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Publications (5)19.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Peptide agonists of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP1R) are rapidly gaining favor as antidiabetic agents, since in addition to increasing glucose-dependent insulin secretion, they also cause weight loss. Oxyntomodulin (OXM), a natural peptide with sequence homology to both glucagon and GLP-1, has glucose-lowering activity in rodents and anorectic activity in rodents and humans, but its clinical utility is limited by a short circulatory half-life due to rapid renal clearance and degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). Here, we describe the development of a novel DPP-IV-resistant, long-acting GLP1R agonist, based on derivatization of a suitably chosen OXM analog with high molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) ('PEGylation'). PEG-OXM exerts an anti-hyperglycemic effect in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice in a glucose-dependent manner, with a maximally efficacious dose of 0.1mg/kg, and reduces food intake and body weight with a minimally efficacious dose of 1mg/kg. If this pharmacology is recapitulated in patients with type 2 diabetes, these results indicate PEG-OXM as a potential novel once-weekly GLP-1 mimetic with both glucose-lowering activity and weight loss efficacy.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 09/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a peptide secreted postprandially from the L-cells of the gut that has a weak affinity for both the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR). Peripheral administration of OXM in humans and rodents causes weight loss reducing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. It has been suggested that OXM modulates energy intake solely through GLP1R agonism. Because glucagon decreases food intake in rodents and humans, we examined whether activation of the GCGR is involved in the body weight-lowering effects of OXM. We identified an equipotent GLP1R-selective peptide agonist that differs from OXM by only one residue (Q3→E, OXMQ3E), but has no significant GCGR agonist activity in vitro and ~100-fold reduced ability to stimulate liver glycogenolysis. Chronic treatment of obese mice with OXM and OXMQ3E demonstrated that OXM exhibits superior weight loss and lipid-lowering efficacy, and antihyperglycemic activity that is comparable to the corresponding GLP1R-selective agonist. Studies in Glp1r(-/-) mice and coadministration of OXM and a GCGR antagonist revealed that the antiobesity effect of OXM requires activation of both GLP1R and GCGR. Our data provide new insight into the mechanism of action of OXM and suggest that activation of GCGR is involved in the body weight-lowering action of OXM.
    Obesity 03/2012; 20(8):1566-71. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ratio of GLP-1/glucagon receptor (GLP1R/GCGR) co-agonism that achieves maximal weight loss without evidence of hyperglycemia was determined in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice chronically treated with GLP1R/GCGR co-agonist peptides differing in their relative receptor agonism. Using glucagon-based peptides, a spectrum of receptor selectivity was achieved by a combination of selective incorporation of GLP-1 sequences, C-terminal modification, backbone lactam stapling to stabilize helical structure, and unnatural amino acid substitutions at the N-terminal dipeptide. In addition to α-amino-isobutyric acid (Aib) substitution at position two, we show that α,α'-dimethyl imidazole acetic acid (Dmia) can serve as a potent replacement for the highly conserved histidine at position one. Selective site-specific pegylation was used to further minimize enzymatic degradation and provide uniform, extended in vivo duration of action. Maximal weight loss devoid of any sign of hyperglycemia was achieved with a co-agonist comparably balanced for in vitro potency at murine GLP1R and GCGR. This peptide exhibited superior weight loss and glucose lowering compared to a structurally matched pure GLP1R agonist, and to co-agonists of relatively reduced GCGR tone. Any further enhancement of the relative GCGR agonist potency yielded increased weight loss but at the expense of elevated blood glucose. We conclude that GCGR agonism concomitant with GLP1R agonism constitutes a promising approach to treatment of the metabolic syndrome. However, the relative ratio of GLP1R/GCGR co-agonism needs to be carefully chosen for each species to maximize weight loss efficacy and minimize hyperglycemia. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 98: 443-450, 2012.
    Biopolymers 01/2012; 98(5):443-50. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is one of the major risk factors for type 2 diabetes, and the development of agents, that can simultaneously achieve glucose control and weight loss, is being actively pursued. Therapies based on peptide mimetics of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are rapidly gaining favor, due to their ability to increase insulin secretion in a strictly glucose-dependent manner, with little or no risk of hypoglycemia, and to their additional benefit of causing a modest, but durable weight loss. Oxyntomodulin (OXM), a 37-amino acid peptide hormone of the glucagon (GCG) family with dual agonistic activity on both the GLP-1 (GLP1R) and the GCG (GCGR) receptors, has been shown to reduce food intake and body weight in humans, with a lower incidence of treatment-associated nausea than GLP-1 mimetics. As for other peptide hormones, its clinical application is limited by the short circulatory half-life, a major component of which is cleavage by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). SAR studies on OXM, described herein, led to the identification of molecules resistant to DPP-IV degradation, with increased potency as compared to the natural hormone. Analogs derivatized with a cholesterol moiety display increased duration of action in vivo. Moreover, we identified a single substitution which can change the OXM pharmacological profile from a dual GLP1R/GCGR agonist to a selective GLP1R agonist. The latter finding enabled studies, described in detail in a separate study (Pocai A, Carrington PE, Adams JR, Wright M, Eiermann G, Zhu L, Du X, Petrov A, Lassman ME, Jiang G, Liu F, Miller C, Tota LM, Zhou G, Zhang X, Sountis MM, Santoprete A, Capitò E, Chicchi GG, Thornberry N, Bianchi E, Pessi A, Marsh DJ, SinhaRoy R. Glucagon-like peptide 1/glucagon receptor dual agonism reverses obesity in mice. Diabetes 2009; 58: 2258-2266), which highlight the potential of GLP1R/GCGR dual agonists as a potentially superior class of therapeutics over the pure GLP1R agonists currently in clinical use.
    Journal of Peptide Science 02/2011; 17(4):270-80. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP1R)/glucagon receptor (GCGR) dual agonist peptide that reduces body weight in obese subjects through increased energy expenditure and decreased energy intake. The metabolic effects of OXM have been attributed primarily to GLP1R agonism. We examined whether a long acting GLP1R/GCGR dual agonist peptide exerts metabolic effects in diet-induced obese mice that are distinct from those obtained with a GLP1R-selective agonist. We developed a protease-resistant dual GLP1R/GCGR agonist, DualAG, and a corresponding GLP1R-selective agonist, GLPAG, matched for GLP1R agonist potency and pharmacokinetics. The metabolic effects of these two peptides with respect to weight loss, caloric reduction, glucose control, and lipid lowering, were compared upon chronic dosing in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Acute studies in DIO mice revealed metabolic pathways that were modulated independent of weight loss. Studies in Glp1r(-/-) and Gcgr(-/-) mice enabled delineation of the contribution of GLP1R versus GCGR activation to the pharmacology of DualAG. Peptide DualAG exhibits superior weight loss, lipid-lowering activity, and antihyperglycemic efficacy comparable to GLPAG. Improvements in plasma metabolic parameters including insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were more pronounced upon chronic treatment with DualAG than with GLPAG. Dual receptor agonism also increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced hepatic steatosis in DIO mice. The antiobesity effects of DualAG require activation of both GLP1R and GCGR. Sustained GLP1R/GCGR dual agonism reverses obesity in DIO mice and is a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of obesity.
    Diabetes 08/2009; 58(10):2258-66. · 7.90 Impact Factor