Jonathan R Dillman

Concordia University–Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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Publications (134)431.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: The role of US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) of thyroid nodules is not well-established in children. Objective: To retrospectively assess the utility of US-FNAB of pediatric thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: We reviewed Department of Radiology records to identify children who underwent US-FNAB of the thyroid between 2005 and 2013. Two board-certified pediatric radiologists reviewed pre-procedural thyroid US exams and documented findings by consensus. We recorded cytopathology findings and compared them to surgical pathology diagnoses if the nodule was resected. We also recorded demographic information, use of sedation or general anesthesia, and presence of on-site cytopathological feedback. The Student's t-test was used to compare continuous data; the Fisher exact test was used to compare proportions. Results: US-FNAB was conducted on a total of 86 thyroid nodules in 70 children; 56 were girls (80%). Seventy-eight of the 86 (90.7%) US-FNAB procedures were diagnostic; 69/78 (88.5%) diagnostic specimens were benign (including six indeterminate follicular lesions that were proved at surgery to be benign) and 9/78 (11.5%) were malignant/suspicious for malignancy (all proved to be papillary carcinomas). There was no difference in size of benign vs. malignant lesions (P = 0.82) or diagnostic vs. non-diagnostic lesions (P = 0.87). Gender (P = 0.19), use of sedation/general anesthesia (P = 0.99), and presence of onsite cytopathological feedback (P = 0.99) did not affect diagnostic adequacy. Microcalcifications (P < 0.0001; odds ratio [OR] = 113.7) and coarse calcifications (P = 0.03; OR = 19.4) were associated with malignancy. Diagnoses at cytopathology and surgical pathology were concordant in 27/29 (93.1%) nodules; no US-FNAB procedure yielded false-positive or false-negative results for malignancy. Conclusion: US-FNAB of pediatric thyroid nodules is feasible, allows diagnostic cytopathological evaluation, and correlates with surgical pathology results in resected nodules.
    Pediatric Radiology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00247-015-3478-6 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To estimate the effect of an oral 13-hour inpatient corticosteroid premedication regimen on length of stay, hospital cost, and hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) by using a combination of real and hypothetical study populations. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent waived for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. Inpatients who received an oral 13-hour corticosteroid premedication regimen before contrast material-enhanced CT (n = 1424) from 2008 to 2013 were matched by age, sex, and year when CT was performed to a control cohort (n = 1425) of patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT without premedication and who had similar rates of 13 comorbid diseases. Length of stay in the hospital and time from admission to CT were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Rates of prospectively reported HAIs were compared by using χ(2) tests. The indirect cost and risk of HAI with premedication were estimated by using published data. Results Premedicated inpatients had a significantly longer median length of stay (+25 hours; 158 vs 133 hours, P < .001), a significantly longer median time to CT (+25 hours, 42 vs 17 hours, respectively; P < .001), and a significantly greater risk of HAI (5.1% [72 of 1424] vs 3.1% [44 of 1424], respectively; P = .008) compared with nonpremedicated control subjects. On the basis of these data and existing references, the prolonged length of stay was estimated to result in 0.04 HAI-related deaths and a cost of $159 131 (in U.S. dollars) for each prevented reaction of any severity and 32 HAI-related deaths and a cost of $131 211 400 for each prevented reaction-related death. Conclusion Oral 13-hour inpatient corticosteroid prophylaxis is associated with substantial cost relative to its modest benefit, and may cause more indirect harm than the direct harm that it prevents. (©) RSNA, 2015.
    Radiology 11/2015; DOI:10.1148/radiol.2015151143 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) advocates for the use of a clinical practice guideline to direct management of hemodynamically stable pediatric spleen injuries. The clinical practice guideline is based on the CT score of the spleen injury according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) CT scoring system. Objective: To determine the potential effect of radiologist agreement for CT scoring of pediatric spleen injuries on an established APSA clinical practice guideline. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed blunt splenic injuries occurring in children from January 2007 to January 2012 at a single level 1 trauma center (n = 90). Abdominal CT exams performed at clinical presentation were reviewed by four radiologists who documented the following: (1) splenic injury grade (AAST system), (2) arterial extravasation and (3) pseudoaneurysm. Inter-rater agreement for AAST injury grade was assessed using the multi-rater Fleiss kappa and Kendall coefficient of concordance. Inter-rater agreement was assessed using weighted (AAST injury grade) or prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted (binary measures) kappa statistics; 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We evaluated the hypothetical effect of radiologist disagreement on an established APSA clinical practice guideline. Results: Inter-rater agreement was good for absolute AAST injury grade (kappa: 0.64 [0.59-0.69]) and excellent for relative AAST injury grade (Kendall w: 0.90). All radiologists agreed on the AAST grade in 52% of cases. Based on an established clinical practice guideline, radiologist disagreement could have changed the decision for intensive care management in 11% (10/90) of children, changed the length of hospital stay in 44% (40/90), and changed the time to return to normal activity in 44% (40/90). Conclusion: Radiologist agreement when assigning splenic AAST injury grades is less than perfect, and disagreements have the potential to change management in a substantial number of pediatric patients.
    Pediatric Radiology 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00247-015-3469-7 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine retrospectively the clinical effectiveness of an unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol for evaluation of equivocal appendicitis in children. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained. Pediatric patients (≤18 years old) underwent unenhanced MR imaging and contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the appendix between December 2013 and November 2014 and December 2012 and November 2013, respectively, within 24 hours after an abdominal ultrasonographic examination with results equivocal for appendicitis. Pertinent MR imaging and CT reports were reviewed for visibility of the appendix, presence of appendicitis and appendiceal perforation, and establishment of an alternative diagnosis. Surgical reports, pathologic reports, and 30-day follow-up medical records were used as reference standards. Diagnostic performance with MR imaging and CT was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diagnosis of appendicitis and appendiceal perforation. The Fisher exact test was used to compare proportions; the Student t test was used to compare means. Results Diagnostic performance with MR imaging was comparable to that with CT for equivocal pediatric appendicitis. For MR imaging (n = 103), sensitivity was 94.4% (95% CI: 72.7%, 99.9%) and specificity was 100% (95% CI: 95.8%, 100%); for CT [n = 58], sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 71.5%, 100%), specificity was 97.9% (95% CI: 88.7%, 100%). Diagnostic performance with MR imaging and CT also was comparable for detection of appendiceal perforation, with MR imaging (n = 103) sensitivity of 90.0% (95% CI: 55.5%, 99.8%) and specificity of 85.7% (95% CI: 42.1%, 99.6%) and CT (n = 58) sensitivity of 75.0% (95% CI: 19.4%, 99.4%) and specificity of 85.7% (95% CI: 42.1%, 99.6%). The proportion of examinations with identifiable alternative diagnoses was similar at MR imaging to that at CT (19 of 103 [18.4%] vs eight of 58 [13.8%], respectively; P = .52). The proportion of appendixes seen at MR imaging and at CT also was similar (77 of 103 [74.8%] vs 50 of 58 [86.2%], respectively; P = .11). Conclusion Unenhanced MR imaging is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of equivocal appendicitis in nonsedated pediatric patients. (©) RSNA, 2015.
    Radiology 10/2015; DOI:10.1148/radiol.2015150941 · 6.87 Impact Factor
  • Thomas J Wilson · Jacob R Joseph · Jonathan R Dillman · Amer Heider · Lynda J S Yang ·
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    ABSTRACT: Patients presenting with enlarging fibrofatty masses in the extremities pose an interesting dilemma to clinicians, as the differential diagnosis in such cases ranges from benign to malignant, and from lesions optimally managed operatively to those managed nonoperatively. The differential diagnosis includes benign lipoma, liposarcoma, lipoblastoma, and fibro-lipomatous hamartoma (lipomatosis) of the nerves. The authors present the case of a 14-year-old girl with an enlarging fibrofatty mass of the forearm, initially thought, based on diagnostic imaging, to be a fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve, but found to be a lipoblastoma without direct nerve involvement based on histopathological examination of the operative specimen. This case serves to illustrate the diagnostic predicament that can exist with such masses. The authors advocate the need to establish a tissue diagnosis while having a contingency plan for each of the diagnostic possibilities because the management of each lesion is markedly different. In this report, the authors consider the differential diagnosis of fibrofatty masses of the extremities that the peripheral nerve surgeon may encounter, and they highlight the significant differences in management strategies for each possible diagnosis.
    Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 10/2015; DOI:10.3171/2015.2.PEDS14570 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: Cancer is caused by a diverse array of somatic and germline genomic aberrations. Advances in genomic sequencing technologies have improved the ability to detect these molecular aberrations with greater sensitivity. However, integrating them into clinical management in an individualized manner has proven challenging. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of integrative clinical sequencing and genetic counseling in the assessment and treatment of children and young adults with cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Single-site, observational, consecutive case series (May 2012-October 2014) involving 102 children and young adults (mean age, 10.6 years; median age, 11.5 years, range, 0-22 years) with relapsed, refractory, or rare cancer. EXPOSURES: Participants underwent integrative clinical exome (tumor and germline DNA) and transcriptome (tumor RNA) sequencing and genetic counseling. Results were discussed by a precision medicine tumor board, which made recommendations to families and their physicians. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Proportion of patients with potentially actionable findings, results of clinical actions based on integrative clinical sequencing, and estimated proportion of patients or their families at risk of future cancer. RESULTS: Of the 104 screened patients, 102 enrolled with 91 (89%) having adequate tumor tissue to complete sequencing. Only the 91 patients were included in all calculations, including 28 (31%) with hematological malignancies and 63 (69%) with solid tumors. Forty-two patients (46%) had actionable findings that changed their cancer management: 15 of 28 (54%) with hematological malignancies and 27 of 63 (43%) with solid tumors. Individualized actions were taken in 23 of the 91 (25%) based on actionable integrative clinical sequencing findings, including change in treatment for 14 patients (15%) and genetic counseling for future risk for 9 patients (10%). Nine of 91 (10%) of the personalized clinical interventions resulted in ongoing partial clinical remission of 8 to 16 months or helped sustain complete clinical remission of 6 to 21 months. All 9 patients and families with actionable incidental genetic findings agreed to genetic counseling and screening. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this single-center case series involving young patients with relapsed or refractory cancer, incorporation of integrative clinical sequencing data into clinical management was feasible, revealed potentially actionable findings in 46% of patients, and was associated with change in treatment and family genetic counseling for a small proportion of patients. The lack of a control group limited assessing whether better clinical outcomes resulted from this approach than outcomes that would have occurred with standard care.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 09/2015; 314(9-9):913-925. DOI:10.1001/jama.2015.10080 · 35.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vomiting is a commonly reported symptom in infants less than three months of age. There are a multitude of pathologies to consider, both within and outside the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to conducting a thorough history and physical examination, a clinician formulates a reasonable differential diagnosis by consideration of two main factors: the infant's age and the characterization of the vomit as bilious or nonbilious. In this endeavor, the clinician is able to determine if an imaging study is needed and, if so, the urgency of the request. A review of the appropriate imaging evaluation of vomiting infants in the newborn to three-month-old age group is provided by organizing the discussion around the following three clinical scenarios: bilious vomiting, intermittent nonbilious vomiting since birth, and new-onset bilious vomiting. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR 08/2015; 12(9). DOI:10.1016/j.jacr.2015.05.023 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MR enterography (MRE) plays a major role in the imaging of pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but can be challenging to perform in young children. To review our institutional experience regarding the performance of MRE in children younger than 10 years of age, including the use of general anesthesia (GA). Institutional review board approval was obtained. Radiology and anesthesia records were searched to identify MRE exams in children younger than 10 years old between June 2009 and May 2013. The following information was documented: demographics, indications for MRE, use of GA, imaging diagnoses, and documented GA-related side effects or adverse events. Imaging was reviewed to document study length, quality and progression of oral contrast material. One hundred six children (59 boys [56%]) younger than 10 years old underwent 119 MRE examinations (age range: 1 month to 9 years, 11 months). Common indications for MRE included known IBD (42%) and suspected IBD (38%). One hundred ten (92%) examinations were performed under GA. Mean exam length was 52 ± 13 min for GA patients with a range of 31--113 min. Median time under GA was 155 min. Oral contrast material reached the terminal ileum in 31%. Side effects/adverse events associated with GA were uncommon and minor, including transient nausea in 13 children (11%) and emesis in 9 (8%). Diagnostic-quality MRE can be performed successfully in young children. The majority of MRE exams were performed under GA, with only occasional minor side effects/adverse events.
    Pediatric Radiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00247-015-3431-8 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MR Urography (MRU) is an increasingly used imaging modality for the evaluation of pediatric genitourinary obstruction. To determine whether pediatric MR urography (MRU) reliably detects crossing vessels in the setting of suspected ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. The clinical significance of these vessels was also evaluated. We identified pediatric patients diagnosed with UPJ obstruction by MRU between May 2009 and June 2014. MRU studies were evaluated by two pediatric radiologists for the presence or absence of crossing vessels. Ancillary imaging findings such as laterality, parenchymal thinning/scarring, trapped fluid in the proximal ureter, and presence of renal parenchymal edema were also evaluated. Imaging findings were compared to surgical findings. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to compare continuous data and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. Twenty-four of 25 (96%) UPJ obstructions identified by MRU were surgically confirmed. MRU identified crossing vessels in 10 of these cases, with 9 cases confirmed intraoperatively (κ = 0.92 [95% CI: 0.75, 1.0]). Crossing vessels were determined to be the primary cause of UPJ obstruction in 7/9 children intraoperatively, while in two children the vessels were deemed incidental and noncontributory to the urinary tract obstruction. There was no significant difference in age or the proportions of ancillary findings when comparing children without and with obstructing vessels. MRU allows detection of crossing vessels in pediatric UPJ obstruction. Although these vessels are the primary cause of obstruction in some children, they are incidental and non-contributory in others. Our study failed to convincingly identify any significant predictors (e.g., age or presence of renal parenchymal edema) that indicate when a crossing vessel is the primary cause of obstruction.
    Pediatric Radiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00247-015-3412-y · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR) urography is a valuable imaging modality for assessing disorders of the pediatric urinary tract. It allows comprehensive evaluation of the kidneys and urinary tract in children by providing both morphologic and functional information without exposing the child to ionizing radiation. Pediatric MR urography can be used to thoroughly evaluate renal and urinary tract abnormalities that are difficult to identify or fully characterize with other imaging techniques, and it has the potential to allow earlier diagnosis while decreasing the number of imaging studies performed. Common indications for pediatric MR urography include evaluation of complex renal and urinary tract anatomy, suspected urinary tract obstruction, operative planning, and postoperative assessment. MR hydrography (T2-weighted imaging of urine) excellently depicts dilated or obstructed urinary systems, whereas postcontrast imaging (gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging of the kidneys and urinary system) excellently depicts nondilated or nonobstructed urinary systems. Postcontrast MR urography also allows a functional evaluation of the kidneys and urinary tract that includes estimation of differential renal function. The authors review common indications for pediatric MR urography, detail MR urography techniques, compare the strengths and weaknesses of MR urography with those of alternative imaging strategies for children, and describe numerous common and uncommon abnormalities of the pediatric kidneys and urinary tract. (©)RSNA, 2015.
    Radiographics 07/2015; 35(4):1208-30. DOI:10.1148/rg.2015140223 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Ajaykumar C Morani · Ethan A Smith · Dhakshina Ganeshan · Jonathan R Dillman ·
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly need repetitive imaging to assess disease activity and complications. Recently, MR enterography has become a first-line radiologic study in children with IBD because of improved image quality, excellent soft-tissue contrast resolution, and lack of ionizing radiation. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in MR enterography and the evaluation of pediatric IBD. Several contemporary publications have shown that DWI can be useful for assessing both pediatric and adult patients with IBD as an important adjunct pulse sequence. Specifically, DWI can be used to identify abnormal bowel segments, assess disease inflammatory activity, and detect and characterize a variety of extraintestinal IBD-related manifestations and complications.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 06/2015; 204(6):1269-1277. DOI:10.2214/AJR.14.13359 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine if ultrasonographic (US) renal shear-wave speed (SWS) measurements obtained either before or after intravenous diuretic administration can be used to discriminate obstructive hydronephrosis from unobstructive hydronephrosis in children, with diuretic renal scintigraphy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and parental informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant prospective cross-sectional blind comparison with a reference standard. Between November 2012 and September 2014, 37 children (mean age, 4.1 years; age range, 1 month to 17 years) underwent shear-wave elastography of the kidneys immediately before and immediately after diuretic renal scintigraphy (reference standard for presence of urinary tract obstruction). Median SWS measurements (in meters per second), as well as change in median SWS (median SWS after diuretic administration minus median SWS before diuretic administration) were correlated with the amount of time required for kidney radiotracer activity to fall by 50% after intravenous administration of the diuretic (T1/2). Median SWS measurements were compared with degree of obstruction and degree of hydronephrosis with analysis of variance. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created. Results Radiotracer T1/2 values after diuretic administration did not correlate with median SWS measurements obtained before (r = -0.08, P = .53) or after (r = -0.0004, P >.99) diuretic administration, nor did they correlate with intraindividual change in median SWS (r = 0.07, P = .56). There was no significant difference in pre- or postdiuretic median SWS measurements between kidneys with scintigraphic evidence of no, equivocal, or definite urinary tract obstruction (P > .5) or for median SWS measurements between kidneys with increasing degree of hydronephrosis (P > .5). ROC curves showed poor diagnostic performance of median SWS in discerning no, equivocal, or definite urinary tract obstruction (area under the ROC curve ranged from 0.50 to 0.62). Conclusion US SWS measurements did not enable discrimination of obstructive hydronephrosis from unobstructive hydronephrosis in children. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 05/2015; 277(1):142884. DOI:10.1148/radiol.2015142884 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, there have been many advances in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) imaging in every cross-sectional imaging modality, particularly in children. The main emphasis in pediatric IBD imaging is on robust and reproducible measures of small bowel Crohn's disease inflammation, accurate diagnosis of IBD-related complications, and minimizing radiation burden to the patient, as repeat imaging is necessary over the course of their disease. In this article, we discuss the current state-of-the-art imaging techniques, in addition to routine fluoroscopy, including MR and CT enterography and bowel ultrasound. We also present the emerging use of new methods to characterize disease severity and distinguish active inflammation from fibrosis such as diffusion-weighted imaging, bowel elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. The diagnostic performance of particular examinations, their strengths and weaknesses, and role in IBD management will be discussed. Although these advanced imaging techniques applied to children are similar to those performed in adults, special considerations related to their application in pediatric patients will also be reviewed.
    Abdominal Imaging 04/2015; 40(5). DOI:10.1007/s00261-015-0423-y · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Little published research has shown the relationship between noninvasive US shear wave speed (SWS) measurements and degree of liver fibrosis as established by percutaneous biopsy in children. Objective To assess the relationship between liver US shear wave speed (SWS) measurements and parenchymal fibrosis in children. Materials and methods Sixty-two children (0-18 years old) with known or suspected liver disease underwent same-day US shear wave elastography (SWE) and clinically ordered percutaneous core needle biopsy. SWE was performed just before the liver biopsy in the area targeted for sampling, using an Acuson S3000 US system with a 9L4 transducer; six SWS measurements were acquired using Virtual Touch Quantification (VTQ) and Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ) modes. Biopsy specimens were scored for histological fibrosis and inflammation. Bivariate relationships were assessed using Pearson correlation, while multiple linear regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between SWS and predictor variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created to assess the abilities of VTQ and VTIQ to discern low vs. high liver fibrosis (histological fibrosis scores 0-2 vs. 3-6). Results There were significant positive correlations between liver histological fibrosis score and VTQ (n = 49) and VTIQ (n = 48) mean shear wave speed measurements (r = 0.68 and r = 0.73; P-values r = 0.47 and r = 0.44, and P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0016, respectively). For VTQ, both histological fibrosis (P P = 0.04) scores were significant predictors of shear wave speed (model adjusted R 2 = 0.49). For VTIQ, only histological fibrosis score (P R 2 = 0.56). ROC areas under the curve were 0.84 and 0.86 for VTQ and VTIQ, respectively. Conclusion Liver US shear wave speed measurements increase with increasing parenchymal fibrosis in children.
    Pediatric Radiology 04/2015; 45(10). DOI:10.1007/s00247-015-3345-5 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small bowel Crohn disease is commonly diagnosed during the pediatric period, and recent investigations show that its incidence is increasing in this age group. Diagnosis and follow-up of this condition are commonly based on a combination of patient history and physical examination, disease activity surveys, laboratory assessment, and endoscopy with biopsy, but imaging also plays a central role. Ultrasonography (US) is an underutilized well-tolerated imaging modality for screening and follow-up of small bowel Crohn disease in children and adolescents. US has numerous advantages over computed tomographic (CT) enterography and magnetic resonance (MR) enterography, including low cost and no required use of oral or intravenous contrast material. US also has the potential to provide images with higher spatial resolution than those obtained at CT enterography and MR enterography, allows faster examination than does MR enterography, does not involve ionizing radiation, and does not require sedation or general anesthesia. US accurately depicts small bowel and mesenteric changes related to pediatric Crohn disease, and US findings show a high correlation with MR imaging findings in this patient population. (©)RSNA, 2015.
    Radiographics 04/2015; 35(3):140002. DOI:10.1148/rg.2015140002 · 2.60 Impact Factor
  • Guan Xu · Laura A. Johnson · Jack Hu · Eva Rodansky · Jonathan R. Dillman · Xueding Wang · Peter Higgins ·

    Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-581-S-582. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)31966-1 · 16.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median survival for carcinomas was 27 months. In our experience, pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas are larger, more heterogeneous, and more often calcified than adenomas, although there is overlap in their imaging appearances.
    Pediatric Radiology 03/2015; 45(8). DOI:10.1007/s00247-015-3308-x · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the natural history and outcomes of prenatally diagnosed lung masses that appear to undergo complete regression before birth. An IRB-approved retrospective review was performed on 100 consecutive fetuses with a congenital lung malformation at a single fetal center. Prenatal and postnatal imaging as well as outcomes of vanishing fetal masses was analyzed and compared to those with persistent fetal masses. Seventeen lesions (17%) became sonographically undetectable at 35.3±2.3weeks gestation. Vanishing fetal masses were associated with microcystic disease (100% vs. 69%, p=0.005) and a low initial congenital pulmonary airway malformation volume ratio (CVR; 0.31±0.35 vs. 0.70±0.66, p=0.002) when compared to those with persistent fetal lesions. Based on postnatal CT imaging and pathology data, 10.3% of all fetal masses completely regressed. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of prenatal ultrasound for detecting lung malformations in late gestation were 96% and 43%, respectively. All infants with vanishing fetal lesions were asymptomatic at birth and were more likely to be managed nonoperatively (75% vs. 22%, p<0.0001) when compared to infants with persistent fetal masses. Vanishing lung lesions late in gestation are relatively common and are associated with a low CVR and microcystic disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 03/2015; 50(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.03.025 · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • Jay E Haggerty · Ethan A Smith · Shaun M Kunisaki · Jonathan R Dillman ·
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    ABSTRACT: Different iterative reconstruction techniques are available for use in pediatric computed tomography (CT), but these techniques have not been systematically evaluated in infants. To determine the effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance, image quality and radiation dose in infants undergoing CT evaluation for congenital lung lesions. A retrospective review of contrast-enhanced chest CT in infants (<1 year) with congenital lung lesions was performed. CT examinations were reviewed to document the type of lung lesion, vascular anatomy, image noise measurements and image reconstruction method. CTDIvol was used to calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). CT findings were correlated with intraoperative and histopathological findings. Analysis of variance and the Student's t-test were used to compare image noise measurements and radiation dose estimates between groups. Fifteen CT examinations used filtered back projection (FBP; mean age: 84 days), 15 used adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR; mean age: 93 days), and 11 used model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR; mean age: 98 days). Compared to operative findings, 13/15 (87%), 14/15 (93%) and 11/11 (100%) lesions were correctly characterized using FBP, ASiR and MBIR, respectively. Arterial anatomy was correctly identified in 12/15 (80%) using FBP, 13/15 (87%) using ASiR and 11/11 (100%) using MBIR. Image noise was less for MBIR vs. ASiR (P < 0.0001). Mean SSDE was different among groups (P = 0.003; FBP = 7.35 mGy, ASiR = 1.89 mGy, MBIR = 1.49 mGy). Congenital lung lesions can be adequately characterized in infants using iterative CT reconstruction techniques while maintaining image quality and lowering radiation dose.
    Pediatric Radiology 01/2015; 45(7). DOI:10.1007/s00247-015-3281-4 · 1.57 Impact Factor
  • Brett J Mollard · Ethan A Smith · Jonathan R Dillman ·
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography is an increasingly important pediatric imaging modality that is most often used to evaluate inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD inflammatory bowel disease ), while sparing children and adolescents from potential risks of ionizing radiation exposure. MR enterography allows for evaluation of the bowel lumen and wall, adjacent mesentery and soft tissues, as well as a variety of extraintestinal abdominopelvic IBD inflammatory bowel disease manifestations. While MR enterography can be used to initially confirm the diagnosis of IBD inflammatory bowel disease , particularly small bowel Crohn disease, it has also proven useful in assessing the degree inflammatory activity over time, serving as a radiologic biomarker for response to medical therapy, and identifying a variety of disease-related complications, including strictures, fistulae, and abscesses. The purpose of this review article is to provide radiologists with a systematic approach for MR enterography review and interpretation in children and adolescents with known or suspected of having IBD inflammatory bowel disease and to illustrate both common and infrequent but important imaging findings. Additionally, the authors will present their well-established and clinically successful pediatric MR enterography protocol, up-to-date clinical indications for MR enterography, and briefly mention the role of MR enterography in assessing non- IBD inflammatory bowel disease abnormalities affecting the bowel. Online supplemental material is available for this article . © RSNA, 2015.
    Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):29-43. DOI:10.1148/radiol.14122449 · 6.87 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
431.31 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2015
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2007-2015
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Radiology
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2014
    • Children's Hospital of Michigan
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States