Edward J Boyko

VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (310)1701.13 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Symptoms and illnesses reported by veterans of the 1991 Gulf War era are a cause of potential concern for those military members who have deployed to the Gulf region in support of more recent contingency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In the present study, we quantified self-reported symptoms from participants in the Millennium Cohort Study, a prospective study representing all US service branches, including both active duty and Reserve/National Guard components (2001-2008). Self-reported symptoms were uniquely compared with those in a cohort of subjects from the 1991 Gulf War to gain context for the present report. Symptoms were then aggregated to identify cases of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) based on the case definition from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The prevalence of self-reported CMI symptoms was compared with that collected in 1997-1999 from a study population of US Seabees from the 1991 Gulf War, as well as from deployed and nondeployed subgroups. Although overall symptom reporting was much less in the Millennium Cohort than in the 1991 Gulf War cohort, a higher prevalence of reported CMI was noted among deployed compared with nondeployed contemporary cohort members. An increased understanding of coping skills and resilience and development of well-designed screening instruments, along with appropriate clinical and psychological follow-up for returning veterans, might help to focus resources on early identification of potential long-term chronic disease manifestations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    American journal of epidemiology. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional studies have suggested that Islet autoimmunity may be more prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2D) than previously appreciated and may contribute to the progressive decline in β-cell function. In this study, we longitudinally evaluated the effect of islet autoimmune development on the progressive β-cell dysfunction in T2D patients.
    Diabetes care. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Potential adverse mental health effects of deployment, including depression, are an ongoing concern. Although a previous study assessed under-reporting of depression on post-deployment health assessments compared to anonymous surveys, those results were not examined at the individual level to identify demographic or military factors that may be associated with unwillingness to report depression symptoms.
    American journal of preventive medicine. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There are no prior epidemiologic studies examining associations between physical activity and imaging-detected lumbar zygapophyseal joint osteoarthritis (ZJO) in a community-based sample.
    The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 07/2014; · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Combat exposure is known to increase the risk for mental disorders; however, less is known about the temporal relationship between mental disorders and alcohol misuse or smoking. To better understand these interrelationships, this study investigated mental disorders in association with hazardous drinking and cigarette smoking.
    Journal of Addiction Medicine 06/2014; · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are few longitudinal cohort studies examining associations between incident MRI findings and incident spine-related symptom outcomes. Prior studies do not discriminate between the two distinct outcomes of low back pain (LBP) and radicular symptoms. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a secondary analysis of existing data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Imaging and Disability of the Back (LAIDBACK). The purpose of this study was to examine the association of incident lumbar MRI findings with two specific spine-related symptom outcomes:1) incident chronic bothersome LBP, and 2) incident radicular symptoms such as pain, weakness, or sensation alterations in the lower extremity.
    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 05/2014; 15(1):152. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding physical activity (PA) after discharge from the military can inform theory on the role of habit and reinforcement in behavior maintenance and has implications for this population's future health. Using data from 28,866 Millennium Cohort Study participants (n=3782 of whom were discharged during the years between assessments), we: 1) investigated changes in meeting federal PA Guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) following military discharge, and 2) determined predictors of meeting these Guidelines after discharge. MVPA declined more in those who were discharged than those who were not (-17.8 percentage points vs. -2.7 percentage points), with greater declines in former active-duty personnel, those who had deployed with combat exposures, had 14-25 years of service, and had been discharged more recently (>2 years prior). In those who were discharged, being normal or overweight (vs. obese), and a nonsmoker or former smoker (vs. current smoker) were positively associated with meeting MVPA Guidelines at follow-up, while meeting MVPA Guidelines at baseline and depression were inversely associated. Reductions in MVPA were substantial and unexpected. Increased understanding of transitional periods that may benefit from interventions to mitigate declines in PA will help prevent excess weight gain and physical inactivity-associated health consequences.
    Journal of Physical Activity and Health 05/2014; · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To estimate 3-year risk for diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), lower extremity amputation (LEA) and death; determine predictive variables and assess derived models accuracy. Material and Methods: Retrospective cohort study including all subjects with diabetes enrolled in our diabetic foot outpatient clinic from beginning 2002 until middle 2010. Data was collected from clinical records. Results: 644 subjects with mean age of 65.1 (±11.2) and diabetes duration of 16.1 (±10.8) years. Cumulative incidence was 26.6% for DFU, 5.8% for LEA and 14.0% for death. In multivariate analysis, physical impairment, peripheral arterial disease complication history, complication count and previous DFU were associated with DFU; complication count, foot pulses and previous DFU with LEA and age, complication count and previous DFU with death. Predictive models’ areas under the ROC curves ranged from 0.80 to 0.83. A simplified model including previous DFU and complication count presented high accuracy. Previous DFU was associated with all outcomes, even when adjusted for complication count, in addition to more complex models. Conclusions: DFU seems more than a marker of complication status, having independent impact on LEA and mortality risk. Proposed models may be applicable in healthcare settings to identify patients at higher risk of DFU, LEA and death.
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 04/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have exposed thousands of service members to intense stress, and as a result many have developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The role of military deployment experiences and PTSD on coronary heart disease (CHD) is not well-defined, especially in young US service members with recent combat exposure. We conducted a prospective, cohort study to investigate the relationships between war-time experiences and PTSD on CHD. Current and former US military personnel from all service branches participating in the Millennium Cohort Study during 2001-2008 (n=60,025) were evaluated for newly self-reported CHD. Electronic medical record review for ICD-9-CM codes for CHD was conducted among a subpopulation of active duty members (n=23,794). Logistic regression models examined the associations between combat experiences and PTSD with CHD while adjusting for established CHD risk factors. A total of 627 (1.0%) participants newly reported CHD over an average of 5.6 years of follow-up. Deployers with combat experiences had an increased odds of newly reporting CHD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-2.40) and having a diagnosis code for new-onset CHD (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.31-2.84) compared with noncombat deployers. Screening positive for PTSD symptoms was associated with self-reported CHD prior to, but not after, adjusting for depression and anxiety, and was not associated with a new diagnosis code for CHD. Combat deployments are associated with new-onset CHD among young US service members and veterans. Experiences of intense stress may increase the risk for CHD over a relatively short period among young adults.
    Circulation 03/2014; · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and IGF-1/IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) concentrations are associated with adiposity and insulin resistance. We aimed to determine whether serum IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 are associated with presence or severity of NAFLD independent of potential confounding. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994, a representative sample of the United States adult population. Among participants who had a fasting blood draw and ultrasound examination, we excluded those with missing data, viral hepatitis, iron overload, excessive alcohol intake, pregnancy, or taking glucose-lowering therapy, yielding 4172 adults for this analysis. In logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, higher IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 quartiles were associated with lower likelihood of NAFLD and lower grade steatosis. These associations became non-significant when further adjusted for adiposity (body mass index, waist circumference) with the exception of the association between IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and severity of NAFLD which remained significant after adjustment for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (odds ratio [95% CI]: Q3: 0.71 [0.53–0.96], Q4: 0.62 [0.43–0.89]) and adiposity (Q4: 0.67 [0.47–0.96]). Full adjustment (age, gender, race/ethnicity, adiposity, HOMA-IR, A1C%) further attenuated associations between IGF-1 or IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and liver fat such that they were no longer significant. Adiposity explains much of the observed association between IGF-1 or IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and liver fat. These findings do not support a direct role for the growth hormone-IGF-1/IGFBP-3 axis in the pathophysiology of NAFLD.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 03/2014; 29(3):589-96. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the types of physical activities that older individuals with lower-limb loss perform, correlates of regular physical activity (PA), and barriers and facilitators to PA. We conducted an exploratory study in 158 older Veterans from the Pacific Northwest with a partial foot (35%), below-knee (39%) and above-knee (26%) amputation. Ninety-eight percent of survey respondents were male, on average 65 yr of age and 15 yr postamputation; 36% of amputations were trauma-related. The most commonly reported physical activities were muscle strengthening (42%), yard work and/or gardening (30%), and bicycling (11%). Forty-three percent were classified as physically active based on weekly moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA. History of vigorous preamputation PA was positively associated with being active, while low wealth and watching ≥5 h/d of television/videos were inversely associated. While pain- and resource-related barriers to PA were most frequently reported, only knowledge-related and interest/motivation-related barriers were inversely associated with being active. Family support and financial assistance to join a gym were the most commonly reported factors that would facilitate PA. To increase PA in the older amputee population, interventions should address motivational issues, knowledge gaps, and television watching; reduce financial barriers to exercising; and consider involving family members.
    The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 01/2014; 51(6):895-906. · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 12/2013; 310(23):2565-2566. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationships between smoking and glycaemic variables have not been well explored. We compared HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current, ex- and never-smokers. This meta-analysis used individual data from 16,886 men and 18,539 women without known diabetes in 12 DETECT-2 consortium studies and in the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) and Telecom studies. Means of three glycaemic variables in current, ex- and never-smokers were modelled by linear regression, with study as a random factor. The I (2) statistic was used to evaluate heterogeneity among studies. HbA1c was 0.10% (95% CI 0.08, 0.12) (1.1 mmol/mol [0.9, 1.3]) higher in current smokers and 0.03% (0.01, 0.05) (0.3 mmol/mol [0.1, 0.5]) higher in ex-smokers, compared with never-smokers. For FPG, there was no significant difference between current and never-smokers (-0.004 mmol/l [-0.03, 0.02]) but FPG was higher in ex-smokers (0.12 mmol/l [0.09, 0.14]). In comparison with never-smokers, 2H-PG was lower (-0.44 mmol/l [-0.52, -0.37]) in current smokers, with no difference for ex-smokers (0.02 mmol/l [-0.06, 0.09]). There was a large and unexplained heterogeneity among studies, with I (2) always above 50%; I (2) was little changed after stratification by sex and adjustment for age and BMI. In this study population, current smokers had a prevalence of diabetes that was 1.30% higher as screened by HbA1c and 0.52% lower as screened by 2H-PG, in comparison with never-smokers. Across this heterogeneous group of studies, current smokers had a higher HbA1c and lower 2H-PG than never-smokers. This will affect the chances of smokers being diagnosed with diabetes.
    Diabetologia 09/2013; · 6.49 Impact Factor
  • Edward J Boyko
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    ABSTRACT: Medical research continues to progress in its ability to identify treatments and characteristics associated with benefits and adverse outcomes. The principal engine for the evaluation of treatment efficacy is the randomized controlled trial (RCT). Due to the cost and other considerations, RCTs cannot address all clinically important decisions. Observational research often is used to address issues not addressed or not addressable by RCTs. This article provides an overview of the benefits and limitations of observational research to serve as a guide to the interpretation of this category of research designs in diabetes investigations. The potential for bias is higher in observational research but there are design and analysis features that can address these concerns although not completely eliminate them. Pharmacoepidemiologic research may provide important information regarding relative safety and effectiveness of diabetes pharmaceuticals. Such research must effectively address the important issue of confounding by indication in order to produce clinically meaningful results. Other methods such as instrumental variable analysis are being employed to enable stronger causal inference but these methods also require fulfillment of several key assumptions that may or may not be realistic. Nearly all clinical decisions involve probabilistic reasoning and confronting uncertainly, so a realistic goal for observational research may not be the high standard set by RCTs but instead the level of certainty needed to influence a diagnostic or treatment decision.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 09/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We prospectively examined the relationship between site-specific peak plantar pressure (PPP) and ulcer risk. Researchers have previously reported associations between diabetic foot ulcer and elevated plantar foot pressure, but the effect of location-specific pressures has not been studied. Diabetic subjects (n=591) were enrolled from a single VA hospital. Five measurements of in-shoe plantar pressure were collected using F-Scan. Pressures were measured at 8 areas: heel, lateral midfoot, medial midfoot, first metatarsal, second through fourth metatarsal, fifth metatarsal, hallux, and other toes. The relationship between incident plantar foot ulcer and PPP or pressure-time integral (PTI) was assessed using Cox regression. During follow-up (2.4years), 47 subjects developed plantar ulcers (10 heel, 12 metatarsal, 19 hallux, 6 other). Overall mean PPP was higher for ulcer subjects (219 vs. 194kPa), but the relationship differed by site (the metatarsals with ulcers had higher pressure, while the opposite was true for the hallux and heel). A statistical analysis was not performed on the means, but hazard ratios from a Cox survival analysis were nonsignificant for PPP across all sites and when adjusted for location. However, when the metatarsals were considered separately, higher baseline PPP was significantly associated with greater ulcer risk; at other sites, this relationship was nonsignificant. Hazard ratios for all PTI data were nonsignificant. Location must be considered when assessing the relationship between PPP and plantar ulceration.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 08/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beginning in 2005, the incidence of suicide deaths in the US military began to sharply increase. Unique stressors, such as combat deployments, have been assumed to underlie the increasing incidence. Previous military suicide studies, however, have relied on case series and cross-sectional investigations and have not linked data during service with postservice periods. To prospectively identify and quantify risk factors associated with suicide in current and former US military personnel including demographic, military, mental health, behavioral, and deployment characteristics. Prospective longitudinal study with accrual and assessment of participants in 2001, 2004, and 2007. Questionnaire data were linked with the National Death Index and the Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry through December 31, 2008. Participants were current and former US military personnel from all service branches, including active and Reserve/National Guard, who were included in the Millennium Cohort Study (N = 151,560). Death by suicide captured by the National Death Index and the Department of Defense Medical Mortality Registry. Through the end of 2008, findings were 83 suicides in 707,493 person-years of follow-up (11.73/100,000 person-years [95% CI, 9.21-14.26]). In Cox models adjusted for age and sex, factors significantly associated with increased risk of suicide included male sex, depression, manic-depressive disorder, heavy or binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems. None of the deployment-related factors (combat experience, cumulative days deployed, or number of deployments) were associated with increased suicide risk in any of the models. In multivariable Cox models, individuals with increased risk for suicide were men (hazard ratio [HR], 2.14; 95% CI, 1.17-3.92; P = .01; attributable risk [AR], 3.5 cases/10,000 persons), and those with depression (HR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.05-3.64; P = .03; AR, 6.9/10,000 persons), manic-depressive disorder (HR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.56-12.09; P = .005; AR, 35.6/10,000 persons), or alcohol-related problems (HR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.56-4.18; P <.001; AR, 7.7/10,000 persons). A nested, matched case-control analysis using 20:1 control participants per case confirmed these findings. In this sample of current and former military personnel observed July 1, 2001-December 31, 2008, suicide risk was independently associated with male sex and mental disorders but not with military-specific variables. These findings may inform approaches to mitigating suicide risk in this population.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/2013; 310(5):496-506. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Research has suggested that a higher risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep characteristics exists. However, studies have not thoroughly assessed the potential confounding effects of mental health conditions associated with alterations in sleep.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We prospectively assessed the association between sleep characteristics and self-reported incident diabetes among Millennium Cohort Study participants prospectively followed over a 6-year time period. Surveys are administered approximately every 3 years and collect self-reported data on demographics, height, weight, lifestyle, features of military service, sleep, clinician-diagnosed diabetes, and mental health conditions assessed by the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Statistical methods for longitudinal data were used for data analysis.RESULTSWe studied 47,093 participants (mean 34.9 years of age; mean BMI 26.0 kg/m(2); 25.6% female). During 6 years of follow-up, 871 incident diabetes cases occurred (annual incidence 3.6/1,000 person-years). In univariate analyses, incident diabetes was significantly more likely among participants with self-reported trouble sleeping, sleep duration <6 h, and sleep apnea. Participants reporting incident diabetes were also significantly older, of nonwhite race, of higher BMI, less likely to have been deployed, and more likely to have reported baseline symptoms of panic, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. After adjusting for covariates, trouble sleeping (odds ratio 1.21 [95% CI 1.03-1.42]) and sleep apnea (1.78 [1.39-2.28]) were significantly and independently related to incident diabetes.CONCLUSIONS Trouble sleeping and sleep apnea predict diabetes risk independent of mental health conditions and other diabetes risk factors.
    Diabetes care 07/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite oral hypoglycaemic medications being the most commonly used pharmacological treatments for type 2 diabetes, research is limited on their comparative safety, particularly their effects on overall mortality. We compared mortality risk with monotherapy initiation of four oral hypoglycaemic medications in a nationwide cohort of US veterans with type 2 diabetes. We identified new users of oral hypoglycaemic medication monotherapy between 2004 and 2009 who received care for at least 1 year from the Veterans Health Administration. Patients were followed until initial monotherapy discontinuation, addition of another diabetes pharmacotherapy, death or end of follow-up. Mortality HRs were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for potential confounding factors. Among new users of metformin, sulfonylureas and rosiglitazone (185,360 men, 7,812 women), 4,256 (2.2%) died during follow-up. Average duration of medication use ranged from 1.4 to 1.7 years. Significantly higher mortality risk was seen for glibenclamide (known as glyburide in the USA and Canada) (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.27, 1.50) or glipizide (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.43, 1.67) compared with metformin monotherapy, and for glipizide compared with rosiglitazone (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01, 1.59) or glibenclamide monotherapy (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02, 1.23). A significant sex-rosiglitazone interaction was seen (p = 0.034) compared with metformin monotherapy, with women having a higher HR (HR 4.36, 95% CI 1.34, 14.20) than men (HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.95, 1.49). Significantly higher mortality was associated with glibenclamide, glipizide and rosiglitazone use compared with metformin, and with glipizide use compared with rosiglitazone or glibenclamide. The potential for residual confounding by indication should be considered in interpreting these results.
    Diabetologia 06/2013; · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose . To assess the effects of predeployment and deployment-related factors on dimensions of wellness following deployment. Design . Prospective longitudinal study. The dependent variable was dimensions of wellness. Independent variables were measured in terms of modifiable, nonmodifiable, and military factors, such as sex, race/ethnicity, service branch, smoking status, and combat experience. Setting . A large military cohort participating in the Millennium Cohort Study. Subjects . Included 10,228 participants who deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Measures . Dimensions of wellness were measured by using standardized instruments assessing self-reported physical health, mental health, and stress. Covariates were measured by using self-reported and electronic data. Analysis . Factors of postdeployment wellness were assessed by using ordinal logistic regression. Results . Most participants (78.7%) were categorized as "moderately well" post deployment. Significant modifiable predeployment predictors of postdeployment wellness included normal/underweight body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 1.72, p < .05). Military factors significantly associated with wellness included not experiencing combat (OR = .56, p < .05), member of Air Force (OR = 2.02, p < .05) or Navy/Coast Guard (OR = 1.47, p < .05), and combat specialist occupation (OR = 1.22, p < .05). Conclusion . Multiple modifiable factors associated with postdeployment wellness were identified, which may help inform medical and military leadership on potential strategies to ensure a well force. Those trained in combat roles were more likely to be well post deployment though this apparent benefit was not conferred onto those reporting combat experiences.
    American journal of health promotion: AJHP 04/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patterns of end-of-life care among patients with ESRD differ by race. Whether the magnitude of racial differences in end-of-life care varies across regions is not known. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This observational cohort study used data from the US Renal Data System and regional health care spending patterns from the Dartmouth Atlas of Healthcare. The cohort included 101,331 black and white patients 18 years and older who initiated chronic dialysis or received a kidney transplant between June 1, 2005, and September 31, 2008, and died before October 1, 2009. Black-white differences in the odds of in-hospital death, dialysis discontinuation, and hospice referral by quintile of end-of-life expenditure index (EOL-EI) were examined. RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, the odds ratios for dialysis discontinuation for black versus white patients ranged from 0.47 (95% confidence interval=0.43 to 0.51) in the highest quintile of EOL-EI to 0.63 (95% confidence interval=0.54 to 0.74) in the lowest quintile (P for interaction<0.001). Hospice referral ranged from 0.55 (95% confidence interval=0.50 to 0.60) in the highest quintile of EOL-EI to 0.82 (95% confidence interval=0.69 to 0.96) in the lowest quintile (P for interaction<0.001). The association of race with in-hospital death also differed in magnitude across quintiles of EOL-EI, ranging from 1.21 (95% confidence interval=1.08 to 1.35) in the highest quintile of EOL-EI to 1.47 (95% confidence interval=1.27 to 1.71) in the second quintile (P for interaction<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There are pronounced black-white differences in patterns of hospice referral and dialysis discontinuation among patients with ESRD that vary substantially across regions of the United States.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,701.13 Total Impact Points


  • 1996–2014
    • VA Puget Sound Health Care System
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1990–2014
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Naval Health Research Center
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Molecular Microbiology
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
    • Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
      • Clinical Diabetes and Epidemiology Research Group
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2012
    • Puget Sound Blood Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Osaka City University
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Ōsaka-shi, Osaka-fu, Japan
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho
      Portus Cale, Porto, Portugal
    • Yale University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, CT, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes & Clinical Nutrition
      Portland, OR, United States
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Preventive Medicine & Biometrics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2000–2008
    • Diabetes Australia, Victoria
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2002
    • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1999
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995–1997
    • Alaska Native Medical Center
      Anchorage, Alaska, United States
  • 1994
    • Swedish Medical Center Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1992–1993
    • Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium
      Anchorage, Alaska, United States
    • University of Colorado Hospital
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 1988–1989
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Medicine
      Denver, CO, United States