Edward J Boyko

Trinity Washington University, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (318)1893.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To prospectively examine the association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and weight change. Longitudinal analysis techniques were used to examine data (2001-2008) from Millennium Cohort Study participants, consisting of U.S. service members and veterans. Using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, PTSD was assessed as none, resolved, new onset, or persistent. Subsequent weight change was assessed as stable (≤3% loss or gain), >3% weight loss, >3% but <10% weight gain, and ≥10% weight gain. Of the 38,352 participants, 2391 (6.2%) had PTSD (838 resolved, 1024 new onset, and 529 persistent), and 11% of participants subsequently had ≥10% weight gain. In multivariable models, PTSD was associated with higher odds of ≥10% weight gain (new onset OR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.20-1.73]; persistent OR: 1.51 [CI: 1.17-1.96]; resolved OR: 1.30 [CI: 1.05-1.60]) compared with those without PTSD. New-onset and persistent PTSD were also associated with higher odds of >3% weight loss (OR: 1.41 [CI: 1.17-1.71]; OR: 1.42 [CI: 1.09-1.86], respectively). PTSD is independently associated with a higher risk of weight gain and loss, the former of which leads to a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and a higher risk of comorbidities associated with excessive body adiposity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
    Obesity 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/oby.21025 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many HIV antiretroviral medications have been associated with chronic liver injury. HIV-infected patients frequently develop HIV and highly active antiretroviral treatment-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS), characterized by accumulation of intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. We sought to determine whether long-term exposure to specific antiretroviral medications or the presence of HALS predispose HIV-infected patients to the development of cirrhosis. HIV-infected patients with cirrhosis who received care in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System nationally in 2009 were matched by hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection status and year of first visit for HIV to the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System with HIV-infected patients without cirrhosis in a 1 : 3 ratio. Among HIV/HCV coinfected patients (593 with cirrhosis and 1591 matched controls), HALS was associated with a significantly increased risk for cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.3), especially among Black patients (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.6-5.2). In addition, among HIV/HCV coinfected patients, longer cumulative exposures to all antiretroviral medications, all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, all protease inhibitors, and selected individual medications (didanosine, stavudine, and nelfinavir) were found to be significantly associated with cirrhosis. In contrast, among HIV-infected patients not coinfected with HCV (245 with cirrhosis and 658 matched controls), HALS or exposure to antiretroviral medications was found not to be significantly associated with cirrhosis, with the exception of didanosine. HALS and cumulative exposure to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, especially stavudine, didanosine, and nelfinavir, were found to be associated with the development of cirrhosis in HIV/HCV coinfected patients, but not in HIV-monoinfected patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Asian Americans manifest type 2 diabetes at low BMI levels but may not undergo diagnostic testing for diabetes if the currently recommended BMI screening cut point of ≥25 kg/m(2) is followed. We aimed to ascertain an appropriate lower BMI cut point among Asian-American adults without a prior diabetes diagnosis. We consolidated data from 1,663 participants, ages ≥45 years, without a prior diabetes diagnosis, from population- and community-based studies, including the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study, the North Kohala Study, the Seattle Japanese American Community Diabetes Study, and the University of California San Diego Filipino Health Study. Clinical measures included a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Mean age was 59.7 years, mean BMI was 25.4 kg/m(2), 58% were women, and type 2 diabetes prevalence (American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria) was 16.9%. At BMI ≥25 kg/m(2), sensitivity (63.7%), specificity (52.8%), and Youden index (0.16) values were low; limiting screening to BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) would miss 36% of Asian Americans with type 2 diabetes. For screening purposes, higher sensitivity is desirable to minimize missing cases, especially if the diagnostic test is relatively simple and inexpensive. At BMI ≥23 kg/m(2), sensitivity (84.7%) was high in the total sample and by sex and Asian-American subgroup and would miss only ∼15% of Asian Americans with diabetes. The BMI cut point for identifying Asian Americans who should be screened for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes should be <25 kg/m(2), and ≥23 kg/m(2) may be the most practical. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes Care 02/2015; DOI:10.2337/dc14-2071 · 8.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Military service members may be prone to relapse to problem drinking after remission, given a culture of alcohol use as a coping mechanism for stressful or traumatic events associated with military duties or exposures. However, the prevalence and correlates of relapse are unknown. We sought to identify socio-demographic, military, behavioral, and health characteristics associated with relapse among current and former military members with remittent problem drinking. Participants in the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study who reported problem drinking at baseline (2001-2003) and were remittent at first follow-up (2004-2006) were included (n=6909). Logistic regression models identified demographic, military service, behavioral, and health characteristics that predicted relapse (report of ≥1 past-year alcohol-related problem on the validated Patient Health Questionnaire) at the second follow-up (2007-2008). Sixteen percent of those with remittent problem drinking relapsed. Reserve/National Guard members compared with active-duty members (odds ratio [OR]=1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-2.01), members separated from the military during follow-up (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.16-1.83), and deployers who reported combat exposure (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.07-1.62, relative to non-deployers) were significantly more likely to relapse. Those with multiple deployments were significantly less likely to relapse (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.92). Behavioral factors and mental health conditions also predicted relapse. Relapse was common and associated with military and non-military factors. Targeted intervention to prevent relapse may be indicated for military personnel in particular subgroups, such as Reservists, veterans, and those who deploy with combat exposure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 01/2015; 148. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.12.031 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to define the risk of hearing loss among US military members in relation to their deployment experiences. Data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported data and objective military service data were used to assess exposures and outcomes. Among all 48,540 participants, 7.5% self-reported new-onset hearing loss. Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69) with objective audiometric measures. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77), as well as male sex and older age. Among deployers, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.62-2.73) and with experiencing a combat-related head injury (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI = 3.77-12.54). These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs.
    Noise and Health 01/2015; 17(74):34-42. DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.149574 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Symptoms and illnesses reported by veterans of the 1991 Gulf War era are a cause of potential concern for those military members who have deployed to the Gulf region in support of more recent contingency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In the present study, we quantified self-reported symptoms from participants in the Millennium Cohort Study, a prospective study representing all US service branches, including both active duty and Reserve/National Guard components (2001-2008). Self-reported symptoms were uniquely compared with those in a cohort of subjects from the 1991 Gulf War to gain context for the present report. Symptoms were then aggregated to identify cases of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) based on the case definition from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The prevalence of self-reported CMI symptoms was compared with that collected in 1997-1999 from a study population of US Seabees from the 1991 Gulf War, as well as from deployed and nondeployed subgroups. Although overall symptom reporting was much less in the Millennium Cohort than in the 1991 Gulf War cohort, a higher prevalence of reported CMI was noted among deployed compared with nondeployed contemporary cohort members. An increased understanding of coping skills and resilience and development of well-designed screening instruments, along with appropriate clinical and psychological follow-up for returning veterans, might help to focus resources on early identification of potential long-term chronic disease manifestations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    American Journal of Epidemiology 12/2014; 180(12). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu240 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is thought to be highly prevalent in persons with lower extremity amputations (LEAs) and can impair physical and social functioning. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of weight loss intention, weight loss strategies, dietary patterns, and barriers to making dietary changes, and their associations with body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), amputation characteristics, health status, and socioeconomic factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n = 150) using data from a self-administered questionnaire. 43% of participants were obese and 48% were trying to lose weight; 83% of those trying to lose weight reported trying to "eat differently", but only 7% were following a comprehensive weight loss program involving dietary changes, physical activity, and behavioral counseling. 21% of participants reported ≥6 barriers to changing their eating habits (e.g., habit, too little money, stress/depression). Obesity was associated with younger age, lower physical health scores, hypertension, arthritis, and diabetes. Compared to those not trying to lose weight, a greater proportion of those trying to lose weight had a BMI ≥35 kg/m(2), age <55 years, higher physical and mental health scores, and more frequent consumption of vegetables, beans, chicken, and fish. Though over half of overweight and obese individuals with LEA were trying to lose weight, few reported following a comprehensive program to lose weight, which may indicate an unmet need for services for this group. To be effective, these programs will need to address the complex physical and mental health challenges that many of these individuals face. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Disability and Health Journal 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.dhjo.2014.10.003 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional studies have suggested that Islet autoimmunity may be more prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2D) than previously appreciated and may contribute to the progressive decline in β-cell function. In this study, we longitudinally evaluated the effect of islet autoimmune development on the progressive β-cell dysfunction in T2D patients.
    Diabetes Care 09/2014; DOI:10.2337/dc14-0961 · 8.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Potential adverse mental health effects of deployment, including depression, are an ongoing concern. Although a previous study assessed under-reporting of depression on post-deployment health assessments compared to anonymous surveys, those results were not examined at the individual level to identify demographic or military factors that may be associated with unwillingness to report depression symptoms. Purpose: To compare self-reported depression symptoms on post-deployment health assessments with responses to the same depression questions on a research survey. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed depression screening responses from 2001 to 2008 from participants of the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal military cohort study, who completed a post-deployment health assessment within 30 days of a research survey. Kappa statistics and percent positive and negative agreement were calculated. Demographic and military characteristics associated with discordant screening results were examined. Initial analyses were performed in 2011, with additional analyses in 2013. Results: Moderate agreement (kappa=0.464) was observed between paired survey responses. A higher proportion of active duty members, the unmarried, and new accessions into military service endorsed depression symptoms on the research survey but not the military-linked survey. In stratified analyses, agreement was higher in Reserve/National Guard members than active duty (kappa=0.561 vs 0.409). New active duty accessions showed lower agreement (kappa=0.388), as did unmarried active duty participants (kappa=0.304). Conclusions: Deployment health surveys are important tools for identifying returning service members experiencing depression symptoms. However, these findings suggest that ongoing stigma and barriers to appropriate follow-up mental health care remain to be addressed in the military setting.
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine 09/2014; 47(5). DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.07.036 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are no prior epidemiologic studies examining associations between physical activity and imaging-detected lumbar zygapophyseal joint osteoarthritis (ZJO) in a community-based sample.
    The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.spinee.2014.06.022 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Combat exposure is known to increase the risk for mental disorders; however, less is known about the temporal relationship between mental disorders and alcohol misuse or smoking. To better understand these interrelationships, this study investigated mental disorders in association with hazardous drinking and cigarette smoking. Methods: Using data from a large population-based military cohort, standardized instruments were used to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, panic, and other anxiety syndromes. Self-reported use of cigarettes and hazardous drinking was also assessed. Subjects were classified as having "new-onset," "persistent," or " resolved" mental disorders and health risk behaviors on the basis of screening results from baseline to follow-up (n = 50,028). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate temporal patterns between the development of mental disorders and the uptake of smoking or hazardous drinking. Results: The strongest associations of new-onset mental disorders were among those who newly reported smoking or hazardous drinking (odds ratio [OR], 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-2.59 and OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 2.15-2.89, respectively), even after adjustment for combat deployment experience. In addition, persistent smokers and hazardous drinkers had elevated odds for developing a mental disorder at follow-up. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a positive association between the onset of mental disorders with the uptake of smoking and hazardous drinking and the likelihood that multiple temporal sequence patterns exist to explain the relationship between mental disorders and hazardous drinking and smoking. Clinical approaches to mitigate deployment-related mental disorders should include alcohol and tobacco-related assessments and interventions.
    Journal of Addiction Medicine 06/2014; 8(4). DOI:10.1097/ADM.0000000000000050 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are few longitudinal cohort studies examining associations between incident MRI findings and incident spine-related symptom outcomes. Prior studies do not discriminate between the two distinct outcomes of low back pain (LBP) and radicular symptoms. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a secondary analysis of existing data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Imaging and Disability of the Back (LAIDBACK). The purpose of this study was to examine the association of incident lumbar MRI findings with two specific spine-related symptom outcomes:1) incident chronic bothersome LBP, and 2) incident radicular symptoms such as pain, weakness, or sensation alterations in the lower extremity.
    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 05/2014; 15(1):152. DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-15-152 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding physical activity (PA) after discharge from the military can inform theory on the role of habit and reinforcement in behavior maintenance and has implications for this population's future health. Using data from 28,866 Millennium Cohort Study participants (n=3782 of whom were discharged during the years between assessments), we: 1) investigated changes in meeting federal PA Guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) following military discharge, and 2) determined predictors of meeting these Guidelines after discharge. MVPA declined more in those who were discharged than those who were not (-17.8 percentage points vs. -2.7 percentage points), with greater declines in former active-duty personnel, those who had deployed with combat exposures, had 14-25 years of service, and had been discharged more recently (>2 years prior). In those who were discharged, being normal or overweight (vs. obese), and a nonsmoker or former smoker (vs. current smoker) were positively associated with meeting MVPA Guidelines at follow-up, while meeting MVPA Guidelines at baseline and depression were inversely associated. Reductions in MVPA were substantial and unexpected. Increased understanding of transitional periods that may benefit from interventions to mitigate declines in PA will help prevent excess weight gain and physical inactivity-associated health consequences.
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health 05/2014; DOI:10.1123/jpah.2013-0260 · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health 05/2014; 29(2):91-112. DOI:10.1080/15555240.2014.899187
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To estimate 3-year risk for diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), lower extremity amputation (LEA) and death; determine predictive variables and assess derived models accuracy. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study including all subjects with diabetes enrolled in our diabetic foot outpatient clinic from beginning 2002 until middle 2010. Data was collected from clinical records. Results: 644 subjects with mean age of 65.1 (±11.2) and diabetes duration of 16.1 (±10.8) years. Cumulative incidence was 26.6% for DFU, 5.8% for LEA and 14.0% for death. In multivariate analysis, physical impairment, peripheral arterial disease complication history, complication count and previous DFU were associated with DFU; complication count, foot pulses and previous DFU with LEA and age, complication count and previous DFU with death. Predictive models’ areas under the ROC curves ranged from 0.80 to 0.83. A simplified model including previous DFU and complication count presented high accuracy. Previous DFU was associated with all outcomes, even when adjusted for complication count, in addition to more complex models. Conclusions: DFU seems more than a marker of complication status, having independent impact on LEA and mortality risk. Proposed models may be applicable in healthcare settings to identify patients at higher risk of DFU, LEA and death.
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 04/2014; 28(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2014.04.011 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have exposed thousands of service members to intense stress, and as a result many have developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The role of military deployment experiences and PTSD on coronary heart disease (CHD) is not well-defined, especially in young US service members with recent combat exposure. We conducted a prospective, cohort study to investigate the relationships between war-time experiences and PTSD on CHD. Current and former US military personnel from all service branches participating in the Millennium Cohort Study during 2001-2008 (n=60,025) were evaluated for newly self-reported CHD. Electronic medical record review for ICD-9-CM codes for CHD was conducted among a subpopulation of active duty members (n=23,794). Logistic regression models examined the associations between combat experiences and PTSD with CHD while adjusting for established CHD risk factors. A total of 627 (1.0%) participants newly reported CHD over an average of 5.6 years of follow-up. Deployers with combat experiences had an increased odds of newly reporting CHD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-2.40) and having a diagnosis code for new-onset CHD (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.31-2.84) compared with noncombat deployers. Screening positive for PTSD symptoms was associated with self-reported CHD prior to, but not after, adjusting for depression and anxiety, and was not associated with a new diagnosis code for CHD. Combat deployments are associated with new-onset CHD among young US service members and veterans. Experiences of intense stress may increase the risk for CHD over a relatively short period among young adults.
    Circulation 03/2014; 129(18). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005407 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and IGF-1/IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) concentrations are associated with adiposity and insulin resistance. We aimed to determine whether serum IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 are associated with presence or severity of NAFLD independent of potential confounding. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994, a representative sample of the United States adult population. Among participants who had a fasting blood draw and ultrasound examination, we excluded those with missing data, viral hepatitis, iron overload, excessive alcohol intake, pregnancy, or taking glucose-lowering therapy, yielding 4172 adults for this analysis. In logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, higher IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 quartiles were associated with lower likelihood of NAFLD and lower grade steatosis. These associations became non-significant when further adjusted for adiposity (body mass index, waist circumference) with the exception of the association between IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and severity of NAFLD which remained significant after adjustment for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (odds ratio [95% CI]: Q3: 0.71 [0.53–0.96], Q4: 0.62 [0.43–0.89]) and adiposity (Q4: 0.67 [0.47–0.96]). Full adjustment (age, gender, race/ethnicity, adiposity, HOMA-IR, A1C%) further attenuated associations between IGF-1 or IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and liver fat such that they were no longer significant. Adiposity explains much of the observed association between IGF-1 or IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and liver fat. These findings do not support a direct role for the growth hormone-IGF-1/IGFBP-3 axis in the pathophysiology of NAFLD.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 03/2014; 29(3):589-96. DOI:10.1111/jgh.12437 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the types of physical activities that older individuals with lower-limb loss perform, correlates of regular physical activity (PA), and barriers and facilitators to PA. We conducted an exploratory study in 158 older Veterans from the Pacific Northwest with a partial foot (35%), below-knee (39%) and above-knee (26%) amputation. Ninety-eight percent of survey respondents were male, on average 65 yr of age and 15 yr postamputation; 36% of amputations were trauma-related. The most commonly reported physical activities were muscle strengthening (42%), yard work and/or gardening (30%), and bicycling (11%). Forty-three percent were classified as physically active based on weekly moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA. History of vigorous preamputation PA was positively associated with being active, while low wealth and watching ≥5 h/d of television/videos were inversely associated. While pain- and resource-related barriers to PA were most frequently reported, only knowledge-related and interest/motivation-related barriers were inversely associated with being active. Family support and financial assistance to join a gym were the most commonly reported factors that would facilitate PA. To increase PA in the older amputee population, interventions should address motivational issues, knowledge gaps, and television watching; reduce financial barriers to exercising; and consider involving family members.
    The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 01/2014; 51(6):895-906. DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2013.06.0152 · 1.69 Impact Factor
  • JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 12/2013; 310(23):2565-2566. DOI:10.1001/jama.2013.282701 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationships between smoking and glycaemic variables have not been well explored. We compared HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current, ex- and never-smokers. This meta-analysis used individual data from 16,886 men and 18,539 women without known diabetes in 12 DETECT-2 consortium studies and in the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) and Telecom studies. Means of three glycaemic variables in current, ex- and never-smokers were modelled by linear regression, with study as a random factor. The I (2) statistic was used to evaluate heterogeneity among studies. HbA1c was 0.10% (95% CI 0.08, 0.12) (1.1 mmol/mol [0.9, 1.3]) higher in current smokers and 0.03% (0.01, 0.05) (0.3 mmol/mol [0.1, 0.5]) higher in ex-smokers, compared with never-smokers. For FPG, there was no significant difference between current and never-smokers (-0.004 mmol/l [-0.03, 0.02]) but FPG was higher in ex-smokers (0.12 mmol/l [0.09, 0.14]). In comparison with never-smokers, 2H-PG was lower (-0.44 mmol/l [-0.52, -0.37]) in current smokers, with no difference for ex-smokers (0.02 mmol/l [-0.06, 0.09]). There was a large and unexplained heterogeneity among studies, with I (2) always above 50%; I (2) was little changed after stratification by sex and adjustment for age and BMI. In this study population, current smokers had a prevalence of diabetes that was 1.30% higher as screened by HbA1c and 0.52% lower as screened by 2H-PG, in comparison with never-smokers. Across this heterogeneous group of studies, current smokers had a higher HbA1c and lower 2H-PG than never-smokers. This will affect the chances of smokers being diagnosed with diabetes.
    Diabetologia 09/2013; 57(1). DOI:10.1007/s00125-013-3058-y · 6.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

14k Citations
1,893.82 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Trinity Washington University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1990–2015
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Health Services
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1996–2014
    • VA Puget Sound Health Care System
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2012
    • Osaka City University
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Ōsaka-shi, Osaka-fu, Japan
  • 1996–2012
    • Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Hospital
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2011
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Preventive Medicine & Biometrics
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Naval Health Research Center
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
      • Clinical Diabetes and Epidemiology Research Group
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2005
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2004
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2002
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Nutrition
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2000
    • Diabetes Australia, Victoria
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia