Jonathan R Dillman

Concordia University–Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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Publications (121)335.72 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly need repetitive imaging to assess disease activity and complications. Recently, MR enterography has become a first-line radiologic study in children with IBD because of improved image quality, excellent soft-tissue contrast resolution, and lack of ionizing radiation. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in MR enterography and the evaluation of pediatric IBD. Several contemporary publications have shown that DWI can be useful for assessing both pediatric and adult patients with IBD as an important adjunct pulse sequence. Specifically, DWI can be used to identify abnormal bowel segments, assess disease inflammatory activity, and detect and characterize a variety of extraintestinal IBD-related manifestations and complications.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 06/2015; 204(6):1269-1277. DOI:10.2214/AJR.14.13359 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine if ultrasonographic (US) renal shear-wave speed (SWS) measurements obtained either before or after intravenous diuretic administration can be used to discriminate obstructive hydronephrosis from unobstructive hydronephrosis in children, with diuretic renal scintigraphy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and parental informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant prospective cross-sectional blind comparison with a reference standard. Between November 2012 and September 2014, 37 children (mean age, 4.1 years; age range, 1 month to 17 years) underwent shear-wave elastography of the kidneys immediately before and immediately after diuretic renal scintigraphy (reference standard for presence of urinary tract obstruction). Median SWS measurements (in meters per second), as well as change in median SWS (median SWS after diuretic administration minus median SWS before diuretic administration) were correlated with the amount of time required for kidney radiotracer activity to fall by 50% after intravenous administration of the diuretic (T1/2). Median SWS measurements were compared with degree of obstruction and degree of hydronephrosis with analysis of variance. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created. Results Radiotracer T1/2 values after diuretic administration did not correlate with median SWS measurements obtained before (r = -0.08, P = .53) or after (r = -0.0004, P >.99) diuretic administration, nor did they correlate with intraindividual change in median SWS (r = 0.07, P = .56). There was no significant difference in pre- or postdiuretic median SWS measurements between kidneys with scintigraphic evidence of no, equivocal, or definite urinary tract obstruction (P > .5) or for median SWS measurements between kidneys with increasing degree of hydronephrosis (P > .5). ROC curves showed poor diagnostic performance of median SWS in discerning no, equivocal, or definite urinary tract obstruction (area under the ROC curve ranged from 0.50 to 0.62). Conclusion US SWS measurements did not enable discrimination of obstructive hydronephrosis from unobstructive hydronephrosis in children. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 05/2015; DOI:10.1148/radiol.2015142884 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, there have been many advances in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) imaging in every cross-sectional imaging modality, particularly in children. The main emphasis in pediatric IBD imaging is on robust and reproducible measures of small bowel Crohn's disease inflammation, accurate diagnosis of IBD-related complications, and minimizing radiation burden to the patient, as repeat imaging is necessary over the course of their disease. In this article, we discuss the current state-of-the-art imaging techniques, in addition to routine fluoroscopy, including MR and CT enterography and bowel ultrasound. We also present the emerging use of new methods to characterize disease severity and distinguish active inflammation from fibrosis such as diffusion-weighted imaging, bowel elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. The diagnostic performance of particular examinations, their strengths and weaknesses, and role in IBD management will be discussed. Although these advanced imaging techniques applied to children are similar to those performed in adults, special considerations related to their application in pediatric patients will also be reviewed.
    Abdominal Imaging 04/2015; 40(5). DOI:10.1007/s00261-015-0423-y · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Little published research has shown the relationship between noninvasive US shear wave speed (SWS) measurements and degree of liver fibrosis as established by percutaneous biopsy in children. Objective To assess the relationship between liver US shear wave speed (SWS) measurements and parenchymal fibrosis in children. Materials and methods Sixty-two children (0-18 years old) with known or suspected liver disease underwent same-day US shear wave elastography (SWE) and clinically ordered percutaneous core needle biopsy. SWE was performed just before the liver biopsy in the area targeted for sampling, using an Acuson S3000 US system with a 9L4 transducer; six SWS measurements were acquired using Virtual Touch Quantification (VTQ) and Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ) modes. Biopsy specimens were scored for histological fibrosis and inflammation. Bivariate relationships were assessed using Pearson correlation, while multiple linear regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between SWS and predictor variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created to assess the abilities of VTQ and VTIQ to discern low vs. high liver fibrosis (histological fibrosis scores 0-2 vs. 3-6). Results There were significant positive correlations between liver histological fibrosis score and VTQ (n = 49) and VTIQ (n = 48) mean shear wave speed measurements (r = 0.68 and r = 0.73; P-values r = 0.47 and r = 0.44, and P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0016, respectively). For VTQ, both histological fibrosis (P P = 0.04) scores were significant predictors of shear wave speed (model adjusted R 2 = 0.49). For VTIQ, only histological fibrosis score (P R 2 = 0.56). ROC areas under the curve were 0.84 and 0.86 for VTQ and VTIQ, respectively. Conclusion Liver US shear wave speed measurements increase with increasing parenchymal fibrosis in children.
    Pediatric Radiology 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00247-015-3345-5 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small bowel Crohn disease is commonly diagnosed during the pediatric period, and recent investigations show that its incidence is increasing in this age group. Diagnosis and follow-up of this condition are commonly based on a combination of patient history and physical examination, disease activity surveys, laboratory assessment, and endoscopy with biopsy, but imaging also plays a central role. Ultrasonography (US) is an underutilized well-tolerated imaging modality for screening and follow-up of small bowel Crohn disease in children and adolescents. US has numerous advantages over computed tomographic (CT) enterography and magnetic resonance (MR) enterography, including low cost and no required use of oral or intravenous contrast material. US also has the potential to provide images with higher spatial resolution than those obtained at CT enterography and MR enterography, allows faster examination than does MR enterography, does not involve ionizing radiation, and does not require sedation or general anesthesia. US accurately depicts small bowel and mesenteric changes related to pediatric Crohn disease, and US findings show a high correlation with MR imaging findings in this patient population. (©)RSNA, 2015.
    Radiographics 04/2015; 35(3):140002. DOI:10.1148/rg.2015140002 · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-581-S-582. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)31966-1 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median survival for carcinomas was 27 months. In our experience, pediatric adrenocortical carcinomas are larger, more heterogeneous, and more often calcified than adenomas, although there is overlap in their imaging appearances.
    Pediatric Radiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00247-015-3308-x · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the natural history and outcomes of prenatally diagnosed lung masses that appear to undergo complete regression before birth. An IRB-approved retrospective review was performed on 100 consecutive fetuses with a congenital lung malformation at a single fetal center. Prenatal and postnatal imaging as well as outcomes of vanishing fetal masses was analyzed and compared to those with persistent fetal masses. Seventeen lesions (17%) became sonographically undetectable at 35.3±2.3weeks gestation. Vanishing fetal masses were associated with microcystic disease (100% vs. 69%, p=0.005) and a low initial congenital pulmonary airway malformation volume ratio (CVR; 0.31±0.35 vs. 0.70±0.66, p=0.002) when compared to those with persistent fetal lesions. Based on postnatal CT imaging and pathology data, 10.3% of all fetal masses completely regressed. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of prenatal ultrasound for detecting lung malformations in late gestation were 96% and 43%, respectively. All infants with vanishing fetal lesions were asymptomatic at birth and were more likely to be managed nonoperatively (75% vs. 22%, p<0.0001) when compared to infants with persistent fetal masses. Vanishing lung lesions late in gestation are relatively common and are associated with a low CVR and microcystic disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 03/2015; 50(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.03.025 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Different iterative reconstruction techniques are available for use in pediatric computed tomography (CT), but these techniques have not been systematically evaluated in infants. To determine the effect of iterative reconstruction on diagnostic performance, image quality and radiation dose in infants undergoing CT evaluation for congenital lung lesions. A retrospective review of contrast-enhanced chest CT in infants (<1 year) with congenital lung lesions was performed. CT examinations were reviewed to document the type of lung lesion, vascular anatomy, image noise measurements and image reconstruction method. CTDIvol was used to calculate size-specific dose estimates (SSDE). CT findings were correlated with intraoperative and histopathological findings. Analysis of variance and the Student's t-test were used to compare image noise measurements and radiation dose estimates between groups. Fifteen CT examinations used filtered back projection (FBP; mean age: 84 days), 15 used adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR; mean age: 93 days), and 11 used model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR; mean age: 98 days). Compared to operative findings, 13/15 (87%), 14/15 (93%) and 11/11 (100%) lesions were correctly characterized using FBP, ASiR and MBIR, respectively. Arterial anatomy was correctly identified in 12/15 (80%) using FBP, 13/15 (87%) using ASiR and 11/11 (100%) using MBIR. Image noise was less for MBIR vs. ASiR (P < 0.0001). Mean SSDE was different among groups (P = 0.003; FBP = 7.35 mGy, ASiR = 1.89 mGy, MBIR = 1.49 mGy). Congenital lung lesions can be adequately characterized in infants using iterative CT reconstruction techniques while maintaining image quality and lowering radiation dose.
    Pediatric Radiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00247-015-3281-4 · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Brett J Mollard, Ethan A Smith, Jonathan R Dillman
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography is an increasingly important pediatric imaging modality that is most often used to evaluate inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD inflammatory bowel disease ), while sparing children and adolescents from potential risks of ionizing radiation exposure. MR enterography allows for evaluation of the bowel lumen and wall, adjacent mesentery and soft tissues, as well as a variety of extraintestinal abdominopelvic IBD inflammatory bowel disease manifestations. While MR enterography can be used to initially confirm the diagnosis of IBD inflammatory bowel disease , particularly small bowel Crohn disease, it has also proven useful in assessing the degree inflammatory activity over time, serving as a radiologic biomarker for response to medical therapy, and identifying a variety of disease-related complications, including strictures, fistulae, and abscesses. The purpose of this review article is to provide radiologists with a systematic approach for MR enterography review and interpretation in children and adolescents with known or suspected of having IBD inflammatory bowel disease and to illustrate both common and infrequent but important imaging findings. Additionally, the authors will present their well-established and clinically successful pediatric MR enterography protocol, up-to-date clinical indications for MR enterography, and briefly mention the role of MR enterography in assessing non- IBD inflammatory bowel disease abnormalities affecting the bowel. Online supplemental material is available for this article . © RSNA, 2015.
    Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):29-43. DOI:10.1148/radiol.14122449 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether bowel wall fibrosis can be detected in freshly resected human intestinal specimens based on ultrasound-derived shear wave speed. Seventeen intact (>3-cm) bowel segments (15 small and 2 large intestine) from 12 patients with known or suspected inflammatory bowel disease were procured immediately after surgical resection. Ultrasound shear wave elastography of the bowel wall was performed by two methods (Virtual Touch Quantification [VTQ] and Virtual Touch-IQ [VT-IQ]; Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc, Mountain View, CA). Eighteen short-axis shear wave speed measurements were acquired from each specimen: 3 from the 9-, 12-, and 3-o'clock locations for each method. Imaging was performed in two areas for specimens greater than 10 cm in length (separated by ≥5 cm). A gastrointestinal pathologist scored correlative histologic slides for inflammation and fibrosis. Differences in mean shear wave speed between bowel segments with low and high inflammation/fibrosis scores were assessed by a Student t test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. High-fibrosis score (n = 11) bowel segments had a significantly greater mean shear wave speed than low-fibrosis score (n = 6) bowel segments (mean ± SD: VTQ, 1.59 ± 0.37 versus 1.18 ± 0.08 m/s; P= .004; VT-IQ, 1.87 ± 0.44 versus 1.50 ± 0.26 m/s; P= .049). There was no significant difference in mean shear wave speed between high-and low-inflammation score bowel segments (P > .05 for both VTQ and VT-IQ). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed areas under the curve of 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.99) for VTQ and 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.94) for VT-IQ in distinguishing low-from high-fibrosis score bowel segments. Ex vivo bowel wall shear wave speed measurements increase when transmural intestinal fibrosis is present. © 2013 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
    Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 12/2014; 33(12):2115-23. DOI:10.7863/ultra.33.12.2115 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo compare the abilities of magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging (MT-MRI) and T2-weighted signal intensity (T2WSI) ratios to detect intestinal fibrosis in a Crohn's disease animal model.Materials and Methods Ten rats ("Group 1") received one trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid enema to induce acute colonic inflammation, while 10 additional animals ("Group 2") received multiple enemas to induce colonic inflammation and fibrosis. Gradient recalled-echo MT-MRI (5 and 10 kHz off-resonance) and T2-weighted spin-echo imaging were performed 2 days after the last enema. MT ratios (MTR) and T2WSI ratios were calculated in the area of greatest colonic thickening. Bowel wall MTR, bowel wall MTR normalized to paraspinous muscle MTR ("normalized MTR"), and T2WSI ratios were compared between animal groups using Student's t-test.ResultsAt 10 kHz off-resonance, mean bowel wall MTR for Group 1 was 24.8 ± 3.1% vs. 30.3 ± 3.2% for Group 2 (P = 0.001). Mean normalized MTR was 0.45 ± 0.05 for Group 1 and 0.58 ± 0.08 for Group 2 (P = 0.0003). At 5 kHz off-resonance, mean bowel wall MTR for Group 1 was 34.7 ± 5.2% vs. 40.3 ± 3.6% for Group 2 (P = 0.015). Mean normalized MTR was 0.53 ± 0.08 for Group 1 and 0.64 ± 0.07 for Group 2 (P = 0.003). Mean T2WSI ratio was 5.32 ± 0.98 for Group 1 and 3.01 ± 0.66 for group 2 (P < 0.0001). Mean T2WSI ratio/MTR (10 kHz off-resonance) was 12.06 ± 2.70 for Group 1 and 5.22 ± 1.29 for Group 2 (P < 0.0001), with an ROC c-statistic of 0.98.ConclusionMTR and T2WSI ratios detect bowel wall fibrosis in a Crohn's disease animal model. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 12/2014; DOI:10.1002/jmri.24815 · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference and Exhibition; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population.
    Pediatric Radiology 09/2014; 45(3). DOI:10.1007/s00247-014-3150-6 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Biliary atresia is a rapidly progressive liver disease necessitating prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention, so it must be promptly distinguished from other neonatal/infantile liver diseases. Objective To determine whether US shear wave elastography (SWE) can differentiate biliary atresia from other neonatal/infantile liver diseases based on liver hardness. Materials and methods Eleven children younger than 1 year who had suspected liver disease underwent anatomically and temporally-related hepatic shear wave elastography and clinically indicated percutaneous core needle biopsy. Shear wave elastography was performed immediately prior to liver biopsy at the targeted biopsy site using an Acuson S3000 US system/9L4 transducer (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Malvern, PA). Shear wave elastography was performed using Virtual Touch Quantification (VTQ) and Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ) modes, and six shear wave speed measurements were acquired from each subject for each mode. Children were placed in two groups based on histology, biliary atresia (n = 6) vs. non-biliary atresia (other neonatal/infantile liver diseases) (n = 5), and mean shear wave speed measurements were compared using the unpaired student’s t-test (two-tailed). A P-value Results Using the VTQ mode, mean liver shear wave speed was 2.08 ± 0.17 m/s for the biliary atresia group and 1.28 ± 0.13 m/s for the non-biliary atresia group (P P = 0.003). Ishak liver fibrosis scores ranged from 3 to 6 for the biliary atresia group and from 0 to 1 for the non-biliary atresia group. Conclusion Liver shear wave speed is abnormally increased in neonates and infants with biliary atresia.
    Pediatric Radiology 09/2014; 45(3). DOI:10.1007/s00247-014-3149-z · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Head trauma is a frequent indication for cranial imaging in children. CT is considered the first line of study for suspected intracranial injury because of its wide availability and rapid detection of acute hemorrhage. However, the majority of childhood head injuries occur without neurologic complications, and particular consideration should be given to the greater risks of ionizing radiation in young patients in the decision to use CT for those with mild head trauma. MRI can detect traumatic complications without radiation, but often requires sedation in children, owing to the examination length and motion sensitivity, which limits rapid assessment and exposes the patient to potential anesthesia risks. MRI may be helpful in patients with suspected nonaccidental trauma, with which axonal shear injury and ischemia are more common and documentation is critical, as well as in those whose clinical status is discordant with CT findings. Advanced techniques, such as diffusion tensor imaging, may identify changes occult by standard imaging, but data are currently insufficient to support routine clinical use. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
    Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR 08/2014; 11(10). DOI:10.1016/j.jacr.2014.07.017 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Imaging of patients with multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) has increased over the past three decades. This increased use of imaging has provided additional insights into the natural history of MCDK. The present study looked at this data for predictors of involution and associated anomalies. Methods and materials Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. The University of Michigan Departments of Urology and Radiology records were searched to identify unilateral MCDK patients during 1980–2012. Available clinical, radiological and surgical records were reviewed, and pertinent data were recorded. The log-rank test and a Cox proportional regression analysis were performed to identify predictors of MCDK involution. Probability of involution over time was assessed using Kaplan-Meier methodology. Results 301 unilateral MCDKs were identified; 195 (64.8%) were detected antenatally. Of the MCDKs found, 136 (45.2%) were in girls; 160 (53.2%) were right-sided. Mean size at baseline was 5.0 ± 0.2 cm (Mean ± SE). Associated abnormalities included: contralateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction (n = 10; 3.3%); contralateral ureterovesical junction obstruction/primary megaureter (n = 6; 2.0%); ipsilateral VUR (n = 21; 7.0%); contralateral VUR (n = 63; 20.1%); and renal fusion anomaly (n = 4; 1.3%). The cumulative probability of involution was: 9.8% at one year, 38.5% at five years, and 53.5% at ten years of age. Baseline MCDK size was the only significant predictor of involution at bivariate (p < 0.0001) and multivariate (p < 0.0001; HR 0.58 [95% CI: 0.49, 0.69]) analyses. No MCDK developed malignancy during the follow-up period. Conclusion As many MCDKs eventually involute and the risk of associated malignancy appears to be very low, there is no absolute indication for nephrectomy. Based on the data and other recent studies, it is believed that pediatric MCDK patients with no other urologic abnormalities can safely tolerate more limited urological and radiological follow-up.
    Journal of Pediatric Urology 08/2014; 10(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpurol.2014.06.001 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of our investigation was to determine the frequency of proximate acute and chronic confounding risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in a cohort of adult hospitalized patients with stable renal function who developed AKI following an intravenous (IV) contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examination. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant investigation. Overall, 100 adult inpatients (50 males [mean age = 61 years, range: 24-94 years] and 50 females [mean age = 60 years, range: 20-95 years]) with stable pre-CT renal function who developed post-CT AKI using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) laboratory criteria following an IV contrast-enhanced CT examination comprised the study population. Electronic International Classification of Disease-9 analysis followed by a comprehensive manual electronic medical record review was systematically performed by 5 radiologists to identify known acute (n = 24, within 5 days before or 3 days after CT) and chronic (n = 21) risk factors for AKI other than contrast material administration that might confound a diagnosis of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. Descriptive statistics were performed. Of 100 inpatients with post-CT AKI, 99 (99%) had 1 or more acute risk factor(s) for AKI other than contrast material administration (median = 3 risk factors, range: 0-8) and 86 (86%) had one or more chronic risk factor(s) for AKI (median = 2 risk factors, range: 0-7). The median number of risk factors (acute or chronic) per patient was 5 (range: 1-13). Only 1 inpatient (1%) developed post-CT AKI without a confounding acute risk factor (estimated glomerular filtration rate = 62-71mL/min/1.73m(2), 4 chronic risk factors, and CT 7 days after pancreaticoduodenectomy). The most common acute risk factors were nephrotoxic medications (83%) and parenteral blood product administration (30%). The most common chronic risk factors were hypertension (59%) and chronic kidney disease (56%). Nonconfounded post-CT AKI is rare in hospitalized adults with stable renal function who have been exposed to IV low- or iso-osmolality iodinated contrast material.
    Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology 06/2014; DOI:10.1067/j.cpradiol.2014.05.001
  • Ethan A Smith, Patricia K Castelli, Jonathan R Dillman
    Pediatric Radiology 04/2014; 44(8). DOI:10.1007/s00247-014-2987-z · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 02/2014; 8(5):S106. DOI:10.1016/S1873-9946(14)60228-2 · 3.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

747 Citations
335.72 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2015
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2014
    • Children's Hospital of Michigan
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2008–2014
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Radiology
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2007
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States