[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult stem cells are the most primitive cells of a lineage and are distinguished by the properties of self-renewal and multipotency. Coordinated control of stem cell proliferation and multilineage differentiation is essential to ensure a steady output of differentiated daughter cells necessary to maintain tissue homeostasis. However, little is known about the signals that coordinate stem cell proliferation and daughter cell differentiation. Here we investigate the role of the conserved JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the Drosophila intestinal stem cell (ISC) lineage. We show first, that JAK/STAT signaling is normally active in both ISCs and their newly formed daughters, but not in terminally differentiated enteroendocrine (ee) cells or enterocyte (EC) cells. Second, analysis of ISC lineages shows that JAK/STAT signaling is necessary but not sufficient for daughter cell differentiation, indicating that competence to undergo multilineage differentiation depends upon JAK/STAT. Finally, our analysis reveals JAK/STAT signaling to be a potent regulator of ISC proliferation, but not ISC self-renewal. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a model in which JAK/STAT signaling coordinates the processes of stem cell proliferation with the competence of daughter cells to undergo multilineage differentiation, ensuring a robust cellular output in the lineage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult stem cells define a cellular reserve with the unique capacity to replenish differentiated cells of a tissue throughout an organism's lifetime. Previous analysis has demonstrated that the adult Drosophila midgut is maintained by a population of multipotent intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that resides in epithelial niches. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), a tumor suppressor gene conserved in both invertebrates and vertebrates, is known to play a role in multiple developmental processes in Drosophila. Here, we examine the consequences of eliminating Apc function on adult midgut homeostasis. Our analysis shows that loss of Apc results in the disruption of midgut homeostasis and is associated with hyperplasia and multilayering of the midgut epithelium. A mosaic analysis of marked ISC cell lineages demonstrates that Apc is required specifically in ISCs to regulate proliferation, but is not required for ISC self-renewal or the specification of cell fate within the lineage. Cell autonomous activation of Wnt signaling in the ISC lineage phenocopied Apc loss and Apc mutants were suppressed in an allele-specific manner by abrogating Wnt signaling, suggesting that the effects of Apc are mediated in part by the Wnt pathway. Together, these data underscore the essential requirement of Apc in exerting regulatory control over stem cell activity, as well as the consequences that disrupting this regulation can have on tissue homeostasis.
Development 08/2009; 136(13):2255-64. · 6.21 Impact Factor