[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evaluation of eudaimonic well-being in adolescence is hampered by the lack of specific assessment tools. Moreover, with younger populations, the assessment of positive functioning may be biased by self-report data only, and may be more accurate by adding significant adults' evaluations. The objective of this research was to measure adolescents' well-being and prosocial behaviours using self-rated and observer-rated instruments, and their pattern of associations. The sample included 150 Italian high school adolescents. Observed-evaluation was performed by their school teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescents completed Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scales and Symptom Questionnaire. Pearson' r correlations and Linear regression were performed. Self-rated dimensions of psychological well-being significantly correlated with all observer-rated dimensions, but Strengths and Difficulties Emotional symptom scale. Multiple linear regression showed that the self-rated dimensions Environmental Mastery and Personal Growth, and surprisingly not Positive Relations, are related to the observer-rated dimension Prosocial Behaviour. Adolescents with higher levels of well-being in specific dimensions tend to be perceived as less problematic by their teachers. However, some dimensions of positive functioning present discrepancies between self and observer-rated instruments. Thus, the conjunct use of self-reports and observer-rated tools for a more comprehensive assessment of students' eudaimonic well-being is recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research investigating possible relations between Post-traumatic growth (PTG) and clinical indexes-such as psychosocial distress, physical and psychological well-being-is lacking in medical settings. The aim of this study was to look into such relationships in breast cancer survivors (Bcs) and in healthy control subjects who experienced other stressful events. Sixty Bcs and 60 healthy women reporting other stressful events were compared according to the following scales: Post-traumatic Growth Inventory, Psychological Well-being Scales (PWB), Symptom Questionnaire and Psychosocial Index. Bcs reported significantly higher levels of PTG and distress, and lower levels of PWB compared to healthy women. Bcs with high levels of PTG showed increased levels of physical well-being and decreased distress. Healthy women under stressful circumstances reporting high levels of PTG showed increased levels of PWB. PTG levels were higher in Bcs and associated with decreased psychological distress and somatisation. These results carry important implications for clinical assessment, as well as for planning interventions to improve well-being and resilience in oncology.
Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 12/2012; · 1.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several investigations report a greater prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms and emotional distress in girls compared
to boys. Furthermore, the scientific literature points out that females show lower psychological well-being levels compared
to males. Since, in the most of these studies, participants were already out of adolescence or were adults and aging individuals,
the aim of this investigation is to explore gender differences in the levels of psychological well-being and distress during
adolescence, one of the most controversial periods of human life. Five hundred and seventy-two adolescents (313 females, 259
males; mean age 13.63 years, SD = 1.94) were recruited from various middle and high schools in Northern Italy, which volunteered
to participate in the study. Subjects were administered the following self-rating scales: (1) Psychological Well-Being (PWB)
Scales, (2) Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). Student t-test was used to analyze gender differences in PWB and SQ scores. Gender differences in psychological well-being levels were
not found, even if on- test females tend to report lower scores in Self-Acceptance scale (PWB) than males. Girls reported
higher levels of distress than boys. t-Test indicated significant gender differences in all SQ scales, except in friendliness. On retest, results were very similar.
Females scored significantly higher than males in all SQ scales, except in contentment, where females reported better levels
compared to previous data. This investigation points out that females reported higher levels of distress than males, but unlike
the preceding studies, it also highlights that girls showed similar levels of psychological well-being compared to boys. These
results suggest that adolescence is a period of the life with peculiar characteristics in boys and girls and that further
investigations are needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the differential effects of strategies for promotion of psychological well-being (Well-Being Therapy, WBT) and removal of distress (Anxiety Management, AM) in a non-clinical school setting.162 students attending middle schools in Northern Italy were randomly assigned to: (a) a protocol derived from WBT; (b) an anxiety-management protocol (AM). The students were assessed immediately before and after the interventions, and after 6 months using: Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWB), Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). In school children, well-being and symptom focused interventions produced slightly different effects on psychological dimensions. WBT, by facilitating progression toward positive and optimal functioning, may integrate symptom-centered strategies.
Journal of anxiety disorders 02/2010; 24(3):326-33. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last decade there has been increasing interest in the potential of early preventive interventions capable of promoting psychological well being in order to reduce the risk of childhood psychological distress. This study analyzes the differential effects of strategies for promotion of psychological well-being (Well-Being Therapy, WBT) and removal of distress (Anxiety Management, AM) in a non clinical school setting.
Our sample consisted of eight classes (N=162 students) attending middle schools in Northern Italy which were randomly assigned to a protocol derived from WBT (4 classes) and to an anxiety-management protocol (AM) (4 classes). Immediately before and after both school interventions students were assessed using the Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWB), Kellner's Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS). A six month follow-up was performed in the following school year, and students were re-assessed with the same psychometric instruments.
Our results lend support to the possibility to change attitudes to psychological well-being and distress with brief interventions in school (both well-being improving and distress removing).
Further investigations should determine whether the combined and sequential integration of well-being and symptom oriented strategies may yield more complete and lasting effects that each strategy alone.
Rivista di Psichiatria 01/2010; 45(5):290-301. · 0.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: to test the efficacy of a new school program for the promotion of psychological well-being. In this study a school program for promoting psychological well-being has been compared to an attention-placebo intervention in a high school setting.
Nine classes (227 students) were randomly assigned to: a) Well-Being intervention (5 classes); b)attention-placebo (4 classes). Assessment was performed at pre and post-intervention, and after six months using: 1) Symptom Questionnaire (SQ); 2) Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWB); 3) Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS).
A significant effect of WB school intervention in improving Personal Growth (PWB), and in decreasing distress (Somatization (SQ), Physical Well-being (SQ), Anxiety (SQ), and RCMAS Physiological Anxiety) emerged.
A school intervention based on promoting positive emotions and well-being was effective not only in increasing psychological well-being among adolescents, but also in decreasing distress, in particular anxiety and somatization.
Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 08/2009; 40(4):522-32. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anxiety, mood and somatoform disorders are among the most prevalent forms of psychological suffering during childhood and adolescence. If untreated, these problems can be predictors of more severe disorders in adulthood. New trends in clinical psychology suggest the relevance of focusing on child's competencies and developing optimal functioning in youth. A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for enhancing well-being (Well-Being Therapy; WBT) has been developed for adult patients and it was found to be effective in determining remission from affective symptoms, in improving psychological well-being and in preventing relapses. In this article we describe a modified form of WBT which has been applied for the first time to children suffering from emotional and behavioral disorders in order to test its feasibility and potential effects in reducing symptoms and in improving new skills. Four cases particularly interesting by a clinical point of view are reported. This new therapeutic approach, based on the promotion of psychological well-being seems to be a very promising intervention: children improved at post treatment and during 1 year follow-up, both in symptomatology and in social skills. The promotion of psychological well-being and optimal functioning is an innovative and relevant ingredient and could play an important role in the treatment of somatic and psychosocial symptoms in paediatric settings.
Rivista di Psichiatria 46(4):265-72. · 0.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. In the recent years a large body of literature has focused its attention to the study of the positive aspects of adolescence, in particular quality of life, happiness and social functioning. The school is an ideal setting for promoting learning abilities, educational processes and also optimal human and social development. Aim. A new school program for the promotion of psychological well-being has been tested and compared to an attention-placebo intervention in a high school setting. Methods. Nine classes (227 students) were enrolled in the study and randomized to: a) School Well-Being Therapy intervention (5 classes); b)attention-placebo (4 classes). 1) Symptom Questionnaire (SQ); 2) Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWB); 3) Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) were administered at pre- and post-intervention, and after six months. Results. WBT school intervention was associated to an improved Personal Growth (PWB), and to decreased distress (Somatization (SQ), Physical Well-being (SQ), Anxiety (SQ), and RCMAS Physiological Anxiety). Discussion and conclusions. A school intervention focused on the promotion of positive emotions and psychological well-being has resulted to be effective not only in increasing these dimensions in high school students, but also in decreasing distress, in particular anxiety and somatization.
Rivista di Psichiatria 47(5):432-9. · 0.28 Impact Factor