Brian Bennett

Louisiana Office of Public Health, Missouri, United States

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Publications (9)33.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine for the first time the associations between pro-inflammatory cytokines and obesity-related metabolic biomarkers in, exclusively prepubertal, otherwise healthy obese and non-obese Black and White children, 7-9 years of age. Design and methods: Body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT (magnetic resonance imaging)); total body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), ectopic, intrahepatic lipid (IHL) and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) fat (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were measured in 40 obese and non-obese children. Relationships between inflammatory cytokines and obesity were assessed by analysis of variance and Spearman's rank correlation. Results: Significant inverse correlations were found between BMI z-score, SAT, total BF, and IHL and levels of TNF-α (Spearman's ρ=-0.36, -0.39, -0.43 and -0.39, respectively; P<0.05). Levels of IL-8 were significantly and inversely correlated with IMCL (-0.39; P=0.03) and remained significant after adjusting for race. IMCL was inversely associated with TNF-α only after adjusting for race (-0.37; P=0.04). Conclusions: Relationships between pro-inflammatory and metabolic markers commonly observed in adults are reversed in healthy, Black and White children before puberty. Prospective studies are warranted to determine how these inverse relationships modify chronic disease risk later in life.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 11/2013; 38(4). DOI:10.1038/ijo.2013.220 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin sensitivity is impaired and ectopic fat (accretion of lipids outside of typical adipose tissue depots) increased in obese adults and adolescents. It is unknown how early in life this occurs; thus, it is important to evaluate young children to identify potential factors leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. We examined an ethnically diverse cohort of healthy, exclusively prepubertal children (N = 123; F = 57, M = 66; age 8.04 ± 0.77 years) to examine differences in insulin sensitivity and ectopic and visceral fat deposition between obese and nonobese youth. Obesity was categorized by age- and sex-adjusted BMI z-scores (nonobese = z-score <2 (N = 94) and obese = z-score ≥2 (N = 29)). Insulin sensitivity was assessed by both a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (S(i)) and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)). Intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) from soleus and intrahepatic lipids (IHLs) were assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by magnetic resonance imaging, and total body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We also examined serum lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and blood pressure (diastolic and systolic). Obese children exhibited significantly lower S(i) (5.9 ± 5.98 vs. 13.43 ± 8.18 (mµ/l)(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.01) and HDL-C and higher HOMA(IR) (1.68 ± 1.49 vs. 0.63 ± 0.47, P < 0.0001), IMCL (0.74 ± 0.39 vs. 0.44 ± 0.21% water peak, P < 0.0001), IHL (1.49 ± 1.13 vs. 0.54 ± 0.42% water peak, P < 0.0001), VAT (20.16 ± 8.01 vs. 10.62 ± 5.44 cm(2), P < 0.0001), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure relative to nonobese children. These results confirm significantly increased ectopic fat and insulin resistance in healthy obese vs. nonobese children prior to puberty. Excessive adiposity during early development appears concomitant with precursors of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.
    Obesity 08/2011; 20(2):371-5. DOI:10.1038/oby.2011.264 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drugs that improve chronic hyperglycemia independently of insulin signaling or reduction of adiposity or dietary fat intake may be highly desirable. Ad36, a human adenovirus, promotes glucose uptake in vitro independently of adiposity or proximal insulin signaling. We tested the ability of Ad36 to improve glycemic control in vivo and determined if the natural Ad36 infection in humans is associated with better glycemic control. C57BL/6J mice fed a chow diet or made diabetic with a high-fat (HF) diet were mock infected or infected with Ad36 or adenovirus Ad2 as a control for infection. Postinfection (pi), systemic glycemic control, hepatic lipid content, and cell signaling in tissues pertinent to glucose metabolism were determined. Next, sera of 1,507 adults and children were screened for Ad36 antibodies as an indicator of past natural infection. In chow-fed mice, Ad36 significantly improved glycemic control for 12 wk pi. In HF-fed mice, Ad36 improved glycemic control and hepatic steatosis up to 20 wk pi. In adipose tissue (AT), skeletal muscle (SM), and liver, Ad36 upregulated distal insulin signaling without recruiting the proximal insulin signaling. Cell signaling suggested that Ad36 increases AT and SM glucose uptake and reduces hepatic glucose release. In humans, Ad36 infection predicted better glycemic control and lower hepatic lipid content independently of age, sex, or adiposity. We conclude that Ad36 offers a novel tool to understand the pathways to improve hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis independently of proximal insulin signaling, and despite a HF diet. This metabolic engineering by Ad36 appears relevant to humans for developing more practical and effective antidiabetic approaches.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 04/2011; 300(5):E779-89. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00703.2010 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesised that ectopic fat deposition is present in liver and skeletal muscle before puberty and that both are potentially important factors in the early pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to evaluate intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipids in 50 male and 42 female multi-ethnic, prepubertal (Tanner < 2) children (8.1 ± 0.8 years; 35.4 ± 10.7 kg; 27.9 ± 8.3% body fat; means ± SD). Intramyocellular lipid was measured in soleus muscle and intrahepatic lipid in the middle right lobe. Abdominal fat was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, body fat by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin resistance using homeostatic model assessment. Intrahepatic lipid ranged from 0.11% to 4.6% relative to the liver water signal (mean 0.79 ± 0.79%) whereas intramyocellular lipid ranged from 0.13% to 1.86% relative to the muscle water signal (mean 0.51 ± 0.28%). Intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipids were significantly correlated with total adiposity (r = 0.49 and 0.59), abdominal adiposity (r = 0.44 and 0.54), and each other (r = 0.39, p < 0.05, Spearman). Both intramyocellular and intrahepatic lipid were positively correlated with fasting insulin (r = 0.37 and 0.38 respectively) and insulin resistance (r = 0.37 and 0.37; p < 0.01). After adjustment for race and sex, the relations between ectopic fat and insulin resistance remained, whereas both disappeared when further adjusted for body fat or BMI z scores. These results suggest that typical relations between body composition, ectopic fat and insulin resistance are present in children before puberty. Thus, interventions aimed at reducing adiposity have the potential to decrease ectopic fat accumulation, delay the onset of insulin resistance and decrease the risk for development of type 2 diabetes in children.
    Diabetologia 12/2010; 54(4):869-75. DOI:10.1007/s00125-010-2022-3 · 6.67 Impact Factor
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    Brian Bennett · Melinda S Sothern ·
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalent surge in childhood and adolescent obesity within the past 3 decades poses a significant challenge for many pediatric clinicians who are charged with treating this condition. Comprehensive, research-based pediatric obesity treatment programs are essential to addressing this problem and preventing the transition of obesity and its many comorbidities into adulthood. This paper will identify dietary, physical activity, and behavioral approaches to lifestyle change and describe how they are incorporated as part of multidisciplinary treatment interventions in youth. Specific tailoring of treatment programs to address age and varying degrees of overweight and obesity will also be presented along with recommendations for future research.
    Seminars in Pediatric Surgery 09/2009; 18(3):152-8. DOI:10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2009.04.005 · 2.22 Impact Factor

  • American Diabetes Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans; 06/2009

  • Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 05/2008; 40(5). DOI:10.1249/01.mss.0000322966.88090.97 · 3.98 Impact Factor

  • Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 05/2008; 40(5). DOI:10.1249/01.mss.0000322475.70876.59 · 3.98 Impact Factor

  • Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 05/2007; 39(Supplement). DOI:10.1249/01.mss.0000273043.52860.0c · 3.98 Impact Factor