[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed the effects of sampling breadth on technical features of word identification fluency (WIF), a tool for screening and monitoring the reading development of first graders. From a potential pool of 704 first-grade students, the authors measured both a representative sample (n = 284) and 2 other subgroups: those with low reading achievement (n = 202) and those with high/average achievement (n = 213). Data were collected weekly on broadly and narrowly sampled WIF lists for 15 weeks and on criterion measures in the fall and spring. Broad lists were developed by sampling words from 500 high-frequency words, whereas narrow lists were created by sampling from the 133 words from Dolch preprimer, primer, and first-grade word lists. Overall, predictive validity for performance level, predictive validity for growth, and commonality analysis showed narrow sampling was better for screening the representative group and the high/average subgroup. Broad sampling was superior for screening the low-achieving subgroup and for progress monitoring across groups.
Exceptional children 01/2012; 78(2):201-220. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of schema-broadening instruction (SBI) on second graders' word-problem-solving skills and their ability to represent the structure of word problems using algebraic equations. Teachers (n = 18) were randomly assigned to conventional word-problem instruction or SBI word-problem instruction, which taught students to represent the structural, defining features of word problems with overarching equations. Intervention lasted 16 weeks. We pretested and posttested 270 students on measures of word-problem skill; analyses that accounted for the nested structure of the data indicated superior word-problem learning for SBI students. Descriptive analyses of students' word-problem work indicated that SBI helped students represent the structure of word problems with algebraic equations, suggesting that SBI promoted this aspect of students' emerging algebraic reasoning.
The Elementary School Journal 06/2010; 110(4):446-463. · 1.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of remedial tutoring for 3rd graders with mathematics difficulty, to investigate whether tutoring is differentially efficacious depending on students' math difficulty status (mathematics difficulty alone vs. mathematics plus reading difficulty), to explore transfer from number combination (NC) remediation, and to examine the transportability of the tutoring protocols. At 2 sites, 133 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and site and then randomly assigned to 3 conditions: control (no tutoring), tutoring on automatic retrieval of NCs (i.e., Math Flash), or tutoring on word problems with attention to the foundational skills of NCs, procedural calculations, and algebra (i.e., Pirate Math). Tutoring occurred for 16 weeks, 3 sessions per week and 20-30 min per session. Math Flash enhanced fluency with NCs with transfer to procedural computation but without transfer to algebra or word problems. Pirate Math enhanced word problem skill as well as fluency with NCs, procedural computation, and algebra. Tutoring was not differentially efficacious as a function of students' mathematics difficulty status. The tutoring protocols proved transportable across sites.
Journal of Educational Psychology 08/2009; 101(3):561-576. · 3.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progress monitoring is an important component of effective instructional practice. Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is a form of progress monitoring that has been the focus of rigorous research. Two approaches for formulating CBM systems exist. The first is to assess performance regularly on a task that serves as a global indicator of competence at the relevant grade level. The second approach is to systematically sample the year-long curriculum so that each skill is represented and receives the same emphasis on each alternate form. In this article, the systematic curriculum sampling approach is illustrated for monitoring progress in mathematics concepts and applications systems. A description of the system's components, background, and technical properties is provided. Then, a sample case explains how the CBM system can be used in a special education setting to monitor progress, plan instruction, and enhance communication.
Assessment for Effective Intervention 01/2008; 33(4):225-233.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined several aspects of Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) including performance variability across passages alternative designs for measuring PRF gain, and effects on PRF level from retesting with the same passages. Participants were 33 students from grades 2 to 10 attending a school for students with learning disabilities. PRF was measured at three test points. Time-2 tests occurred 10 weeks after time-1 tests, and time-3 tests occurred 5 weeks after the time-2 tests. At Test points 2 and 3, students read old passages (same-passage design) and new passages (different-passage design). Results showed substantial individual variation on concurrent PRF measures, smaller variation in gains measured with the same-passage design, and no passage memory effects (i.e., from retested passages). Results are discussed in relation to measuring reading gains in Response to Intervention models.
Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 10/2005; 20(4):245 - 253.