Patrick Smith

Roche, Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland

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Publications (10)48.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mericitabine is the prodrug of RO4995855, a selective inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase. This study assessed the effect of renal impairment on RO4995855 pharmacokinetics. In this open-label study, HCV-negative volunteers (18–75 years) with normal renal function (NRF: creatinine clearance [CLCR] >80 mL/min, n = 10) or stable renal impairment (mild: CLCR 50–80 mL/min, n = 10; moderate: CLCR 30–49 mL/min, n = 10) received oral mericitabine 1000 mg twice daily (BID) (500 mg BID for moderate renal impairment) for 5 days. Primary outcome measures were renal clearance, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), and area under the concentration-time curve (0–12 h) (AUC0–12) for RO4995855. Renal clearance decreased as renal function decreased. Relative to subjects with NRF, the geometric mean ratios (GMR) for AUC0–12 and Cmax in mild renal impairment subjects were 1.45 (90% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–1.66) and 1.14 (1.02–1.28), respectively. For moderate renal impairment subjects, the dose-normalized GMR for AUC0–12 and Cmax relative to NRF subjects were 2.51 (90% CI, 2.19–2.88) and 1.76 (1.56–1.97), respectively. Renal clearance of RO4995855 declined in subjects with mild/moderate renal impairment following mericitabine. Dose adjustment of mericitabine may be required in patients with moderate renal impairment.
    Drug Development Research 01/2014; · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background & Aims: Danoprevir (DNV) is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitor that achieves high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin in treatment-naive HCV genotype (G)1-infected patients. This study explored the efficacy and safety of ritonavir-boosted DNV (DNVr) plus peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin in G1 prior peginterferon/ribavirin null responders.Methods: Null responders (<2-log10 reduction in HCV RNA at week 12) were given open-label DNVr 100/100 mg q12h + peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin for 12 weeks. All patients achieving an early virologic response (EVR; ≥2-log10 decrease in HCV RNA by week 12) continued treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin; those without an EVR discontinued all study drugs.Results: Twenty-four prior null responders were enrolled; 16 patients (67%) were infected with HCV G1b, and 8 (33%) with G1a. 96% of patients had an IL28B non-CC genotype. An SVR24 was achieved in 67% of patients, with a higher rate in G1b-infected (88%) vs. G1a-infected (25%) patients. Resistance-related breakthrough occurred in 4/8 G1a and 1/16 G1b patients through the DNV resistance-associated variant (RAV) NS3 R155K. NS3 R155K was also detected in 2/2 G1a patients who relapsed. Treatment was well tolerated. Two patients withdrew prematurely from study medications due to adverse events. Two serious adverse events were reported; both occurred after completion of DNVr therapy and were considered unrelated to treatment. No Grade 3/4 ALT elevations were observed.Conclusions: DNVr plus peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin demonstrated high SVR24 rates in HCV G1b prior null responders and was well tolerated.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mericitabine, the di-isobutyl ester prodrug of the cytidine nucleoside analog, is a potent and selective hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase inhibitor. This thorough QT/QTc study evaluated the effect of mericitabine on cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, 4-way crossover study. A total of 60 subjects were enrolled and randomized to receive a single dose of mericitabine 1500 mg, 9000 mg, moxifloxacin 400 mg and placebo in randomly assigned treatment sequences, with at least 14 days between doses. The primary endpoint was the mean difference in baseline-adjusted QT interval using a study-specific correction method (QTcS) between mericitabine and placebo. The upper one-sided 95% confidence interval for the placebo-subtracted change from baseline in QTcS was <10 ms and the mean difference from placebo was <5 ms at all time points for both mericitabine doses. The positive control moxifloxacin caused a pronounced increase in QTcS that peaked 4 hours after oral administration. Furthermore, there was no trend of a concentration-dependent effect of mericitabine on QTcS. In conclusion, mericitabine does not have a clinically or statistically significant effect on cardiac repolarization in healthy subjects at single doses up to 9000 mg.
    Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development. 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Danoprevir, a potent, selective inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease, is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. Clinical studies in HCV patients have shown a potential need for a high danoprevir daily dose and/or dosing frequency. Ritonavir, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) and potent CYP3A inhibitor, is used as a pharmacokinetic enhancer at subtherapeutic doses in combination with other HIV PIs. Coadministering danoprevir with ritonavir as a pharmacokinetic enhancer could allow reduced danoprevir doses and/or dosing frequency. Here we evaluate the impact of ritonavir on danoprevir pharmacokinetics. The effects of low-dose ritonavir on danoprevir pharmacokinetics were simulated using Simcyp, a population-based simulator. Following results from this drug-drug interaction (DDI) model, a crossover study was performed in healthy volunteers to investigate the effects of acute and repeat dosing of low-dose ritonavir on danoprevir single-dose pharmacokinetics. Volunteers received a single oral dose of danoprevir 100 mg in a fixed sequence as follows: alone, and on the first day and the last day of 10-day dosing with ritonavir 100 mg every 12 hours. The initial DDI model predicted that following multiple dosing of ritonavir 100 mg every 12 hours for 10 days, the danoprevir area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 24 hours and maximum plasma drug concentration (C(max)) would increase by about 3.9- and 3.2-fold, respectively. The clinical results at day 10 of ritonavir dosing showed that the plasma drug concentration at 12 hours postdose, AUC from time zero to infinity and C(max) of danoprevir increased by approximately 42-fold, 5.5-fold and 3.2-fold, respectively, compared with danoprevir alone. The DDI model was refined with the clinical data and sensitivity analyses were performed to better understand factors impacting the ritonavir-danoprevir interaction. DDI model simulations predicted that danoprevir exposures could be successfully enhanced with ritonavir coadministration, and that a clinical study confirming this result was warranted. The clinical results demonstrate that low-dose ritonavir enhances the pharmacokinetic profile of low-dose danoprevir such that overall danoprevir exposures can be reduced while sustaining danoprevir trough concentrations.
    Clinical Pharmacokinetics 05/2012; 51(7):457-65. · 6.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This analysis was conducted to determine whether the hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral kinetics (VK) model can predict viral load (VL) decreases for nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitors (NNPolIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) after 3-day monotherapy studies of patients infected with genotype 1 chronic HCV. This analysis includes data for 8 NNPolIs and 14 PIs, including VL decreases from 3-day monotherapy, total plasma trough concentrations on day 3 (C(min)), replicon data (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] and protein-shifted EC(50) [EC(50,PS)]), and for PIs, liver-to-plasma ratios (LPRs) measured in vivo in preclinical species. VK model simulations suggested that achieving additional log(10) VL decreases greater than one required 10-fold increases in the C(min). NNPolI and PI data further supported this result. The VK model was successfully used to predict VL decreases in 3-day monotherapy for NNPolIs based on the EC(50,PS) and the day 3 C(min). For PIs, however, predicting VL decreases using the same model and the EC(50,PS) and day 3 C(min) was not successful; a model including LPR values and the EC(50) instead of the EC(50,PS) provided a better prediction of VL decrease. These results are useful for designing phase 1 monotherapy studies for NNPolIs and PIs by clarifying factors driving VL decreases, such as the day 3 C(min) and the EC(50,PS) for NNPolIs or the EC(50) and LPR for PIs. This work provides a framework for understanding the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship for other HCV drug classes. The availability of mechanistic data on processes driving the target concentration, such as liver uptake transporters, should help to improve the predictive power of the approach.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2012; 56(6):3144-56. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Danoprevir is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor that promotes multi-log(10) reductions in HCV RNA when administered as a 14-day monotherapy to patients with genotype 1 chronic HCV. Of these patients, 14/37 experienced a continuous decline in HCV RNA, 13/37 a plateau, and 10/37 a rebound. The rebound and continuous-decline groups experienced similar median declines in HCV RNA through day 7, but their results diverged notably at day 14. Plateau group patients experienced a lesser, but sustained, median HCV RNA decline. Baseline danoprevir susceptibility was similar across response groups but was reduced significantly at day 14 in the rebound group. Viral rebound in genotype 1b was uncommon (found in 2/23 patients). Population-based sequence analysis of NS3 and NS4A identified treatment-emergent substitutions at four amino acid positions in the protease domain of NS3 (positions 71, 155, 168, and 170), but only two (155 and 168) were in close proximity to the danoprevir binding site and carried substitutions that impacted danoprevir potency. R155K was the predominant route to reduced danoprevir susceptibility and was observed in virus isolated from all 10 rebound, 2/13 plateau, and 1/14 continuous-decline patients. Virus in one rebound patient additionally carried partial R155Q and D168E substitutions. Treatment-emergent substitutions in plateau patients were less frequently observed and more variable. Single-rebound patients carried virus with R155Q, D168V, or D168T. Clonal sequence analysis and drug susceptibility testing indicated that only a single patient displayed multiple resistance pathways. These data indicate the ascendant importance of R155K for viral escape during danoprevir treatment and may have implications for the clinical use of this agent.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2011; 56(1):271-9. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Danoprevir, a potent, selective inhibitor of HCV NS3/4A protease, has a short half-life in humans. Therefore, the feasibility of a controlled release (CR) formulation to allow less frequent dosing was investigated using experimental approaches and physiological modeling to examine whether danoprevir is absorbed in the colon. Danoprevir absorption was studied in portal-vein-cannulated monkeys and in monkeys surgically modified to make intraduodenal, intrajejunal, intracolonic and oral administration possible. In portal-vein-cannulated monkeys, absorption was apparent up to 24 h after administration. The observed relative bioavailability from intracolonic delivery in the monkey was approximately 30% relative to oral administration, consistent with the model prediction of 40%. Human relative bioavailability for a tablet delivered to the colon compared with an immediate release (IR) formulation was predicted to be 4-28%. Preclinical data and modeling suggested that CR development would be challenging for this Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class IV compound. Therefore, a confirmative study in healthy volunteers was conducted to investigate the relative bioavailability of danoprevir in various regions of the gastrointestinal tract. In a randomized, open-label, crossover study, subjects received 100 mg danoprevir IR soft gel capsule, 100 mg danoprevir solution delivered to the distal small bowel and colon via an Enterion™ capsule (a remotely activated capsule for regional drug delivery) and 100 mg danoprevir powder to the colon via an Enterion™ capsule. The relative bioavailability of danoprevir (compared with IR) delivered to the colon was 6.5% for a solution and 0.6% for a powder formulation, indicating that a CR formulation is not feasible.
    Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 07/2011; 32(5):261-75. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Danoprevir is a potent and selective inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A serine protease. The present study assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of danoprevir in a randomized, placebo-controlled, 14-day multiple ascending dose study in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. Four cohorts of treatment-naïve (TN) patients (100 mg q12 h, 100 mg q8 h, 200 mg q12 h, 200 mg q8 h) and one cohort of non-responders (NR) to prior pegylated interferon alfa-ribavirin treatment (300 mg q12 h) were investigated. Danoprevir was safe and well tolerated; adverse events were generally mild, transient and were not associated with treatment group or dose level. Danoprevir displayed a slightly more than proportional increase in exposure with increasing daily dose and was rapidly eliminated from the plasma compartment. Maximal decreases in HCV RNA were: -3.9 log(10)IU/ml and -3.2 log(10)IU/ml in TN receiving 200 mg q8 h and 200 mg q12 h, respectively. End of treatment viral decline in these two cohorts was within 0.1 log(10)IU/ml of the viral load nadir. HCV RNA reduction in NR was more modest than that observed in upper dose TN cohorts. The overall incidence of viral rebound was low (10/37) and was associated with the R155K substitution in NS3 regardless of the HCV subtype. Danoprevir was safe and well tolerated when administered for 14 days in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. Treatment resulted in sustained, multi-log(10) IU/ml reductions in HCV RNA in upper dose cohorts. These results support further clinical evaluation of danoprevir in patients with chronic HCV.
    Journal of Hepatology 02/2011; 54(6):1130-6. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Danoprevir (RG7227; ITMN-191) is a potent inhibitor of the HCV NS3/4A serine protease. The aims of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending dose phase Ib study were to evaluate safety, tolerability, antiviral activity, resistance, and pharmacokinetics of once- and twice-daily danoprevir in the presence of low-dose ritonavir (danoprevir/r) and in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD)/ribavirin in treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 patients. Thirty eligible patients were enrolled into three cohorts and treated with danoprevir/r or placebo/r all in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD)/ribavirin for 15 days. Cohort 1 received danoprevir/r at 100/100mg twice daily; Cohort 2 200/100mg once daily; and Cohort 3 200/100mg twice daily. The median reductions in HCV RNA from baseline after 14 days of treatment (day 15) were -5.1, -4.8, and -4.6 log(10)IU/ml in Cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and -2.7 log(10) in placebo/r and peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD)/ribavirin recipients. Viral breakthrough was not observed in any patient. On day 15, HCV RNA was undetectable (<15IU/ml) in 6/9 (67%), 4/8 (50%), and 8/8 (100%) patients in Cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. When co-administered with low dose ritonavir, danoprevir concentrations reached a steady state between 6 to 10 days of dosing. Danoprevir exposures increased more than dose proportionally between 100/100mg and 200/100mg. Danoprevir/r plus peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD)/ribavirin was well-tolerated with no safety-related discontinuations. Danoprevir/r plus peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD)/ribavirin provides profound and robust reductions in serum HCV RNA, at substantially lower systemic exposures compared to those observed with higher doses of danoprevir in the absence of ritonavir. These results support further studies of danoprevir/r.
    Journal of Hepatology 02/2011; 55(5):972-9. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to determine the effect of two protease inhibitors, saquinavir (SQV, oral 1000 mg bid) boosted by ritonavir (RTV, oral 100 mg bid), on pharmacokinetics (PK) of methadone in opiate-dependent HIV-negative patients on stable methadone maintenance therapy. This was a two-center, open-label, one-sequence cross-over, multiple-dose study in 13 HIV-negative patients who were on stable methadone therapy (oral, 60-120 mg qd). All patients continued methadone treatment on days 2-15. All patients received SQV/RTV in combination with methadone from days 2-15. PK of methadone was assessed on day 1 (alone) and on day 15 when methadone treatment was combined with SQV/RTV at steady state. Twelve patients completed the study. Median age, body weight and height were 50 years (range: 24-54 years), 80 kg (range: 57-97 kg) and 174 cm (range: 163-189 cm), respectively. All patients were Caucasian, and 11 were smokers. Median methadone dose was 85 mg qd. Geometric mean area under curve of the plasma concentration-time curve over 24 hour dosing interval (AUC(0-24 hour)) ratio of methadone with and without SQV/RTV was 0.81% (90% confidence interval: 71-91%). There was no significant plasma protein-binding displacement of methadone by SQV/RTV. The combination of SQV/RTV and methadone was well tolerated. There were no clinically significant adverse events or significant changes in laboratory parameters, electrocardiograms or vital signs. The 19% decrease in R-methadone AUC(0-24 hour) in the presence of SQV/RTV was not clinically relevant. There appears to be no need for methadone dose adjustment when methadone (60-120 mg qd) and SQV/RTV (1000/100 mg bid) are coadministered.
    Addiction Biology 08/2009; 14(3):321-7. · 5.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

59 Citations
48.39 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2012
    • Roche
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
    • Biogen Idec
      Weston, Massachusetts, United States