Benjamin C Yan

Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (6)17.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: "Pseudomembranous collagenous colitis" is a morphologic variant of collagenous colitis in which active inflammation with pseudomembrane formation is prominent and which has been associated with infectious, toxic, and ischemic etiologies. However, extracolonic morphologic findings in patients with pseudomembranous collagenous colitis have not been previously described. Here, we present a case of a patient with pseudomembranous collagenous colitis with abnormal extracolonic findings. These include gastric antral mucosa with histologic features reminiscent of ischemic injury and reactive gastropathy with intraepithelial lymphocytosis and partial villous atrophy in the duodenal and ileal biopsies. The findings in the small intestinal biopsies resemble those seen in enteric mucosa in patients with conventional collagenous colitis. Our pathologic findings as well as the clinical course of the patient further emphasize the clinical and histologic similarities shared by pseudomembranous collagenous colitis and conventional collagenous colitis.
    Annals of diagnostic pathology 06/2012; 17(3). DOI:10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2012.04.003 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Paxillin is a modular protein that localises to cell adhesion sites where it facilitates bidirectional communication between the intracellular actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. These complex and dynamic interactions are essential for cell adhesion, cell migration and cell survival. The authors have previously demonstrated that paxillin is overexpressed in lung cancer tissues and identified somatic paxillin mutations in 9% of lung cancers. A murine in vivo xenograft model of the most common paxillin mutation (A127T) showed increased cell proliferation and invasive tumour growth, establishing an important role for paxillin in the development of lung cancer. The authors analysed 279 bronchoscopy-aided biopsy specimens from 92 high-risk patients. Adenocarcinoma with bronchioloalveolar features and pure bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) were analysed with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Paxillin is overexpressed in premalignant areas of hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia and goblet cell metaplasia, as well as dysplastic lesions and carcinoma in high-risk patients. Concordance between increased paxillin gene copy number and paxillin overexpression was observed in cases of adenocarcinoma eusomic for chromosome 12. Paxillin overexpression occurs during the earliest stages of lung cancer development. FISH and IHC analysis of lung adenocarcinoma suggests that relatively small-scale genomic rearrangements of chromosome 12 are associated with paxillin overexpression in lung adenocarcinoma.
    Journal of clinical pathology 11/2010; 64(1):16-24. DOI:10.1136/jcp.2010.075853 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The distinction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from metastatic tumor in the liver often presents a diagnostic challenge that carries significant impact on prognostication and therapy. The number of diagnostically useful immunohistochemical markers of hepatocytes is limited to hepatocyte paraffin antigen (HepPar-1), polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen, and CD10, with α-fetoprotein and glypican-3 labeling HCCs. Arginase-1 (Arg-1) is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. We used immunohistochemistry to compare the sensitivity of Arg-1 to that of HepPar-1 in 151 HCCs. We found that the overall sensitivities of Arg-1 and HepPar-1 are 96.0% and 84.1%, respectively. The sensitivities of Arg-1 in well, moderately, and poorly differentiated HCCs are 100%, 96.2%, and 85.7%, respectively, whereas, in comparison, HepPar-1 demonstrated sensitivities of 100%, 83.0%, and 46.4% for well, moderately, and poorly differentiated tumors, respectively. There were no HCCs in our study that were reactive for HepPar-1 but nonreactive for Arg-1. We also examined Arg-1 expression in nonhepatocellular tumors, including many that are potential mimics of HCC (renal cell carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, melanomas, gastric adenocarcinomas, and adrenocortical carcinomas) and found that only 2 non-HCC tumors were reactive for Arg-1. Arg-1 represents a sensitive and specific marker of benign and malignant hepatocytes that may ultimately prove to be a useful diagnostic tool in routine surgical pathology practice.
    American Journal of Surgical Pathology 07/2010; 34(8):1147-1154. DOI:10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181e5dffa · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have uncovered a number of possible mechanisms by which prostate cancers can become resistant to systemic androgen deprivation, most involving androgen-independent reactivation of the androgen receptor. Genome-wide expression analysis with microarrays has identified a wide array of genes that are differentially expressed in metastatic prostate cancers compared to primary nonrecurrent tumors. Recently, recurrent gene fusions between TMPRSS2 and ETS family genes have been identified and extensively studied for their role in prostatic carcinoma. To review the recent developments in the molecular biology of prostate cancer, including those pertaining to the androgen receptor and the newly identified TMPRSS2-related translocations. Literature review and personal experience. Prostatic adenocarcinoma is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with a broad spectrum of pathologic and molecular characteristics and clinical behaviors. Numerous mechanisms contribute to the development of resistance to androgen ablation therapy, resulting in ligand-independent reactivation of the androgen receptor, including amplification, mutation, phosphorylation, and activation of coreceptors. Multiple translocations of members of the ETS oncogene family are present in approximately half of clinically localized prostate cancers. TMPRSS2:ERG gene rearrangement appears to be an early event in prostate cancer and is not observed in benign or hyperplastic prostatic epithelium. Duplication of TMPRSS2:ERG appears to predict a worse prognosis. The relationship between TMPRSS2:ERG gene rearrangement and other morphologic and prognostic parameters of prostate cancer is still unclear.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 08/2009; 133(7):1033-40. DOI:10.1043/1543-2165-133.7.1033 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Benjamin C Yan · John A Hart ·
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, making pathologic identification of precursor lesions essential. Recent molecular genetic, pathologic, and clinical data have led to the stratification of hepatic adenomas into subgroups with unique molecular profiles and varying potential for malignant transformation, as well as to the reclassification of telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia as telangiectatic adenoma. Clinical, morphologic, and molecular genetic studies have also established juvenile hemochromatosis and pediatric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis as entities distinct from their adult counterparts. To review the recent molecular genetic characterization of telangiectatic hepatic adenomas and juvenile hemochromatosis, as well as the recent clinicopathologic characterization of pediatric nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Literature review, personal experience, and material from the University of Chicago. Basic science and translational research have led to the classification of many pathologic entities of the liver according to molecular genetic and protein expression profiles that correspond to traditional morphologic categories. Insights into signal transduction pathways that are activated in, and protein expression patterns unique to, an individual disease may lead to the development of new therapeutic agents and novel diagnostic biomarkers.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 08/2009; 133(7):1078-86. DOI:10.1043/1543-2165-133.7.1078 · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Benjamin C Yan · A Craig Mackinnon · Hikmat A Al-Ahmadie ·
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma is a heterogeneous group of tumors with distinct histopathologic features, molecular characteristics, and clinical outcome. These tumors can be sporadic as well as familial or associated with syndromes. The genetic abnormalities underlying these syndromes have been identified and were subsequently found in corresponding sporadic renal tumors. To review the recent molecular and genetic advancements relating to sporadic and familial renal carcinomas as well as those related to Xp11.2 translocation-associated renal cell carcinoma and renal medullary carcinoma. Literature review, personal experience, and material from the University of Chicago. Molecular genetic diagnostic techniques will continue to introduce new biomarkers that will aid in the differential diagnosis of difficult cases. The identification of specific signaling pathways that are defective in certain renal tumors also makes possible the development of new therapies that selectively target the aberrant activity of the defective proteins.
    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 08/2009; 133(7):1026-32. DOI:10.1043/1543-2165-133.7.1026 · 2.84 Impact Factor