[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite advances in combinatorial chemotherapy regimens and the advent of intraperitoneal chemotherapy administration, current therapeutic options for ovarian cancer patients are inadequate. Immunotherapy offers a novel and promising therapeutic strategy for treating ovarian tumors. Following the demonstration of the immunogenicity of ovarian tumors, multiple immunotherapeutic modalities have been developed. Antibody-based therapies, immune checkpoint blockade, cancer vaccines, and chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells have demonstrated preclinical success and entered clinical testing. In this review, we discuss these promising immunotherapeutic approaches and emphasize the importance of combinatorial treatment strategies and biomarker discovery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms for which standardized treatment approaches remain elusive. A number of new therapeutic agents have become available, of which monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) represent a powerful tool for targeted treatment of PTCLs. Therapeutic MAbs vary in their structure, targets, and mechanisms of action. Common mechanisms of action include antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, direct apoptosis, blocking of receptors or signaling pathways, delivery of cytotoxic agents to tumor cells, and binding to and blocking biologically active molecules. This review will focus on recent published evidence for the various MAbs used in the treatment of PTCLs. The results overall have been very promising, and the future will see more trials with these antibodies alone and in various therapy combinations, as well as newer ones with novel modifications, conjugates, and targets.
Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11899-015-0290-1 · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe 47 patients with lymphoma and failed prior autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) who received TLI-ATG (anti-thymocyte globulin) conditioning followed by allogeneic HCT. Thirty-two patients had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=19), T-cell NHL (n=6), mantle cell lymphoma (n=4) or other B-cell subtypes (n=3)), and 15 had Hodgkin lymphoma. The median follow-up was 4.9 (range, 2.1-11.9) years. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GvHD at day +100 was 12%, and the cumulative incidence of extensive chronic GvHD at 1 year was 36%. The 3-year cumulative incidences of overall survival (OS), PFS and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 81%, 44% and 7%, respectively. Fifteen patients died (relapse, n=10; NRM, n=5). Among the 25 patients with relapse after allogeneic HCT, 11 (44%) achieved durable (>1 year) CRs following donor lymphocyte infusion or chemoradiotherapy. The majority of surviving patients (75%; n=24) were able to discontinue all immunosuppression. For patients with relapsed lymphoma after autologous HCT, allogeneic HCT using TLI-ATG conditioning is a well-tolerated, predominantly outpatient therapy with low NRM (7% at 3 years), a low incidence of GvHD, durable disease control and excellent OS (81% at 3 years).Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 6 July 2015; doi:10.1038/bmt.2015.149.
Bone marrow transplantation 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/bmt.2015.149 · 3.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 29th annual meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) was held November 7-9, 2014 in National Harbor, MD and was organized by Dr. Arthur A. Hurwitz (National Cancer Institute), Dr. Kim A. Margolin (Stanford University), Dr. Daniel E. Speiser (Ludwig Center for Cancer Research, University of Lausanne) and Dr. Walter J. Urba (Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center). This meeting included over 1,600 registered participants from 28 separate countries, making it the largest SITC meeting held to date. It highlighted significant worldwide progress in the development and application of cancer immunology to the practice of clinical oncology, including advances in diagnosis, prognosis and therapy, utilizing several immunological pathways and mechanisms for a variety of oncologic conditions. Presentations and posters demonstrated that many concepts that had been pursued preclinically in the past are now being translated into clinical practice, with clear benefits for patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies can block cellular interactions that negatively regulate T-cell immune responses, such as CD80/CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD1-L, amplifying preexisting immunity and thereby evoking antitumor immune responses. Ibrutinib, an approved therapy for B-cell malignancies, is a covalent inhibitor of BTK, a member of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway, which is critical to the survival of malignant B cells. Interestingly this drug also inhibits ITK, an essential enzyme in Th2 T cells and by doing so it can shift the balance between Th1 and Th2 T cells and potentially enhance antitumor immune responses. Here we report that the combination of anti-PD-L1 antibody and ibrutinib suppresses tumor growth in mouse models of lymphoma that are intrinsically insensitive to ibrutinib. The combined effect of these two agents was also documented for models of solid tumors, such as triple negative breast cancer and colon cancer. The enhanced therapeutic activity of PD-L1 blockade by ibrutinib was accompanied by enhanced antitumor T-cell immune responses. These preclinical results suggest that the combination of PD1/PD1-L blockade and ibrutinib should be tested in the clinic for the therapy not only of lymphoma but also in other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors that do not even express BTK.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2015; 112(9). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1500712112 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An expanding panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically target malignant cells or intercept trophic factors delivered by the tumor stroma is now available for cancer therapy. These mAbs can exert direct antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects as they inhibit pro-survival signal transduction cascades or activate lethal receptors at the plasma membrane of cancer cells, they can opsonize neoplastic cells to initiate a tumor-targeting immune response, or they can be harnessed to specifically deliver toxins or radionuclides to transformed cells. As an indication of the success of this immunotherapeutic paradigm, international regulatory agencies approve new tumor-targeting mAbs for use in cancer patients every year. Moreover, the list of indications for previously licensed molecules is frequently expanded to other neoplastic disorders as the results of large, randomized clinical trials become available. Here, we discuss recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of tumor-targeting mAbs for oncological indications.