Edward J Boyko

Trinity Washington University, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (242)1371.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Electronic health data are routinely used to conduct studies of cardiovascular disease in the setting of the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Previous studies have estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but the sensitivity of these codes for all true events and the accuracy of coding algorithms for prevalent disease status at baseline are largely unknown. Methods: We randomly sampled 180 Veterans from the VA Puget Sound Health Care System who initiated diabetes treatment. The full electronic medical record was reviewed to identify prevalent conditions at baseline and acute MI events during follow-up. The accuracy of various coding algorithms was assessed. Results: Algorithms for previous acute events at baseline had high PPV (previous MI: 97%; previous stroke: 81%) but low sensitivity (previous MI: 38%; previous stroke: 52%). Algorithms for chronic conditions at baseline had high PPV (heart failure: 72%; coronary heart disease [CHD]: 85%) and high sensitivity (heart failure: 90%, CHD: 84%). For current smoking status at baseline, ICD-9 codes with pharmacy data had a PPV of 77% and sensitivity of 73%. The coding algorithm for acute MI events during follow-up had high PPV (80%) and sensitivity (89%) CONCLUSIONS: ICD-9 codes for acute MI events during follow-up had high PPV and sensitivity. The sensitivity of ICD-9 codes for previous acute events at baseline was low, but a composite variable for baseline CHD had good accuracy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 11/2015; DOI:10.1002/pds.3921 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To characterize weight change following amputation by identifying typical weight trajectories in men with incident lower limb amputation (LLA) and describing characteristics associated with each trajectory. Design: Retrospective cohort study and analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling. Setting: Department of Veteran's Affairs inpatient and outpatient administrative data. Participants: Male veterans (n=759) in the Northwest United States who had an incident toe, foot, or leg amputation between 1997 and 2008 and at least 18 months of amputation-free survival thereafter. Interventions: Not applicable. Main outcome measures: Post-amputation weight and BMI change. Results: The mean weight at baseline was 202 pounds (91.6 kilograms) (SD=53 pounds (24 kg)) and average follow-up was 2.4 years. We identified four trajectory groups for weight change: weight loss (13% of sample), stable weight (47%), slow weight gain (33%), and rapid weight gain (7%). Men with a toe or foot amputation most frequently were assigned to the stable weight group (58%), while men with transtibial or transfemoral amputations were most commonly assigned to the slow weight gain group (42% each). Men who died during follow-up were more likely to be assigned to the weight loss group (24%) compared to men who did not die (11%). Conclusions: We identified distinct weight change trajectories that represent heterogeneity in weight change following LLA. An improved understanding of factors predictive of weight gain or loss in people with LLA may help better target rehabilitation and prosthetic prescription. Additional research is needed to fully understand the relationship between weight change and health status following amputation.
    Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2015.09.017 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine cross-sectionally whether intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA), i.e., visceral fat, and liver fat assessed by computed tomography (CT) are independently associated with hyperuricemia. Methods: We included 801 Japanese men not taking antidiabetic, antihypertensive, or urate lowering medications, without any history of renal disease, cardiovascular disease, or cancer, and with serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL. Abdominal, thoracic, and thigh fat areas were measured by CT. Total fat area (TFA) was the sum of these fat areas. Total subcutaneous fat area (TSFA) was TFA minus IAFA. Liver fat was assessed by liver-to-spleen (L/S) ratio measured by CT. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid level >7.0 mg/dL. Its association with adiposity was tested using logistic regression. Results: Prevalence of hyperuricemia was 19.6% (157 men). Both greater IAFA and lower L/S ratio were independently associated with hyperuricemia in models that simultaneously included IAFA and L/S ratio: multiple-adjusted odds ratios of hyperuricemia for quintile 3, 4, and 5 of IAFA were 2.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.59), 2.41 (1.13-5.16), and 4.00 (1.81-8.85), respectively, compared to quintile 1, and those for quintile 3, 2, and 1 of L/S ratio were 2.34 (1.16-4.75), 2.15 (1.06-4.34), and 2.79 (1.35-5.76), respectively, compared to quintile 5. Both IAFA and L/S ratio remained significant even after adjusting for abdominal subcutaneous fat area, TFA, TSFA, body mass index, or waist circumference. Of all fat measurements, IAFA had the strongest association with hyperuricemia by Akaike's information criteria. Conclusion: Both greater amounts of visceral and liver fat were independently associated with hyperuricemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    09/2015; DOI:10.1002/acr.22729
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Recent studies have suggested that HDL cholesterol is inversely associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the association between different HDL subclasses and the risk for future type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: The study enrolled 406 Japanese Americans (51% male) without diabetes, aged 34-75 years. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed to determine type 2 diabetes status at baseline, 2.5 years, 5 years, and 10 years after enrollment. HDL2, HDL3, total HDL cholesterol, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area by computed tomography were measured at baseline. Results: In univariate analysis, total HDL and HDL2 cholesterol were inversely associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes, but HDL3 cholesterol was not. In multivariate analysis, total HDL cholesterol (odds ratio per 1-SD increment, 0.72 [95% CI 0.52-0.995], P = 0.047) and HDL2 cholesterol (odds ratio per 1-SD increment, 0.64 [95% CI 0.44-0.93], P = 0.018) were inversely associated with the risk for type 2 diabetes independent of age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, family history of diabetes, lifestyle factors, systolic blood pressure, lipid-lowering medication use, triglyceride level, HOMA-insulin resistance, and 2-h glucose; however, HDL3 cholesterol was not associated with diabetes risk. The association between diabetes risk and total HDL and HDL2 cholesterol became insignificant after adjustment for VAT area. Conclusions: Subjects with higher HDL2 cholesterol were at lower risk for incident type 2 diabetes, but this association was confounded by and not independent of VAT. Higher HDL3 cholesterol was not associated with diabetes risk.
    Diabetes care 09/2015; DOI:10.2337/dc15-0625 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.
    The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 08/2015; 52(2):159-70. DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2014.07.0166 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Culture of isolated rodent islets is widely used in diabetes research to assess different endpoints, including outcomes requiring histochemical staining. As islet yields during isolation are limited, we determined the number of islets required to obtain reliable data by histology. We found that mean values for insulin-positive β-cell area/islet area, thioflavin S-positive amyloid area/islet area and β-cell apoptosis do not vary markedly when more than 30 islets are examined. Measurement variability declines as more islets are quantified, so that the variability of the coefficient of variation (CV) in human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) transgenic islets for β-cell area/islet area, amyloid area/islet area and β-cell apoptosis are 13.20% ± 1.52%, 10.03% ± 1.76% and 6.78% ± 1.53%, respectively (non-transgenic: 7.65% ± 1.17% β-cell area/islet area and 8.93% ± 1.56% β-cell apoptosis). Increasing the number of islets beyond 30 had marginal effects on the CV. Using 30 islets, 6 hIAPP-transgenic preparations are required to detect treatment effects of 14% for β-cell area/islet area, 30% for amyloid area/islet area and 23% for β-cell apoptosis (non-transgenic: 9% for β-cell area/islet area and 45% for β-cell apoptosis). This information will be of value in the design of studies using isolated islets to examine β cells and islet amyloid. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 08/2015; 63(8):663-73. DOI:10.1369/0022155415585995 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Hypertension 05/2015; 66(1). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04990 · 6.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined whether military service, including deployment and combat experience, were related to smoking initiation and relapse. We included older (panel 1) and younger (panel 2) participants in the Millennium Cohort Study. Never smokers were followed for 3 to 6 years for smoking initiation, and former smokers were followed for relapse. Complementary log-log regression models estimated the relative risk (RR) of initiation and relapse by military exposure while adjusting for demographic, health, and lifestyle factors. Deployment with combat experience predicted higher initiation rate (panel 1: RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 1.62; panel 2: RR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.54) and relapse rate (panel 1 only: RR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.62). Depending on the panel, previous mental health disorders, life stressors, and other military and nonmilitary characteristics independently predicted initiation and relapse. Deployment with combat experience and previous mental disorder may identify military service members in need of intervention to prevent smoking initiation and relapse. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 16, 2015: e1-e10. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302538).
    American Journal of Public Health 04/2015; 105(6):e1-e10. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302538 · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To prospectively examine the association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and weight change. Longitudinal analysis techniques were used to examine data (2001-2008) from Millennium Cohort Study participants, consisting of U.S. service members and veterans. Using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, PTSD was assessed as none, resolved, new onset, or persistent. Subsequent weight change was assessed as stable (≤3% loss or gain), >3% weight loss, >3% but <10% weight gain, and ≥10% weight gain. Of the 38,352 participants, 2391 (6.2%) had PTSD (838 resolved, 1024 new onset, and 529 persistent), and 11% of participants subsequently had ≥10% weight gain. In multivariable models, PTSD was associated with higher odds of ≥10% weight gain (new onset OR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.20-1.73]; persistent OR: 1.51 [CI: 1.17-1.96]; resolved OR: 1.30 [CI: 1.05-1.60]) compared with those without PTSD. New-onset and persistent PTSD were also associated with higher odds of >3% weight loss (OR: 1.41 [CI: 1.17-1.71]; OR: 1.42 [CI: 1.09-1.86], respectively). PTSD is independently associated with a higher risk of weight gain and loss, the former of which leads to a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and a higher risk of comorbidities associated with excessive body adiposity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
    Obesity 03/2015; 23(4). DOI:10.1002/oby.21025 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many HIV antiretroviral medications have been associated with chronic liver injury. HIV-infected patients frequently develop HIV and highly active antiretroviral treatment-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS), characterized by accumulation of intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. We sought to determine whether long-term exposure to specific antiretroviral medications or the presence of HALS predispose HIV-infected patients to the development of cirrhosis. HIV-infected patients with cirrhosis who received care in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System nationally in 2009 were matched by hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection status and year of first visit for HIV to the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System with HIV-infected patients without cirrhosis in a 1 : 3 ratio. Among HIV/HCV coinfected patients (593 with cirrhosis and 1591 matched controls), HALS was associated with a significantly increased risk for cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.3), especially among Black patients (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.6-5.2). In addition, among HIV/HCV coinfected patients, longer cumulative exposures to all antiretroviral medications, all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, all protease inhibitors, and selected individual medications (didanosine, stavudine, and nelfinavir) were found to be significantly associated with cirrhosis. In contrast, among HIV-infected patients not coinfected with HCV (245 with cirrhosis and 658 matched controls), HALS or exposure to antiretroviral medications was found not to be significantly associated with cirrhosis, with the exception of didanosine. HALS and cumulative exposure to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, especially stavudine, didanosine, and nelfinavir, were found to be associated with the development of cirrhosis in HIV/HCV coinfected patients, but not in HIV-monoinfected patients.
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 03/2015; 27(5). DOI:10.1097/MEG.0000000000000290 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asian Americans manifest type 2 diabetes at low BMI levels but may not undergo diagnostic testing for diabetes if the currently recommended BMI screening cut point of ≥25 kg/m(2) is followed. We aimed to ascertain an appropriate lower BMI cut point among Asian-American adults without a prior diabetes diagnosis. We consolidated data from 1,663 participants, ages ≥45 years, without a prior diabetes diagnosis, from population- and community-based studies, including the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study, the North Kohala Study, the Seattle Japanese American Community Diabetes Study, and the University of California San Diego Filipino Health Study. Clinical measures included a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Mean age was 59.7 years, mean BMI was 25.4 kg/m(2), 58% were women, and type 2 diabetes prevalence (American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria) was 16.9%. At BMI ≥25 kg/m(2), sensitivity (63.7%), specificity (52.8%), and Youden index (0.16) values were low; limiting screening to BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) would miss 36% of Asian Americans with type 2 diabetes. For screening purposes, higher sensitivity is desirable to minimize missing cases, especially if the diagnostic test is relatively simple and inexpensive. At BMI ≥23 kg/m(2), sensitivity (84.7%) was high in the total sample and by sex and Asian-American subgroup and would miss only ∼15% of Asian Americans with diabetes. The BMI cut point for identifying Asian Americans who should be screened for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes should be <25 kg/m(2), and ≥23 kg/m(2) may be the most practical. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes Care 02/2015; 38(5). DOI:10.2337/dc14-2071 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to define the risk of hearing loss among US military members in relation to their deployment experiences. Data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported data and objective military service data were used to assess exposures and outcomes. Among all 48,540 participants, 7.5% self-reported new-onset hearing loss. Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69) with objective audiometric measures. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77), as well as male sex and older age. Among deployers, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.62-2.73) and with experiencing a combat-related head injury (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI = 3.77-12.54). These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs.
    Noise and Health 01/2015; 17(74):34-42. DOI:10.4103/1463-1741.149574 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Military service members may be prone to relapse to problem drinking after remission, given a culture of alcohol use as a coping mechanism for stressful or traumatic events associated with military duties or exposures. However, the prevalence and correlates of relapse are unknown. We sought to identify socio-demographic, military, behavioral, and health characteristics associated with relapse among current and former military members with remittent problem drinking. Participants in the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study who reported problem drinking at baseline (2001-2003) and were remittent at first follow-up (2004-2006) were included (n=6909). Logistic regression models identified demographic, military service, behavioral, and health characteristics that predicted relapse (report of ≥1 past-year alcohol-related problem on the validated Patient Health Questionnaire) at the second follow-up (2007-2008). Sixteen percent of those with remittent problem drinking relapsed. Reserve/National Guard members compared with active-duty members (odds ratio [OR]=1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45-2.01), members separated from the military during follow-up (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.16-1.83), and deployers who reported combat exposure (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.07-1.62, relative to non-deployers) were significantly more likely to relapse. Those with multiple deployments were significantly less likely to relapse (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.58-0.92). Behavioral factors and mental health conditions also predicted relapse. Relapse was common and associated with military and non-military factors. Targeted intervention to prevent relapse may be indicated for military personnel in particular subgroups, such as Reservists, veterans, and those who deploy with combat exposure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 01/2015; 148. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.12.031 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Symptoms and illnesses reported by veterans of the 1991 Gulf War era are a cause of potential concern for those military members who have deployed to the Gulf region in support of more recent contingency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In the present study, we quantified self-reported symptoms from participants in the Millennium Cohort Study, a prospective study representing all US service branches, including both active duty and Reserve/National Guard components (2001-2008). Self-reported symptoms were uniquely compared with those in a cohort of subjects from the 1991 Gulf War to gain context for the present report. Symptoms were then aggregated to identify cases of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) based on the case definition from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The prevalence of self-reported CMI symptoms was compared with that collected in 1997-1999 from a study population of US Seabees from the 1991 Gulf War, as well as from deployed and nondeployed subgroups. Although overall symptom reporting was much less in the Millennium Cohort than in the 1991 Gulf War cohort, a higher prevalence of reported CMI was noted among deployed compared with nondeployed contemporary cohort members. An increased understanding of coping skills and resilience and development of well-designed screening instruments, along with appropriate clinical and psychological follow-up for returning veterans, might help to focus resources on early identification of potential long-term chronic disease manifestations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    American Journal of Epidemiology 12/2014; 180(12). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu240 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is thought to be highly prevalent in persons with lower extremity amputations (LEAs) and can impair physical and social functioning. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of weight loss intention, weight loss strategies, dietary patterns, and barriers to making dietary changes, and their associations with body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), amputation characteristics, health status, and socioeconomic factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study (n = 150) using data from a self-administered questionnaire. 43% of participants were obese and 48% were trying to lose weight; 83% of those trying to lose weight reported trying to "eat differently", but only 7% were following a comprehensive weight loss program involving dietary changes, physical activity, and behavioral counseling. 21% of participants reported ≥6 barriers to changing their eating habits (e.g., habit, too little money, stress/depression). Obesity was associated with younger age, lower physical health scores, hypertension, arthritis, and diabetes. Compared to those not trying to lose weight, a greater proportion of those trying to lose weight had a BMI ≥35 kg/m(2), age <55 years, higher physical and mental health scores, and more frequent consumption of vegetables, beans, chicken, and fish. Though over half of overweight and obese individuals with LEA were trying to lose weight, few reported following a comprehensive program to lose weight, which may indicate an unmet need for services for this group. To be effective, these programs will need to address the complex physical and mental health challenges that many of these individuals face. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Disability and Health Journal 11/2014; 8(3). DOI:10.1016/j.dhjo.2014.10.003 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the types of physical activities that older individuals with lower-limb loss perform, correlates of regular physical activity (PA), and barriers and facilitators to PA. We conducted an exploratory study in 158 older Veterans from the Pacific Northwest with a partial foot (35%), below-knee (39%) and above-knee (26%) amputation. Ninety-eight percent of survey respondents were male, on average 65 yr of age and 15 yr postamputation; 36% of amputations were trauma-related. The most commonly reported physical activities were muscle strengthening (42%), yard work and/or gardening (30%), and bicycling (11%). Forty-three percent were classified as physically active based on weekly moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA. History of vigorous preamputation PA was positively associated with being active, while low wealth and watching ≥5 h/d of television/videos were inversely associated. While pain- and resource-related barriers to PA were most frequently reported, only knowledge-related and interest/motivation-related barriers were inversely associated with being active. Family support and financial assistance to join a gym were the most commonly reported factors that would facilitate PA. To increase PA in the older amputee population, interventions should address motivational issues, knowledge gaps, and television watching; reduce financial barriers to exercising; and consider involving family members.
    The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 10/2014; 51(6):895-906. DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2013.06.0152 · 1.43 Impact Factor
  • Barbara M Brooks-Worrell · Edward J Boyko · Jerry P Palmer ·
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Cross-sectional studies have suggested that islet autoimmunity may be more prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2D) than previously appreciated and may contribute to the progressive decline in β-cell function. In this study, we longitudinally evaluated the effect of islet autoimmune development on the progressive β-cell dysfunction in T2D patients. Research design and methods: Twenty-three T2D patients negative for islet autoantibodies (GAD antibody and insulinoma-associated protein 2) and islet-specific T cells were evaluated prospectively for up to 36 months. We investigated the percentage of patients who developed islet autoantibodies (Ab+) and/or islet-reactive T cells (T+) and the effect of the islet autoimmunity on fasting and glucagon-stimulated C-peptide responses. We defined positive islet autoimmunity as Ab+ and/or T+ for at least two study visits. Results: Of the 23 patients, 6 (26%) remained negative for islet autoimmunity (Ab-T-), 14 (61%) developed Ab+ and/or T+, and 3 (13%) were unclassifiable because they developed islet autoimmunity at only one study visit. Islet Ab+ was observed to be less stable than islet-specific T-cell responses. Development of islet autoimmunity was significantly associated with a more rapid decline in fasting (P < 0.0001) and glucagon-stimulated (P < 0.05) C-peptide responses. Conclusions: These pilot data suggest that the development of islet autoimmunity in T2D is associated with a significantly more rapid β-cell functional decline.
    Diabetes Care 09/2014; 37(12). DOI:10.2337/dc14-0961 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Potential adverse mental health effects of deployment, including depression, are an ongoing concern. Although a previous study assessed under-reporting of depression on post-deployment health assessments compared to anonymous surveys, those results were not examined at the individual level to identify demographic or military factors that may be associated with unwillingness to report depression symptoms. Purpose: To compare self-reported depression symptoms on post-deployment health assessments with responses to the same depression questions on a research survey. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed depression screening responses from 2001 to 2008 from participants of the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal military cohort study, who completed a post-deployment health assessment within 30 days of a research survey. Kappa statistics and percent positive and negative agreement were calculated. Demographic and military characteristics associated with discordant screening results were examined. Initial analyses were performed in 2011, with additional analyses in 2013. Results: Moderate agreement (kappa=0.464) was observed between paired survey responses. A higher proportion of active duty members, the unmarried, and new accessions into military service endorsed depression symptoms on the research survey but not the military-linked survey. In stratified analyses, agreement was higher in Reserve/National Guard members than active duty (kappa=0.561 vs 0.409). New active duty accessions showed lower agreement (kappa=0.388), as did unmarried active duty participants (kappa=0.304). Conclusions: Deployment health surveys are important tools for identifying returning service members experiencing depression symptoms. However, these findings suggest that ongoing stigma and barriers to appropriate follow-up mental health care remain to be addressed in the military setting.
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine 09/2014; 47(5). DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.07.036 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are no prior epidemiologic studies examining associations between physical activity and imaging-detected lumbar zygapophyseal joint osteoarthritis (ZJO) in a community-based sample.
    The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 07/2014; 15(1). DOI:10.1016/j.spinee.2014.06.022 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Combat exposure is known to increase the risk for mental disorders; however, less is known about the temporal relationship between mental disorders and alcohol misuse or smoking. To better understand these interrelationships, this study investigated mental disorders in association with hazardous drinking and cigarette smoking. Methods: Using data from a large population-based military cohort, standardized instruments were used to screen for posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, panic, and other anxiety syndromes. Self-reported use of cigarettes and hazardous drinking was also assessed. Subjects were classified as having "new-onset," "persistent," or "resolved" mental disorders and health risk behaviors on the basis of screening results from baseline to follow-up (n = 50,028). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate temporal patterns between the development of mental disorders and the uptake of smoking or hazardous drinking. Results: The strongest associations of new-onset mental disorders were among those who newly reported smoking or hazardous drinking (odds ratio [OR], 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-2.59 and OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 2.15-2.89, respectively), even after adjustment for combat deployment experience. In addition, persistent smokers and hazardous drinkers had elevated odds for developing a mental disorder at follow-up. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a positive association between the onset of mental disorders with the uptake of smoking and hazardous drinking and the likelihood that multiple temporal sequence patterns exist to explain the relationship between mental disorders and hazardous drinking and smoking. Clinical approaches to mitigate deployment-related mental disorders should include alcohol and tobacco-related assessments and interventions.
    Journal of Addiction Medicine 06/2014; 8(4). DOI:10.1097/ADM.0000000000000050 · 1.76 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,371.23 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Trinity Washington University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1997-2015
    • VA Puget Sound Health Care System
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1990-2015
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Health Services
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2004-2014
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2009-2013
    • United States Department of Veterans Affairs
      Бедфорд, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • Osaka City University
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Ōsaka-shi, Osaka-fu, Japan
  • 2007-2012
    • Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Hospital
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2011
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Preventive Medicine & Biometrics
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2008-2011
    • Naval Health Research Center
      • Department of Warfighter Performance
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2005
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2002
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Nutrition
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1989
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Medicine
      Denver, CO, United States