[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer chemotherapy, including molecular targeted therapy, has major limitations because it does not kill all the cancer cells; the residual cells survive until they acquire chemoresistance. In the present study, the combined effects of metformin and gefitinib were examined in vivo in a mouse xenograft model, inoculated with a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line that possesses an activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation. The mechanism of the interaction was further elucidated in vitro. Metformin did not suppress the growth of already established tumors, nor did metformin augment tumor shrinkage by gefitinib. However, metformin significantly suppressed the regrowth of the tumor after effective treatment with gefitinib, suggesting the specific effect of metformin on the residual cells. Cytotoxicity of metformin was characterized by the absence of apoptosis induction and unremarkable cell cycle shift in vitro. The residual cell population after treatment with gefitinib was characterized by enriched cells with high expression of CD133 and CD24. Metformin was still effective on this specific cell population. Targeting residual cells after chemotherapy may represent an effective novel strategy for the treatment of cancer. Elucidating the mechanism of metformin cytotoxicity provides insights into future development of anticancer therapeutics.
International Journal of Oncology 10/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oral antidiabetic agent metformin has anticancer properties, probably via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation. In the present study, growth inhibition was assessed by a clonogenic and by a cell survival assay, apoptosis induction was assessed by Hoechst staining and caspase activities and cell cycle alteration after exposure to metformin, and the interaction of metformin with cisplatin in vitro were elucidated in four human lung cancer cell lines representing squamous, adeno-, large cell and small cell carcinoma. Clonogenicity and cell proliferation were inhibited by metformin in all the cell lines examined. This inhibitory effect was not specific to cancer cells because it was also observed in a non-transformed human mesothelial cell line and in mouse fibroblast cell lines. Inhibition of clonogenicity was observed only when the cells were exposed to metformin for a long period, (10 days) and the surviving fraction, obtained after inhibiting proliferation by increasing the dose, reached a plateau at approximately 0.1-0.3, indicating the cytostatic characteristics of metformin. Metformin induced significant apoptosis only in the small cell carcinoma cell line. A tendency of cell cycle accumulation at the G0/G1 phase was observed in all four cell lines. Cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner, severely antagonized the growth inhibitory effect of metformin, and even reversed the effect in three cell lines but not in the adenocarcinoma cell line. The present data obtained using various histological types of human lung cancer cell lines in vitro illustrate the cytostatic nature of metformin and its cytoprotective properties against cisplatin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although cisplatin and pemetrexed are key drugs in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma, their drug-drug interactions, cross-resistance and resistance mechanisms in malignant pleural mesothelioma are not well understood. In the present study, the interaction of these 2 agents was determined by clonogenic assays followed by isobologram analysis of 4 human malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. The cell lines were exposed to the agents using a stepwise dose-escalation method to establish drug-resistant sublines. Thymidylate synthase mRNA expression was evaluated in the drug-resistant sublines. As a consequence, cisplatin and pemetrexed had synergistic effects in 3 cell lines and an additive effect in the fourth cell line. The former 3 cell lines showed similar pemetrexed sensitivity in the parental cells and their cisplatin-resistant sublines, whereas the fourth cell line exhibited cross-resistance. In contrast, cisplatin had diverse effects on pemetrexed-resistant sublines. High thymidylate synthase expression did not correlate with natural pemetrexed resistance. Elevated thymidylate synthase expression correlated with acquired pemetrexed resistance in 2 sublines. In conclusion, cisplatin and pemetrexed showed synergistic activity and no cross-resistance in 3 of the 4 malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines, suggesting the clinical relevance of their combination in chemotherapy. Thymidylate synthase expression did not necessarily correlate with pemetrexed resistance. The information together with the experimental model presented here would be useful for further investigating therapeutic targets of malignant mesothelioma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective right pulmonary arteriography and 3-dimensional computed tomography revealed multiple severe stenoses of the peripheral pulmonary artery associated with poststenotic aneurysms in a 65-year-old woman. She was referred to the hospital for evaluation of dry cough, gradually increasing dyspnea and multiple nodular shadows on a chest radiograph. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization showed severe pulmonary hypertension, though other structural heart diseases or well-characterized congenital syndromes were ruled out. She was diagnosed as isolated peripheral pulmonary artery branch stenosis. Recent advances in CT technology enable a less-invasive assessment of pulmonary artery, and can be useful in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Internal Medicine 01/2010; 49(17):1895-9. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 27-year-old man experienced progressive left hypochondralgia. CT with contrast medium enhancement revealed marked splenomegaly, multiple swollen lymph nodes in the mediastinum and abdominal cavity, and multiple nodules in the spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs. Pathological examinations of the lung and liver lesions showed non-caseating granulomatous lesions, and established the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The symptom and lesions presented by CT regressed dramatically with administration of corticosteroid (30 mg/day oral prednisolone). Symptomatic splenomegaly in a young Japanese man with sarcoidosis seems very rare especially considering that sarcoidosis lesions completely regress spontaneously within a year in 90% patients of young Japanese men with sarcoidosis.
Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society. 08/2009; 47(8):742-5.