[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor and a nitrovasodilator drug used for patients with hypertensive crisis, has been shown to promote angiogenesis. However, direct evidence showing the involvement of NO in the SNP-induced angiogenesis is not available. Accordingly, we assessed whether NO generated from SNP-stimulated ovine fetoplacental artery endothelial (OFPAE) cell proliferation via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1, also termed ERK1/2). We observed that SNP dose dependently stimulated (P < 0.05) cell proliferation with a maximal effect at 1 microM and that SNP rapidly (<or=15 min) phosphorylated (P < 0.05) MAPK3/1 but not v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1). Treatment of cells with SNP caused a rapid increase in NO levels in media. These increased NO levels were inhibited (P < 0.05) by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5 tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO), a NO scavenger. The SNP-induced cell proliferation and MAPK3/1 phosphorylation were attenuated (P < 0.05) by both PTIO and PD98059, a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and 2 (MAP2K1/2, also termed MEK1/2) inhibitor. Using a semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis, we also showed that up to 12 h of treatment, SNP and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, a NOS inhibitor) did not alter mRNA expression of VEGF, FGF2, and their major receptors in OFPAE cells. The SNP's stimulatory effects on OFPAE cell proliferation and MAPK3/1 activation were confirmed in a human placental artery endothelial (HPAE) cell line. These data indicate that exogenous NO generated from SNP is able to stimulate fetoplacental artery endothelial cell proliferation at least partly via activation of the MAP2K1/2/MAPK3/1 cascade. These data also suggest that SNP could potentially be used to modulate placental angiogenesis.
Biology of Reproduction 03/2006; 74(2):375-82. · 4.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While many endothelial cell lines exist, few are of human origin with characteristics close to the parent endothelial cell. We derived a subline (HUVEC-CS) of immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC-C) that proliferate in standard growth media and exhibit positive acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL) uptake, express eNOS, CD31 and ve-cadherin, and spontaneously form capillary-like structures when grown on Matrigel. HUVEC-CS also maintain endothelial cell characteristics at the level of mitogenesis, kinase activation and vasodilator production. Like primary HUVEC cells, HUVEC-CS express many of the key proteins necessary for vasodilator production, including epithelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), HSP 90, cav-1 and -2, cPLA2, and COX-1 and -2. Prostaglandin I synthase (PGIS) was not detectable by Western blot analysis, consistent with primary HUVEC in which PGI2 production is minimal. Receptors were detected for angiotensin II (AII), bradykinin, ATP and growth factors. ATP induced a dose- and time-dependent rise in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Initially, ATP stimulates P2Y receptors rather than P2X receptors, as demonstrated by the inability of ATP to initiate a Ca2+ response subsequent to emptying of the internal Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin. AII, bradykinin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) also caused a rise in [Ca2+]i in a subset of the cells. ATP, basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF), EGF and VEGF induced mitogenesis and caused a rise in ERK 2 activation within 10 min. L-Arginine to L-citrulline conversion assays showed that ATP, EGF and VEGF induced a significant rise in eNOS activity, and this correlates with an ability to induce Ca2+ mobilization and ERK 2 activation. In conclusion, HUVEC-CS are indeed endothelial cells and appear to be functionally very similar to primary HUVEC. These cells will prove a valuable tool for future studies in both basic and therapeutic sciences.
Journal of Endocrinology 10/2004; 182(3):485-99. · 4.06 Impact Factor