of other substances cannot be excluded. The blockage of all renal alterations observed after tezosentan treatment support the hypothesis that endothelin is the major substance involved in the renal pathophysiologic alterations promoted by the Lys49 PLA(2) myotoxin I, isolated from B. moojeni. In conclusion, the rather intense renal effects promoted by B. moojeni myotoxin-I were probably caused by the release of renal endothelin, interfering with the renal parameters studied.
    Toxicon 07/2006; 47(8):831-7. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ophidian accidents caused by the subspecies Crotalus durissus are responsible for high morbity and mortality rates. Acute renal failure is a common complication observed in these accidents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the renal effects promoted by the venom of C. d. collilineatus and its fractions, crotoxin and phospholipase A2. C. d. collilineatus (Cdc; 30 microg mL(-1)), crotoxin (CTX; 10 microg mL(-1)) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2; 10 microg mL(-1)) were tested in isolated rat kidney. The first 30 min of each experiment were used as an internal control and Cdc or its fractions, CTX and PLA2 were added to the system after this period. All experiments lasted 120 min. The venom of Cdc decreased perfusion pressure (PP; control120 = 110.3 +/- 3.69 mmHg; Cdc120 = 96.7+/-8.1 mmHg), renal vascular resistance (RVR; control120 = 6.42+/-0.78 mmHg mL g(-1) min(-1); Cdc120 = 4.8+/-0.56 mmHg/mL g(-1) min(-1)), urinary flow (UF; control120 = 0.19+/-0.03 mL g(-1) min(-1); Cdc120 = 0.12 +/- 0.01 mL g(-1) min(-1)), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; control120 = 0.79 +/- 0.07 mL g(-1) min(-1); Cdc120 = 0.53 +/- 0.09 mL g(-1) min(-1)), but had no effect on the percent of sodium tubular transport (%TNa+), percent of chloride tubular transport (%TK+) and percent of potassium tubular transport (%TCl-). CTX and PLA2 reduced the GFR, while UF, PP and RVR remained stable during the full 120 min of perfusion. Crotoxin administration also diminished the %TK+ (control120 = 69.94 +/- 6.49; CTX120 = 33.28 +/- 4.78) and %TCl- (control120 = 79.53 +/- 2.67; CTX120 = 64.62 +/- 6.93). PLA2 reduced the %TK+, but exerted no effect on the %TNa+ or on that of TCl-. In conclusion, the C. d. collilineatus venom altered the renal functional parameters evaluated. We suggest that crotoxin and phospholipase A2 were involved in this process, since the renal effects observed would be due to the synergistic action of the components of the venom.
    Toxicon 04/2006; 47(3):260-4. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute renal failure is the most common complication in the lethal cases caused by snakebites in Brazil. Among the Brazilian venom snakes, Bothrops erythromelas is responsible for the majority of accidents in Northeastern Brazil. Didelphis marsupialis serum could inhibit myonecrotic, hemorrhagic, edematogenic hyperalgesic and lethal effects of envenomation determined by ophidian bites. In the present study, we evaluated the action of the anti-bothropic factor isolated from D. marsupialis on the renal effects promoted by B. erythromelas venom without systemic interference. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6% bovine serum albumin. We analyzed renal perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary flow (UF), and the percentages of sodium and potassium tubular transport (%TNa+, %TK+). The B. erythromelas venom (10 microg mL(-1)) decreased the PP (ct = 108.71+/-5.09 mmHg; BE = 65.21+/-5.6 mmHg*) and RVR (ct = 5.76+/-0.65 mmHg mL(-1) g(-1) min(-1); BE = 3.10+/-0.45 mmHg mL(-1) g(-1) min(-1)*). On the other hand, the GFR decreased at 60 min (ct60 = 0.76+/-0.07 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE60 = 0.42+/-0.12 mL g(-1) min(-1)*) and increased at 120 min (ct120 = 0.72+/-0.01 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE120 = 1.24+/-0.26 mL g(-1) min(-1)*). The UF increased significantly when compared with the control group (ct = 0.14+/-0.01 mL g(-1) min(-1); BE = 0.47+/-0.08 mL g(-1) min(-1)*). The venom reduced the %TNa(+) (ct90 = 79.18+/-0.88%; BE90 = 58.35+/-4.86%*) and %TK+ (ct90 = 67.20+/-4.04%; BE90 = 57.32+/-5.26%*) The anti-bothropic factor from D. marsupialis (10 microg mL(-1)) incubated with B. erythromelas venom (10 microg mL(-1)) blocked the effects on PP, RVR, %TNa+, and %TK+, but was not able to reverse the effects in UF and GFR promoted by venom alone. However, the highest concentration of D. marsupialis serum (30 microg mL(-1)) reversed all the renal effects induced by the venom. In conclusion, B. erythromelas venom altered all the renal functional parameters evaluated and the anti-bothropic factor from D. marsupialis was able to inhibit the effects induced by the venom in isolated kidney.
    Toxicon 12/2005; 46(6):595-9. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lectins are glycoproteins that interact reversibly and specifically with carbohydrates. The renal effects of the galactose-binding lectin from the seeds of Vatairea macrocarpa were investigated. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats (240-280 g) were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6% bovine serum albumin. The V. macrocarpa lectin (10 microg mL(-1)) increased the perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow and glomerular filtration rate. However, V. macrocarpa lectin did not change the percentage sodium, potassium or chloride tubular transport. Pre-treatment with lectin-galactose complex significantly blocked the increase in perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow and glomerular filtration rate. The control group showed a small amount of a proteinaceous material in the urinary space, although no alteration in the renal tubules was detected. The administration of galactose alone did not modify the functional parameters of the kidney. Kidneys perfused with V. macrocarpa lectin showed moderate deposits of a proteinaceous material in the tubules and urinary space. Those pre-treated with lectin-galactose complex had only small amount of a proteinaceous material in the urinary space. No abnormalities were seen in renal tubules. The results suggest that lectin from V. macrocarpa seeds has important effects on the carbohydrate-binding sites of the renal system, given the reversal of renal effects with the use of that specific inhibitor.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 11/2005; 57(10):1329-33. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated the effects of Tenoxicam, a type 2 cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitor, on brain damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion. Male Wistar rats (18-month old average) were anesthetized and submitted to ischemia occlusion of both common carotid arteries (BCAO) for 45 min. After 24 h of reperfusion, rats were decapitated and hippocampi removed for further assays. Animals were divided into sham-operated, ischemia, ischemia + Tenoxicam 2.5 mg/kg, and ischemia + Tenoxicam 10 mg/kg groups. Tenoxicam was administered intraperitoneally immediately after BCAO. Histological analyses show that ischemia produced significant striatal as well as hippocampal lesions which were reversed by the Tenoxicam treatment. Tenoxicam also significantly reduced, to control levels, the increased myeloperoxidase activity in hippocampus homogenates observed after ischemia. However, nitrite concentrations showed only a tendency to decrease in the ischemia + Tenoxicam groups, as compared to that of ischemia alone. On the other hand, hippocampal glutamate and aspartate levels were not altered by Tenoxicam. In conclusion, we showed that ischemia is certainly related to inflammation and to increased free radical production, and selective COX-2 inhibitors might be neuroprotective agents of potential benefit in the treatment of cerebral brain ischemia.
    Neurochemical Research 02/2005; 30(1):39-46. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thalassophryne nattereri, popularly known as Niquim, is a venomous fish responsible for many accidents in fishermen in the Northeast of Brazil. The effects of T. nattereri venom on renal physiology has not been tested. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats of 240-280 g weight were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6g% of previously dialyzed bovine serum albumin. The effects of Niquim venom were studied on the perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), urinary flow (UF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), percent of sodium tubular transport (%TNa(+)), percent of potassium tubular transport (%TK(+)) and percent of chloride tubular transport (%TCl(-)). The venom of T. nattereri (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 microg/ml) was always added to the system 30 minutes after the beginning of each experiment (n=6). All experiments were preceded by 30 minutes internal control period and an external control group, where kidneys were perfused with only Krebs-Henseleit solution. All three doses tested promoted increases in PP and RVR. The first two doses also increased GFR and UF. The higher dose promoted decreases in GFR, UF, %TNa(+), %TK(+), %TCl(-). In the treated groups we observed hyalin casts inside all tubules and proteinaceous material in the urinary space. We conclude that the effects resulted from niquim venom agents that promoted a direct effect in kidney cells causing the release of vasoactive factors.
    Toxicon 11/2003; 42(5):509-14. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have shown previously that exposure to microcystin-LR (MCLR) causes renal toxic effects in isolated perfused rat kidney. That study was extended further to approach the perspective of pharmacological blockade of renal toxic effects by MCLR through the use of experimental therapeutic agents. An isolated kidney perfusion system was utilized and samples of urine and perfusate were collected at 10min intervals to determine the levels of inulin, sodium, potassium and osmolality. Dexamethasone (20microg ml(-1)) and indomethacin (10microg ml(-1)) were administered in the beginning of the perfusion and MCLR was employed in a dose of 1microg ml(-1) after an internal control of 30min to evaluate the perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary flow (UF). Dexamethasone and indomethacin antagonized the toxic effects of MCLR on PP, RVR, GFR and UF. Histologic analysis of dexamethasone and indomethacin treated groups did not show any vascular or interstitial alterations. MCLR potentially impairs the renal function, probably causing vascular and glomerular lesions and, promoting renal alterations through direct or indirect actions. These data seem to indicate that the renal alterations promoted by MCLR involves also phospholipase A(2) and arachidonic acid-derived mediators.
    Toxicon 06/2001; 39(5):721-4. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microcystin is a hepatotoxic peptide which inhibits protein phosphatase types 1 and 2A. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the physiopathologic effects of microcystin-LR in isolated perfused rat kidney. Adult Wistar rats (N = 5) of both sexes (240-280 g) were utilized. Microcystin-LR (1 microg/ml) was perfused over a period of 120 min, during which samples of urine and perfusate were collected at 10-min intervals to determine the levels of inulin, sodium, potassium and osmolality. We observed a significant increase in urinary flow with a peak effect at 90 min (control (C) = 0.20 +/- 0.01 and treated (T) = 0.32 +/- 0.01 ml g-1 min-1, P<0.05). At 90 min there was a significant increase in perfusate pressure (C = 129.7 +/- 4.81 and T = 175.0 +/- 1.15 mmHg) and glomerular filtration rate (C = 0.66 +/- 0.07 and T = 1.10 +/- 0. 04 ml g-1 min-1) and there was a significant reduction in fractional sodium tubular transport at 120 min (C = 78.6 +/- 0.98 and T = 73.9 +/- 0.95%). Histopathologic analysis of the perfused kidneys showed protein material in the urinary space, suggestive of renal toxicity. These data demonstrate renal vascular, glomerular and urinary effects of microcystin-LR, indicating that microcystin acts directly on the kidney by probable inhibition of protein phosphatases.
    Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 09/1999; 32(8):985-8. · 1.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crotalus durissus cascavella (C.d.c) is a snake usually found in scrubland of Brazilian Northeast and its bite constitutes an important public health problem. Isolated kidneys from wistar rats, weighing 240 to 280 g, were perfused with Krebs Henseleit solution containing 6 g% of previously dialysed bovine serum albumin. The effects of C.d.c venom were studied on the perfusion pressure (PP), urinary flow (UF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), percent of sodium tubular transport (%TNa+) and percent of proximal tubule sodium transport (%pTNa+). All experiments were preceded by a 30 min internal control period and an external control group. The infusion of C.d.c (10 microg ml(-1)) increased the PP, UF at 60 and 90min of perfusion, and decreased the GFR, %TNa+ and %pTNa+ at 120 min of perfusion. The proximal renal tubule was the major site for this toxic effect. In the group treated with the venom we found hyalin cylinders inside all tubules and proteinaceous material, alternating from moderate to intense presence in urinary space. Dexamethasone (Dexa 20 microg ml(-1)) protected against the increase in PP, UF, and against the decrease in GFR, it produced the reversion of the effect also in %TNa+ and %pTNa+. Indomethacin (Indo 10 microg ml(-1)) antagonized the effect observed in PP and UF, but was not able to reverse the changes in GFR, %TNa+ and %pTNa+. Nifedipine (Nif 10 microg ml(-1)) promoted a reversion of almost all functional changes, except the %pTNa+ was not reversed. We conclude that these alterations may be caused by a direct action of the venom on the kidneys and indirectly by the release of mediators from endothelial cells. Dexa protected against renal lesions caused by the venom, perhaps by inhibiting phospholipase A2 a toxic component of the venom. The reversion partially induced by indo may be due to cyclooxygenase inhibition that will inhibit the formation of prostaglandins. Nif blocked the renal alterations that may involve cell calcium influx that resulted from the venom aggression.
    Toxicon 11/1998; 36(10):1441-50. · 2.92 Impact Factor