Fergus J Caskey

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (44)126.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Conservative kidney management (CKM) is recognised as an alternative to dialysis for a significant number of older adults with multi-morbid chronic kidney disease stage 5 (CKD5). However, little is known about the way CKM is delivered or how it is perceived. Aim: To determine the practice patterns for CKM of older patients with CKD5, to inform service development and future research. Objectives: i) To describe the differences between renal units in the extent and nature of CKM. ii) To explore how decisions are made about treatment options for older patients with CKD5. iii) To explore clinicians willingness to randomise patients with CKD5 to CKM versus dialysis. iv) To describe the interface between renal units and primary care in managing CKD5. v) To identify the resources involved and potential costs of CKM. Methods: Mixed methods study. Interviews with 42 patients aged >75 with CKD5 and 60 renal unit staff in a purposive sample of nine UK renal units. Interviews informed the design of a survey to assess CKM practice, sent to all 71 UK units. Nineteen general practitioners were interviewed concerning referral of CKD patients to secondary care. We sought laboratory data on new CKD5 patients aged >75 years to link with the nine renal units’ records to assess referral patterns. Results: 67/71 renal units completed the survey. Although terminology varied, there was general acceptance of the role of CKM. Only 52% of units were able to quantify the number of CKM patients. A wide range reflected varied interpretation of the designation ‘CKM’ by both staff and patients. It is used to characterise a future treatment option as well non dialysis care for end-stage kidney failure (ESKF, i.e. a disease state equivalent to being on dialysis), the number of patients in the latter group on CKM were relatively small (median 8 IQR 4.5-22). Patients’ expectations of CKM and dialysis were strongly influenced by renal staff. In a minority of units, CKM was not discussed. When discussed, often only limited information about illness progression was provided. Staff wanted more research into the relative benefits of CKM versus dialysis. There was almost universal support for an observational methodology and a quarter would definitely be willing to participate in a randomised clinical trial, indicating that clinicians placed value on high-quality evidence to inform decision making. Linked data indicated that most CKD5 patients were known to renal units. GPs expressed a need for guidance on when to refer older, multi-morbid patients with CKD5 to nephrology care. There was large variation in the scale and model of CKM delivery. In most, the CKM service was integrated within the service for all non-renal replacement therapy (RRT) CKD5 patients. A few units provided dedicated CKM clinics and some had dedicated modest funding for CKM. Conclusions: CKM is accepted across UK renal units but there is much variation in the way it is described and delivered. For best practice in CKM to be developed and systematised across all renal units in the UK, we recommend: a) a standard definition and terminology for CKM; b) research to measure the relative benefits of CKM and dialysis; and c) development of evidence-based staff training and patient education interventions.
    Health Services and Delivery Research journal. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Conservative kidney management (CKM) has been developed in the United Kingdom (UK) as an alternative to dialysis for older patients with stage 5 CKD (CKD5) and multiple comorbidities. This national survey sought to describe the current scale and pattern of delivery of conservative care in UK renal units and identify their priorities for its future development.
    Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 may be offered a choice between dialysis and conservative management. Few studies have explored patients' reasons for choosing conservative management and none have compared the views of those who have chosen different treatments across renal units. Study Design: Qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. Settings & Participants: Patients 75 years or older recruited from 9 renal units. Units were chosen to reflect variation in the scale of delivery of conservative management. Methodology: Semi-structured interviews audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analytical Approach: Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: 42 interviews were completed, 4 to 6 per renal unit. Patients were sampled from those receiving dialysis, those preparing for dialysis, and those choosing conservative management. 14 patients in each group were interviewed. Patients who had chosen different treatments held varying beliefs about what dialysis could offer. The information that patients reported receiving from clinical staff differed between units. Patients from units with a more established conservative management pathway were more aware of conservative management, less often believed that dialysis would guarantee longevity, and more often had discussed the future with staff. Some patients receiving conservative management reported that they would have dialysis if they became unwell in the future, indicating the conditional nature of their decision. Limitations: Recruitment of older adults with frailty and comorbid conditions was difficult and therefore transferability of findings to this population is limited. Conclusions: Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 who have chosen different treatment options have contrasting beliefs about the likely outcomes of dialysis for those who are influenced by information provided by renal units. Supporting renal staff in discussing conservative management as a valid alternative to dialysis for a subset of patients will aid informed decision making. There is a need for better evidence about conservative management to support shared decision making for older people with chronic kidney failure.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 10/2014; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Conservative Kidney Management (CKM) has developed in the UK as an alternative to dialysis for older patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD5) and multiple comorbidities. We report on a national survey which aims to describe the current scale and pattern of delivery of conservative care in UK renal units and identify their priorities for its future development. Design, setting, participants, and measurements: A survey on practice patterns of CKM for patients aged over 75 years with CKD5 was sent to clinical directors of all 71 adult renal units in the UK in March 2013. Results: Sixty-seven units (94%) responded. All but one unit reported providing CKM for some patients. Terminology varied, although ‘conservative management’ was the most frequently used term (46%). Lack of an agreed definition of when a patient is receiving CKM made it difficult to obtain meaningful data on the numbers of such patients. 52% provided the number of CKM patients aged ≥75 in 2012; the median was 45 per unit (IQR: 20-83). The median number of symptomatic CKM patients who would otherwise have started dialysis was 8 (IQR: 4.5-22). CKM practice patterns varied: 35% had a written guideline; 23% dedicated CKM clinics; 45% dedicated staff; and 50% provided staff training on CKM. Most units (88%) provided primary care clinicians with information/advice regarding CKM. 80% identified a need for better evidence comparing outcomes on CKM versus dialysis and 65% considered it appropriate to enter patients into a randomized trial. Conclusions: CKM is provided in almost all UK renal units but with wide variation in scale and organization. Lack of common terminology and definitions hinders the development and assessment of CKM. Many survey respondents expressed support There is a need for clinical trials further research comparing outcomes with conservative care versus dialysis.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the fourth most common renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Still, there are few epidemiological data on the prevalence of, and survival on RRT for ADPKD.
    09/2014; 29 Suppl 4:iv15-iv25.
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a major cause of end-stage kidney failure, but is often identified early and therefore amenable to timely treatment. Interventions known to postpone the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in non-ADPKD patients have also been tested in ADPKD patients, but with inconclusive results. To help resolve this we determined changes in RRT incidence rates as an indicator for increasing effective renoprotection over time in ADPKD. We analyzed data from the European Renal Association-European Dialyses and Transplant Association Registry on 315,444 patients starting RRT in 12 European countries between 1991 and 2010, grouped into four 5-year periods. Of them, 20,596 were due to ADPKD. Between the first and last period the mean age at onset of RRT increased from 56.6 to 58.0 years. The age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate of RRT for ADPKD increased slightly over the four periods from 7.6 to 8.3 per million population. No change over time was found in the incidence of RRT for ADPKD up to age 50, whereas in recent time periods the incidence in patients above the age of 70 clearly increased. Among countries there was a significant positive association between RRT take-on rates for non-ADPKD kidney disease and ADPKD. Thus, the increased age at onset of RRT is most likely due to an increased access for elderly ADPKD patients or lower competing risk prior to the start of RRT rather than the consequence of effective emerging renoprotective treatments for ADPKD.Kidney International advance online publication, 14 May 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.120.
    Kidney International 05/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Clare Castledine, Fergus J Caskey
    Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 11/2013; 33(6):600-603.
  • Fergus J Caskey, Kitty J Jager
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    ABSTRACT: The marked variation that exists in renal replacement therapy (RRT) epidemiology between countries and within countries requires careful systematic examination if the root causes are to be understood. While individual patient-level studies are undoubtedly important, there is a complementary role for more population-level, area-based studies-an aetiological approach. The EVEREST Study adopted such an approach, bringing RRT incidence rates, survival and modality mix together with macroeconomic factors, general population factors and renal service organizational factors for up to 46 countries. This review considers the background to EVEREST, its key results and then the main methodological lessons and their potential application to ongoing work.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 10/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Incidence rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease vary consider-ably worldwide. This study examines the independent association between the general population, health care system and renal service characteristics and RRT inci-dence rates. Methods. RRT incidence data (2003–2005) were obtained from renal registries; general population age and health and macroeconomic indices were collected from secondary sources. Renal service organization and resource data were obtained through interviews and questionnaires. Linear regression models were built to establish the factors inde-pendently associated with RRT incidence, stratified by the Human Development Index where required. False discovery rate (FDR) correction was adjusted for multiple testing. Results. Across the 46 countries (population 1.25 billion), RRT incidence rates ranged from 12 to 455 (median 130) per million population. Gross domestic product (GDP) per cap-ita [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.02 per $1000 increase, P FDR ¼ 0.047], percentage of GDP spent on health care (IRR: 1.11 per % increase, P FDR ¼ 0.006) and dialysis facility reimbursement rate relative to GDP (IRR: 0.76 per GDP per capita-sized increase in reimbursement rate, P FDR ¼ 0.007) were independently associated with RRT incidence. In more developed countries, the private for-profit share of haemodialysis facilities was also associated with higher incidence (IRR: 1.009 per % increase, P FDR ¼ 0.003). Conclusions. Macroeconomic and renal service factors are more often associated with RRT incidence rates than measured demographic or general population health status factors.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is a wide variation in home dialysis use (peritoneal dialysis and home haemodialysis) between renal centres. This study identifies which centre characteristics and practice patterns are associated with home dialysis use. METHODS: An observational study of all UK patients starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) in 2007-2008 using patient characteristics from the UK Renal Registry (UKRR) and renal centre characteristics ascertained from a national survey. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient and centre characteristics and home dialysis uptake. RESULTS: Twenty-six per cent of 11 913 patients used home dialysis and survey responses were available from every renal centre. After taking into account patient factors, several centre factors were associated with a higher probability of home dialysis: physicians aspiring to a higher 'ideal' peritoneal dialysis rate (odds ratio, OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06-1.37, P = 0.003 per 10% increase in 'ideal' percentage), early use of peritoneal dialysis (PD, OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.18-1.95, P < 0.001), use of home visits to educate patients pre-dialysis (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.83, P = 0.02) and to provide trouble-shooting advice for existing home dialysis patients (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.11-2.42, P = 0.01). Using videos/DVDs as part of the pre-dialysis education programme was associated with a lower probability of home dialysis, but this was correlated with lower levels of physician enthusiasm (r = -0.48, P < 0.001). After adjustment for this, the association disappeared (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.55-1.07, P = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Home dialysis use is associated with modifiable centre factors as well as individual patient characteristics.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 06/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Fergus J Caskey
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    ABSTRACT: Britain's current ethnic mix is largely a consequence of legislation introduced following the Second World War to allow people from the British Empire and Commonwealth unhindered access to enter Britain to help revive the economy. British minority ethnic populations tend to live in more socially deprived areas, making differentiation between the effects of social deprivation and ethnicity difficult to distinguish. Free-at-the-point-of-use health care should minimize finance-related difficulty accessing treatment, and issues of geographical access to treatment will certainly differ from those of larger, more sparsely populated countries. To examine this, the UK Renal Registry has adopted an approach of studying social deprivation separately in the white-only population before studying the effect of ethnicity and social deprivation in the general population. Using this approach, rates of renal replacement therapy have been shown to be higher in individuals from socially deprived areas and, to varying extents, in those from ethnic minority groups. Attainment of standards on RRT, however, tended not to differ. Survival on RRT is lower for individuals from socially deprived areas but higher for South Asian and black patients. Inequalities have been identified in access to transplantation, with reduced access to the transplant waiting list for socially deprived patients and reduced access to transplantation, once on the waiting list, for ethnic minority patients. The reasons for these inequalities, including any contribution from underlying inequities, are the subject of ongoing research.
    Kidney international supplements. 05/2013; 3(2):246-249.
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    ABSTRACT: Background An increase in the dialysis programme expenditure is expected in most countries given the continued rise in the number of people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) globally. Since chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy is relatively less expensive compared with haemodialysis (HD) and because there is no survival difference between PD and HD, identifying factors associated with PD use is important.Methods Incidence counts for the years 2003-05 were available from 36 countries worldwide. We studied associations of population characteristics, macroeconomic factors and renal service indicators with the percentage of patients on PD at Day 91 after starting dialysis. With linear regression models, we obtained relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).ResultsThe median percentage of incident patients on PD was 12% (interquartile range: 7-26%). Determinants independently associated with lower percentages of patients on PD were as follows: patients with diabetic kidney disease (per 5% increase) (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.97), health expenditure as % gross domestic product (per 1% increase) (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87-0.98), private-for-profit share of HD facilities (per 1% increase) (RR 0.996; 95% CI 0.99-1.00; P = 0.04), costs of PD consumables relative to staffing (per 0.1 increase) (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-0.99).Conclusions The factors associated with a lower percentage of patients on PD include higher diabetes prevalence, higher healthcare expenditures, larger share of private-for-profit centres and higher costs of PD consumables relative to staffing. Whether dialysis modality mix can be influenced by changing healthcare organization and funding requires additional studies.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 03/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Fergus J Caskey, Rommel Ravanan
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    ABSTRACT: Sociodemographic gradients have been widely reported in end-stage renal disease treatment, as in the general population. So should we be relieved by the report from Grace et al. of no such gradient in access to deceased donor kidney transplantation in Australia? Although the authors have adjusted for the 'competing risk' of living kidney donor transplantation, which is higher in higher socioeconomic groups, it feels a little early to be reassured.
    Kidney International 01/2013; 83(1):18-20. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Anirudh Rao, Retha Steenkamp, Fergus Caskey
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Comorbidities are significant predictors of mortality and other adverse outcomes. Case-mix adjustment is integral to quality reporting, risk adjustment in clinical research, resource allocation and management of patients with comorbid conditions in day to day practice such as dialysis access formation and transplant wait-listing. This study describes the comorbidity data submitted to the UK Renal Registry (UKRR) in incident renal replacement therapy (RRT) patients and examines the association between these comorbidities and early mortality. Methods: Incident patients reported to the UKRR with comorbidity data in 2011 and 2012 (n = 7,085) were included in analyses exploring the association of comorbidities with patient demographics and treatment modality. For analyses examining the association between comorbidities and survival, adult patients starting RRT between 2007 and 2012 in centres reporting to the UKRR with comorbidity data were included. The relationship between comorbidities and mortality at 90 days and one year after 90 days from start of RRT were explored using Cox regression. Results: Completeness of comorbidity data was 55% in 2012 compared with 56% in 2007. Of patients with data, 52.9% had one or more comorbidities. Diabetes mellitus and ischaemic heart disease were the most common conditions, observed in 35% and 19% of patients respectively. Fourteen percent of incident RRT patients in the 2-year period were recorded as current smokers. The prevalence of comorbidity increased with increasing age across all ethnic groups. In multivariable survival analysis, malignancy and liver disease were strong independent predictors of poor survival at 1-year after 90 days from the start of RRT in patients <65 years. Conclusions: Continuing efforts from renal centres to improve data capture in addition to the use of data linkage and statistical techniques such as multiple imputation by the UKRR are likely to lead to enhanced case mix adjustment in the future. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Nephron Clinical Practice 01/2013; 125(1-4):99-110. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mortality on dialysis varies greatly worldwide, with patient-level factors explaining only a small part of this variation. The aim of this study was to examine the association of national-level macroeconomic indicators with the mortality of incident dialysis populations and explore potential explanations through renal service indicators, incidence of dialysis, and characteristics of the dialysis population. Aggregated unadjusted survival probabilities were obtained from 22 renal registries worldwide for patients starting dialysis in 2003-2005. General population age and health, macroeconomic indices, and renal service organization data were collected from secondary sources and questionnaires. Linear modeling with log-log transformation of the outcome variable was applied to establish factors associated with survival on dialysis. Two-year survival on dialysis ranged from 62.3% in Iceland to 89.8% in Romania. A higher gross domestic product per capita (hazard ratio=1.02 per 1000 US dollar increase), a higher percentage of gross domestic product spent on healthcare (1.10 per percent increase), and a higher intrinsic mortality of the dialysis population (i.e., general population-derived mortality risk of the dialysis population in that country standardized for age and sex; hazard ratio=1.04 per death per 10,000 person years) were associated with a higher mortality of the dialysis population. The incidence of dialysis and renal service indicators were not associated with mortality on dialysis. Macroeconomic factors and the intrinsic mortality of the dialysis population are associated with international differences in the mortality on dialysis. Renal service organizational factors and incidence of dialysis seem less important.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 07/2012; 7(10):1655-63. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Variation in end-stage renal disease treatment rates in the UK persist after adjustment for socio-demographic factors.MethodsUK-wide ecological study using population socio-demographic factors, health status characteristics and access to health services factor in to explain the incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT).ResultsThere was a 6% higher incidence rate of RRT per standard deviation (SD) increase in area diabetes prevalence after adjustment for area level socio-economic deprivation status and the proportion of non-white residents [incidence rate ratio adjusted (IRR adjusted) 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.03,1.09), P < 0.001]. A 3% lower-adjusted RRT incidence rate was seen with each SD higher proportion of diabetics achieving an HbA1c of <7.5% [IRR 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), P = 0.03]. Hypertension prevalence was independently associated with an 8% higher RRT incidence rate per SD increase [IRR adjusted 1.08 (1.04, 1.11), P < 0.001] and an SD increase in life expectancy in an area was independently associated with 7% lower RRT incidence rate [IRR adjusted 0.93 (0.91, 0.96), P < 0.001]. An SD increase in premature cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate in an area was also independently associated with RRT incidence rates [IRR adjusted 1.06 (1.03, 1.09), P < 0.001]. Rates of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)/angioplasty and knee replacement were positively associated with RRT incidence, but mammography uptake was not associated. In total, 31% of the regional variation in RRT incidence could be explained by these factors.Conclusions Diabetes prevalence, the proportion of diabetics achieving good glycaemic control, hypertension prevalence, life expectancy, premature CV mortality, CABG/angioplasty and knee replacement rates were all associated with RRT incidence. A third of the regional variation in RRT incidence between areas can be explained by these demographic, health and access to health services factors.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 07/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The timing of the start of dialysis in elderly patients is driven by the desire to optimize the quantity and quality of life. Limited data exist on how the level of renal function, and uraemic signs and symptoms can be used to determine when dialysis should be initiated in elderly patients. EQUAL, an international prospective cohort study, aims to address these issues. To this end, it will enrol 3500 patients >65 years of age with CKD of various aetiologies under the care of nephrologists. These patients will be followed until death, discharge from the nephrology clinic to primary care or until the end of the observation period after 4 years of follow-up. At the time of enrolment, patients must have an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 20 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or lower, but should not yet be on dialysis. Standardized data collection will include demographics, lifestyle, comorbidities, uraemic signs and symptoms, nutritional status, medication and routine blood and urine biochemistry. It will also comprise quality of life data, information on decision making including patients preferences and patients satisfaction.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 07/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic disparities and their contribution to the ethnic differences in living kidney donor transplantation have not been adequately studied. A total of 12,282 patients aged 18 to 69 years starting renal replacement therapy (January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2004) in the United Kingdom were included. Logistic regression models were used to examine probability of living donor transplantation within 3 years of renal replacement therapy. The effect of area deprivation (Townsend index) was studied among whites only adjusted for patient characteristics and the effect of ethnic origin (South Asians and blacks compared with whites) was then examined among all patients adjusting for area deprivation. Among whites, increasing social deprivation was associated with lower odds of living donor transplantation. In the fully adjusted model, odds ratio (OR) for the most deprived quintile was 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33, 0.49; P trend<0.0001) compared with the least deprived. These gradients were more pronounced among centers performing more live donor transplants (P value for interaction <0.0001). South Asians and blacks had lower odds of living donor transplantation compared with whites, but there was an interaction with age (P<0.0001), so that this disparity was observed only in those younger than 50 years (blacks: OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.18, 0.54; South Asians: OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34, 0.90; P value <0.0001). Socially deprived and younger ethnic minority patients have lower probability of living kidney donor transplantation. The extent to which these inequalities reflect modifiable societal healthcare system barriers and donor/recipient factors requires further study.
    Transplantation 01/2012; 93(6):610-6. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The UK Renal Registry (UKRR) assesses blood pressure (BP) control annually for patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) at renal centres in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Methods: Patients receiving RRT on 31st December 2010 with a BP reading in either the fourth or third quarter of 2010 were included. Summary statistics were calculated for each renal centre and country. Results: Data completeness for BP measurements submitted to the UKRR for all modalities were little changed from previous years: it was better for HD patients (64% for pre-HD measurements) than for PD patients (44%) or transplant recipients (36%). In 2010, the median pre-and post-HD SBP were 140 mmHg and 128 mmHg respectively. The median SBP of patients on PD was 138 mmHg. Transplant recipients had a median SBP of 134 mmHg. Median DBP were 71 mmHg (pre-HD), 67 mmHg (post-HD), 80 mmHg (PD ) and 79 mmHg (transplant). Only 25.6% of PD patients achieved the Renal Association guideline of SBP <130 mmHg and DBP <80 mmHg. Amongst transplant patients, 27.7% achieved the Renal Association guideline of SBP <130 mmHg and DBP <80 mmHg. Conclusion: In 2010 there continued to be significant variation in the achievement of BP standards between UK renal centres.
    Nephron Clinical Practice 01/2012; 120 Suppl 1:c211-8. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. This study explores the geographical variation in renal replacement therapy (RRT) incidence and prevalence after adjusting for general population socio-demographics, renal unit treatment patterns and travel times. The UK Renal Registry provided data on all patients in England commencing RRT in 2007 and receiving RRT on 31 December 2007. Multilevel Poisson regression models were constructed separately for incidence and prevalence. Geographical Information Systems software enabled estimation of road travel times and renal unit catchment areas. Small area estimates of RRT prevalence were produced for all 354 local authority districts. Adjusted RRT incidence rates were 1.4 (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.6) times higher in the most deprived areas and 1.7 (1.5-2.0) and 1.5 (1.3-1.7) times higher in areas with most Black and South Asian inhabitants (10+%), respectively. The proportion of a centre's patients on haemodialysis or transplanted were positively associated with RRT incidence (not prevalence); numbers of satellite units were negatively associated with RRT incidence (not prevalence). While only 3% of patients lived >30 min from a dialysis unit, there was an effect of travel time on RRT rates; individuals living 45+ min from a dialysis unit were 20% less likely to commence or receive RRT than those living within 15 min (Ptrend=0.36 and Ptrend<0.001, respectively). A 4-fold variation in adjusted local authority district RRT prevalence rates could not be explained. Expansion of renal unit facilities in England has reduced travel times in most areas though the possibility of inequitable geographic access to RRT persists.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 08/2011; 27(4):1598-607. · 3.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

250 Citations
126.02 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2010–2013
    • University of Bristol
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2012
    • The Bracton Centre, Oxleas NHS Trust
      Дартфорде, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • University of Southampton
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • University of Aberdeen
      • Health Economics Research Unit
      Aberdeen, SCT, United Kingdom