[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The compounds (+)-(7S,8R)-epoxy-5,6-didehydrokavain (1), flavokavain B (2), β-sitosterol (3), and stigmasterol (4) are reported here as chemical constituents of Piper dilatatum Rich. (Piperaceae). Their structures were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic data (1H and 13C NMR, MS, and IR). The antifungal activities of pyrone 1 (1 µg) and chalcone 2 (100 µg) were determined by means of direct bioautography against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum. Results indicate P. dilatatum as a candidate for the development of novel antifungal phytotherapic products as well as point out pyrone 1 as a promising hit compound in the quest for novel antifungal agents.
E-Journal of Chemistry 06/2013; 2013(Article ID 160165):5 pages. · 0.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the CH(2)Cl(2) extract from leaves of Piper chimonantifolium was subjected to several chromatographic separation procedures to afford one chromene (gaudichaudianic acid) as a major compound as well as two flavonoids (dihydrooroxylin and pinocembrin) and three steroids (sitosterol, sitosteryl palmitate and stigmasterol). The structures of all determined compounds were characterised by spectrometric analysis, mainly mass spectrometry and NMR, as well as their optical properties. This article describes the first phytochemical study of the leaves of P. chimonantifolium and an evaluation of the antifungal activity of its major compounds.
Natural product research 10/2011; 26(8):770-3. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioactivity-guided fractionation of n-hexane phase from MeOH extract of the seeds of Cassia fistula L. (Leguminosae) yielded two bioactive substances against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum. After spectroscopic analysis, these compounds were characterised as the known benzyl 2-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxybenzoate and its dimer dibenzyl 2,2'-dihydroxy-3,6,3″,6″-tetramethoxy-biphenyl-1,1'-dicarboxylate, which showed a new structural arrangement.
Natural product research 07/2011; 26(1):36-41. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A phytochemical investigation of the leaves and stems of Peperomia obtusifolia (Piperaceae) yielded a new flavone C-diglycoside isoswertisin-4'-methyl-ether-2''α-L-rhamnoside (1), along with four known compounds: isoswertisin-2''α-L-rhamnoside (2), (+)-diayangambin (3), 2-episesalatin (4) and corchoionoside C (5). The structures of the two flavone C-diglycosides (1, 2) were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and MS spectrometric data. These flavones were evaluated by bioautographic assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum and showed weak antifungal activity.
Natural product research 01/2011; 25(1):1-7. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The GC-MS analysis revealed that the leaf essential oils of Myrciaria tenella (DC.) Berg and Calycorectes sellowianus O. Berg (Myrtaceae) were composed of 34 and 37 compounds, respectively. The main constituents of M. tenella oil were beta-caryophyllene (25.1%), and spathulenol (9.7%), while for C. sellowianus were guaiol (13.1%) and beta-caryophyllene (8.6%). The anti-inflammatory effect of both essential oils was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Both oils reduced significantly (p < 0.005) the treated neutrophils chemotaxis with 93% and 91% inhibition for M. tenella and C. sellowianus, respectively. However, in the systemic treatment with the essential oils (50 mg/kg p.o.) only the M. tenella oil was able to significantly reduce the carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for indomethacin (10 mg/kg), the positive control.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The volatile oil composition and anti-acetyl cholinesterase activity were analyzed in two specimens of Marlierea racemosa growing in different areas of the Atlantic Rain Forest (Cananéia and Caraguatatuba, SP, Brazil). Component identifications were performed by GC/MS and their acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activity was measured through colorimetric analysis. The major constituent in both specimens was spathulenol (25.1% in Cananéia and 31.9% in Caraguatatuba). However, the first one also presented monoterpenes (41.2%), while in the Carguatatuba plants, this class was not detected. The oils from the plants collected in Cananéia were able to inhibit the acetyl cholinesterase activity by up to 75%, but for oils from the other locality the maximal inhibition achieved was 35%. These results suggested that the monoterpenes are more effective in the inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase activity than sesquiterpenes as these compounds are present in higher amounts in the M. racemosa plants collected in Cananéia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Piperovatum Vahl by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents found were delta-amorphene (16.5 %), cis-muurola-4(14),5-diene (14.29 %) and gamma-muurolene(13.26%). The crude extracts and isolated compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Hydroalcoholic extracts of different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl, essential oil andamides isolated from leaves were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. All extracts and amides were active against Bacillus subtilis andCandida tropicalis, including clinical strains. Essential oil was active against C. tropicalis.These amides showed an inhibitory effect on the adherence of C. tropicalis ATCC 28707 on cover glasses at 10 microg/mL, but did not show morphological alterations at the tested concentrations. Amides were identified as piperovatine and piperlonguminine, and showed MIC values of 15.6 and 31.2 microg/mL to B. subtilis and 3.9 microg/mL to C. tropicalis, and low toxic effects to Vero cells and macrophages.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts from leaves of Piper caldense were subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford the new prenylated benzoic acid, caldensinic acid (3-[(2′E,6′E,10′E)-11′-carboxy-3′,7′,15′-trimethylhexadeca-2′,6′,10′,14′-tetraenyl]-4,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) whose structure was determined by spectral analysis, mainly NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC) and ESI-MS. The natural compound and derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum by direct bioautography.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The volatile constituents of the fresh materials of Hypericum cordatum were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The leaves produced 0.04% of a yellowish essential oil and the flowers did not. The main components of the oil were myrcene (40.18%), α-pinene (16.40%), and limonene (12%). The antibacterial activities of the oil against Saccharomyces aureus and Escherichia coli and the anti-fungal activities of the oil against the fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum were evaluated. The oil showed an antibacterial activity against the bacteria S. aureus and anti-fungal activity against the two fungi.
Journal of Essential Oil Research 01/2009; 21(6):558-560. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The volatile constituents of the fresh leaves of Talauma ovata (Magnoliaceae) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Twenty-seven compounds were identified representing 98.8% of the total oil. The oil from this species showed to be constituted by monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in the same ratio. Among the monoterpenes, limonene (34.8%) and α-pinene (11.3%) were the main constituents, and β-bisabolene (10.7%) was the major substance for the sesquiterpene fraction.
Journal of Essential Oil Research 01/2009; 21(1):52-53. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the structure-activity relationship of coumarin (-) mammea A/BB isolated from the CH(2)Cl(2) extract of Calophyllum brasiliense leaves, we evaluated the antileishmanial activity of natural, synthetic and derivatives of this coumarin, against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis, and their cytotoxicity to J774G8 murine macrophages. The derivatives were obtained by hydrogenation and methoxylation reactions. The compound structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The compounds 5,7-dihydroxy-8-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(3-methylbutyl)-4-phenyl-chroman-2-one (3), 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-8-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-4-phenylcoumarin (4) and 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(1-methoxy-2-methylbutyl)-6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-4 phenylcoumarin (6) were more biologically active than the compound (-) mammea A/BB (1) (7.4 microM), with IC(50) values from 0.9, 2.4 and 1.9 microM respectively; compound (3) displayed the highest activity. The compounds mammea B/BB (2), 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(2-methylbutanoyl)-6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-4-phenylcoumarin (5) and 5,7-dihydroxy-4-phenylcoumarin (7) were less active than (-) mammea A/BB (1), with IC(50) of 30.1, 15.1 and 60.2 microM respectively; compound (7) showed the lowest antileishmanial activity of all. Compounds (1), (3), (4) and (6) were active not only against promastigote forms of L. amazonensis, but also against intracellular amastigote forms with IC(50) of 14.3, 0.6, 34.0 and 22.2 microM, respectively. Interestingly, compound (3) showed the most antileishmanial activity of all. This study demonstrated that several aspects of the structure were important for antileishmanial activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The morphological parameters used to establish close connections among species taxonomically different into the Rubiaceae family is complex, mainly due to the lack of information on habitat and morphoanatomical characters in the lower hierarchic groups, for example, Chimarrhis genus. The micromolecular profi le of delimited species into determined taxa can be useful to establish the boundaries among close taxonomic groups, and to indicate evolutionary phylogenetic trends into the taxa. Several indole alkaloids isolated from C. turbinata showed to be a valuable tool to support the taxonomic classifi cation performed by Robbrecht, who established the most recent taxonomy for Rubiaceae, based on morphological characters, and concluded that Chimarrhis belong to Condamineae, and subfamily Cinchonoideae.
Revista Brasileira De Farmacognosia-brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy - REV BRAS FARMACOGN. 01/2008; 18(1).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromatographic fractionation of a dichloromethane extract from the leaves of Piper scutifolium yielded two new isobutyl amides, scutifoliamide A ( 1) and scutifoliamide B ( 2), together with the known compounds piperolactam C ( 3), piperovatine ( 4), piperlonguminine ( 5), corcovadine ( 6), isopiperlonguminine ( 7), and isocorcovadine ( 8). From the dichloromethane extract from the leaves of P. hoffmannseggianum two new isobutyl amides, hoffmannseggiamide A ( 9) and hoffmannseggiamide B ( 10), were obtained together with the known compounds isopiperlonguminine ( 7) and isocorcovadine ( 8), sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. The inhibitory activity of compounds 1-10 against the growth of the fungi Cladosporium sphaerospermum and C. cladosporioides was determined by bioautography.
Journal of Natural Products 01/2008; 70(12):2036-9. · 3.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections by protozoans of the genus Leishmania are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries. The drugs of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis are the pentavalent antimonials, which show renal and cardiac toxicity. As part of a search for new drugs against leishmaniasis, we evaluated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of the (-) mammea A/BB. The compound (-) mammea A/BB is a coumarin-type mammea purified from a dichloromethane crude extract of leaves of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess (Clusiaceae). The isolated compound was characterized using spectral analyses by UV, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance of (1)H, (13)C, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, and heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence. The compound (-) mammea A/BB showed significant activity against promastigote and amastigote forms of L. amazonensis, with IC(50) (50% inhibition concentration of cell growth) at a concentration of 3.0 and 0.88 mug/ml and IC(90) (90% inhibition concentration of cell growth) of 5.0 and 2.3 microg/ml, respectively. The coumarin (-) mammea A/BB showed no cytotoxicity against J774G8 macrophages in culture, when it was tested at high concentrations that inhibited promastigote forms. Electron microscopy studies revealed considerable ultrastructural changes when promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were treated with 3.0 microg/ml of the coumarin (-) mammea A/BB for 72 h. We observed significant changes such as mitochondrial swelling with concentric membranes in the mitochondrial matrix and intense exocytic activity in the region of the flagellar pocket. Other alterations included the appearance of binucleate cells and multiple cytoplasmic vacuolization. These results showed that (-) mammea A/BB is a potent growth inhibitor of L. amazonensis and caused important changes in the parasite's ultrastructure. This study provided new perspectives on the development of novel drugs with leishmanicidal activity obtained from natural products.
Parasitology Research 09/2007; 101(3):715-22. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the alkaloidal fractions of the CH2Cl2 extract from branches of Porcelia macrocarpa using mutant yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum led to the isolation of bioactive alkaloids: two tetrahydrobenzylisoquinolines (1 and 2), two aporphines (3 and 4), one proaporphine (5), one oxoaporphine (6), four azantraquinones (7-10) and four azafluorenones (11-14). The alkaloids cleistopholine (7) and 6-methoxycleistopholine (8) showed the highest fungitoxic activity while the mixture of 6- and 7-methoxyonychine (12+13) and 6,7-dimethoxyonychine (14) showed a weak DNA-damaging potential.