[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A placebo-controlled randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out to assess the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of the lyophilized vaccine candidate against cholera derived from the live attenuated 638 Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa strain. One hundred and twenty presumably healthy female and male adult volunteers aged between 18 and 50 years were included. They were from Maputo, Mozambique a cholera endemic area, where, in addition, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence is from 20 to 30%. A dose of 2 x 10 9 colony forming units (CFU) was given to 80 subjects and other 40 received only vaccine lyoprotectors as a placebo control. Out-patient follow-up of adverse events was carried out during the following 30 days after vaccination. The immune response was evaluated by the estimation of seroconversion rate and the geometric mean titer (GMT) of vibriocidal antibodies in the sera from volunteers that was collected previously, and at days 14 and 21 after immunization. No serious adverse events were reported. The adverse events found in the vaccine group were similar to those of the placebo groups. They were independent from the detection of antibodies against HIV-1, HIV-2, hepatitis (H) A; HC and hepatitis B surface antigen. The presence of helminthes did not modify the incidence of adverse events. The 638 vaccine strain was isolated in 37 (46.25%) vaccinated volunteer's feces. The peak of the GMT of vibriocidal antibodies in the vaccine group was 9056 versus 39 in the placebo group at 14 days with a total seroconversion of 97.4% at 21 days. The 638 vaccine candidate is safe and immunogenic in a cholera endemic region.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Diet is a cornerstone of comprehensive treatment of diabetes mellitus. The macrobiotic diet is low in fat and rich in dietary fiber, vegetables and whole grains, and therefore may be a good therapeutic option. Objective Assess the influence of the Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet on physical, hematologic and biochemical variables, as well as on hypoglycemic medication, in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods A 6-month dietary intervention was carried out in 16 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and poor glucide metabolism control (glycosylated hemoglobin, HbA1 >8.5%) receiving treatment at the Diabetic Care Center in Colón, Matanzas province, Cuba. The diet was prepared and served daily by macrobiotic specialists. Type and amount of food consumed and nutritional content were assessed using a weighted food-consumption survey. At onset and termination of the intervention, anthropometric and body composition variables were measured, as were biochemical (glucide and lipid metabolism) and other nutritional safety variables, and hypoglycemic drug use. Results The diet provided sufficient energy and protein. It was low in fat, high in complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber, and provided adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals, except for vitamin B12. At 6 months, anthropometric variables were significantly lower, lean body mass was preserved, and glucide and lipid metabolism was controlled. All participants were able to eliminate insulin treatment, and 25% continued treatment with glibenclamide only. Mean total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride values dropped 16.4%, 22.7% and 37.0%, respectively, while mean HDL cholesterol rose 97.8%. Mean glycemia and HbA1 values also decreased 63.8% and 54.5%, respectively. According to lipid levels and ratios, cardiovascular risk was also considerably reduced. Hemoglobin, total protein, albumin and creatinin levels indicated that nutritional safety was maintained. There were no adverse events. Conclusions In the 6-month intervention, the Ma-Pi 2 macrobiotic diet had a positive influence on weight control, body fat, and glucide and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to validate these encouraging results, particularly a clinical trial in which a control group receives the standard diet recommended for diabetic patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and the immunogenicity of a 2 x 10(9)CFU dose of the 638 lyophilized live attenuated cholera vaccine for oral administration, formulated and produced at Finlay Institute, City of Havana, Cuba. Thirty-six healthy female and male adult volunteers from 18 to 40 years old were involved, clinically examined and laboratory tested after the informed consent signature. Adverse events were monitored and seroconversion rates and geometrical mean titer (GMT) of vibriocidal antibodies were tested in volunteer's sera samples. Neither serious adverse events nor other damages to the volunteers due to vaccine or placebo feeding were reported during the clinical follow-up period of this study; none of the adverse events registered within the first 72 h after inoculation were life-threatening for volunteers. Neither severe nor moderate adverse events were reported. Sixty-one percent of subjects showed mild expected adverse events in an interval lower than 24h up to the first 72 h, 75% of these in the vaccinated group and 18% in the placebo group. Fourteen days after inoculation the GMT of vibriocidal antibodies in the vaccine group significantly increased in comparison to the placebo group. All subjects in the vaccine group (24) seroconverted (100%). Results show that this vaccine is safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy female and male volunteers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A methodology was developed for the selection of genetically modified strains of Vibrio cholerae 01 and 0139 aimed at obtaining oral attenuated candidate vaccines against cholera. The modified strains underwent microbiological characterization, bacterial susceptibility and different biological tests (mean lethal dose, colonizing capacity, adherence in mice, ligated intestine and intraduodenal inoculation in rabbits as virulence and potency tests. The strains 81, 638, 638T and 1333 were evaluated in clinical trials to determine their reactogenicity and immunogenicity. All the strains were sensitive to tetracycline and doxoclycine. They showed their attenuation and immunogenicity in animal models. The strains 638 and 1333 proved to be immunogenic and non reactogenic in volunteers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted among 318 children from the "Mártires del Corynthia" Primary School under the authorization of the Municipal Division of Education and the informed consent of their parents aimed at knowing the prevalence of meningoccoco carriers in school children, determining the epidemiological markers of the isolated strains and establishing the possible relation existing between the carrier and variables, such as age, sex, acute respiratory infection history, hacinamiento, amigdalectomy, inhibitory effect of of the accompanying flora and the secretory state of ABH antigens in saliva. All of them underwent nasopharyngeal exudate and a saliva sample was taken. In adition, the paents were surveyed about the risks factors to be investigated. 6.9 % of meningoccoco carriers were found and the NA:NT:P1:NST:L3,7,9 strains predominated. The risk factors with statistically significant results regarding the condition of carrier Neisseria meningitidis carrier were age, acute respiratory infection history, and the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria lactamica of the accompanying bacterial flora in the nasopharynx of the children under study.