[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between children's social competence and initial index of theory of mind at 30 months of age.
The participants of the study were 322 toddlers and parents/caregivers who were registered with the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) project. They completed a five-minute interaction session, which was coded using the Interaction Rating Scale (IRS) as an evidence-based practical index of children's social competence. In addition, the children were asked to complete a diverse-desire task as a ToM (theory of mind) index.
The results showed that the ToM index was related to the total score and subscales of the IRS, such as Empathy and Emotional regulation.
These findings show that the IRS score was related to ToM task performance at 30 months of age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detection of social signals, such as biological motion and social causality, is of basic importance in early infancy. There have also been some accounts that infants' visual preference or reaction to social signals change during development because of their changing understanding of such signals, and the detective abilities of primary social signals are related to later social development. In this study, we attempted to find different developmental patterns in individuals in terms of their visual preference for biological motion and socially causal movements at 4, 9, and 18 months and 4 and 9 months, respectively, using a cluster analysis. It was found that for both types of social signals, the infants who demonstrated an increased interest in social stimuli at 9 months scored higher on the developmental index than those who showed a decrease, suggesting a difference in the quality of understanding of social signals at 9 months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clear and observable social referencing behavior only emerges when infants are old enough to regulate their own behavior according to adult's emotional messages, but like the findings from other studies on infants' social looking behavior, infants before their first birthday may demonstrate gradual change in their referential looking behavior. In this paper, we attempted to examine possible developmental changes in the infants' referential looking behavior at 7 and 9 months, especially in terms of where and whom they look to for referencing. By analyzing the looks in the particular sequence to referees, we found that infants became more willing to look at a familiarized stranger's face as well as mother's body, as they got older. This might suggest a qualitative change in the referential looking behavior during this period of infancy.