[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lithium wall coatings have been shown to reduce recycling, improve energy confinement, and suppress edge localized modes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Here, we show that these effects depend continuously on the amount of predischarge lithium evaporation. We observed a nearly monotonic reduction in recycling, decrease in electron transport, and modification of the edge profiles and stability with increasing lithium. These correlations challenge basic expectations, given that even the smallest coatings exceeded that needed for a nominal thickness of the order of the implantation range.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction of micron-sized dust into the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a plasma has recently found many applications aimed primarily at determining dust behavior in future fusion reactors. The dust particles are typically composed of materials intrinsic to a fusion reactor. On DIII-D and TEXTOR  carbon dust has been introduced into the SOL using a probe inserted from below into the divertor region. On NSTX, both Li and tungsten dust have been dropped from the top of the machine into the SOL throughout the duration of a discharge, by utilizing a vibrating piezoelectric based particle dropper . The original particle dropper was developed to inject passivated Li powder ∼40 μm in diameter into the SOL to enhance plasma performance. A simplified version of the dropper was developed to introduce trace amounts of tungsten powder for only a few discharges, thus not requiring a large powder reservoir. The particles emit visible light from plasma interactions and can be tracked by either spectroscopic means  or by fast frame rate visible cameras . This data can then be compared with dust transport codes such as DUSTT  to make predictions of dust behavior in next-step devices such as ITER. For complete modeling results, it is desired to be able to inject pre-characterized dust particles in the SOL at various known poloidal locations, including near the vessel midplane. Purely mechanical methods of injecting particles are presently being studied using a modified piezoelectric-based powder dropper as a particle source and one of several piezo-based transducers to deflect the particles into the SOL. Vibrating piezo fans operating at 60 Hz with a deflection of ±2.5 cm can impart a significant horizontal boost in velocity. The highest injection velocities are expected from rotating paddle wheels capable of injecting particles at 10s of meters per second depending primarily on the rotation velocity and diameter of the wheel. Several injection concepts have been tested and will be discussed below.
Fusion Engineering and Design. 01/2011; 86:1355-1358.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A poloidally viewing far infrared polarimeter diagnostic is being developed for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, and will be used to determine the q-profile and to study density and magnetic field fluctuations. A three-chord version of what will eventually be up to a ten-chord system has been designed and fabricated and will be installed on C-Mod before the end of the current run period. Bench tests of a single chord mock-up of this system show acceptable noise levels for the planned measurements. We will discuss the analysis and experimental techniques used to diagnose and reduce noise sources.
The Review of scientific instruments 10/2010; 81(10):10D507. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tungsten particles have been introduced into the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) in Princeton with the purpose to investigate the effects of tungsten injection on subsequent plasma discharges. An experimental setup for the study of tungsten particle transport is described where the particles are introduced into the tokamak using a modified particle dropper, otherwise used for lithium-powder injection. An initial test employing a grazing-incidence extreme ultraviolet spectrometer demonstrates that the tungsten-transport setup could serve to infer particle transport from the edge to the hot central plasmas of NSTX.
The Review of scientific instruments 10/2010; 81(10):10E326. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduction or elimination of edge localized modes (ELMs) while maintaining high confinement is essential for future fusion devices, e.g., the ITER. An ELM-free regime was recently obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, following lithium (Li) evaporation onto the plasma-facing components. Edge stability calculations indicate that the pre-Li discharges were unstable to low-n peeling or ballooning modes, while broader pressure profiles stabilized the post-Li discharges. Normalized energy confinement increased by 50% post Li, with no sign of ELMs up to the global stability limit.