[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the acute hormonal responses following two different eccentric exercise velocities. Seventeen healthy, untrained, young women were randomly placed into two groups to perform five sets of six maximal isokinetic eccentric actions at slow (30° s(-1) ) and fast (210° s(-1) ) velocities with 60-s rest between sets. Growth hormone, cortisol, free and total testosterone were assessed by blood samples collected at baseline, immediately postexercise, 5, 15 and 30 min following eccentric exercise. Changes in hormonal responses over time were compared between groups, using a mixed model followed by a Tukey's post hoc test. The main findings of the present study were that the slow group showed higher growth hormone values immediately (5·08 ± 2·85 ng ml(-1) , P = 0·011), 5 (5·54 ± 3·01 ng ml(-1) , P = 0·004) and 15 min (4·30 ± 2·87 ng ml(-1) , P = 0·021) posteccentric exercise compared with the fast group (1·39 ± 2·41 ng ml(-1) , 1·34 ± 1·97 ng ml(-1) and 1·24 ± 1·87 ng ml(-1) , respectively), and other hormonal responses were not different between groups (P>0·05). In conclusion, slow eccentric exercise velocity enhances more the growth hormone(GH) response than fast eccentric exercise velocity without cortisol and testosterone increases.
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 05/2013; · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The resting energetic dispenses on postmenopausal stage should be well known in order to elaborate obesity prevention programs. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the resting metabolic rate (RMR) measured by indirect calorimetry (RMRmeasured) with predictive equations (RMRestimated) and verify which preexisting equation is more indicated for this population, in inactive, postmenopausal women. Design: 43 postmenopausal women volunteered for the present study. Measurements: RMRestimated value was achieved by indirect calorimetry. The predictive equations used were: Harris-Benedict equation (HB), Henry e Ree (HR), Mifflin-St Jeor equation (MSJ), World Health Organization equation (WHO) and Female Brazilian Population (FBP). Body composition was obtained through skinfolds method. Results: All equations showed significant difference values for kcal/day (p<0.00001) (HB 1313.07±73.46; HR 1310.95±81.41; MSJ 1207.93±93.17; WHO 1375.73±61.01 and FBP 1250.05±73.54 kcal/day) in relation to RMRestimated (1063.79±157.82). The WHO equation was the one which most overestimated the RMR values with a difference of more than 300kcal/day. Conclusion: None of the equations to approach, in this study showed precision in the estimative of RMR, all prediction equations overestimated RMR values in Brazilians' postmenopausal women, although the MSJ predictive equation showed the greater approximation of RMRmeasured for this population.
The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 01/2013; 17(3):211-4. · 2.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.
Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg) or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg). In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8-10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.
The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162). Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001), and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%), reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, -6.75%) and noticeable increases in muscle strength after resistance training to leg press (P = 0.004, 41.29%) and bench press (P = 0.0001, 27.23%).
It was concluded that resistance training performed three times a week may reduce the metabolic syndrome Z-score with concomitant decreases in fasting blood glucose, improvements in body composition, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.
Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2013; 8:1221-8. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 16 weeks of periodized resistance training in lipid profile in sedentary middle-aged men and women.
Healthy subjects (N.=50), middle-aged men and postmenopausal women (>12 months amenorrhea), were randomized into resistance training men (RTM), resistance training women (RTW), control group men (CGM) and control group women (CGW). They performed three weekly sessions for 16 weeks (9 exercises with 3 x 8-10 RM and with a 60-90 seconds rest period).
Trained groups showed significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC) (RTM -23.61%; RTW -21.08%; P=0.0001) and LDL-C (RTM -35.68%; RTW -38.53%; P=0.0001). No significant changes were observed in HDL-C and triglycerides (TG). No significant changes were found in plasma levels of LDL-C, HDL-C and TG for control groups, though there were significant differences between CGM and CGW for TC.
The present results indicate that 16 weeks of periodized RT contribute to decrease of cardiovascular risk factors, such as LDL-C and TC in middle-aged men and women, even without changes in body mass and body mass index.
The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 06/2012; 52(3):286-92. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to analyze the magnitude of muscle damage and inflammatory responses induced by eccentric exercise in young (YW) and postmenopausal women (PMW). Seventeen healthy women (nine YW, 23.89 ± 2.03 years; and eight PMW, 51.13 ± 5.08 years) performed five sets of six maximal eccentric actions of the elbow flexors. Changes in isometric strength, range of motion, muscle soreness, and upper-arm circumference were evaluated pre, post, 24, 48, and 72 h following eccentric exercise. Changes in creatine kinase activity, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were measured pre, 24, 48, and 72 h following eccentric exercise. For intra and inter-group analysis, a two-way repeated measures ANOVA was applied followed by a Tukey's post hoc test. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlations between variables. It was observed no differences between groups for the markers of muscle damage, although significant modifications (p < 0.05) occurred within groups throughout time for all variables. Post menopausal women showed significantly higher values for TNF-α (p < 0.05). Also, IL-6 presented superior pre value for PMW. For YW, IL-6 and IL-10 values increased 72 h post-eccentric exercise compared to pre. Further, IL-10 was higher for YW than PMW 72 h post-eccentric exercise. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between age and soreness, and between age and PGE(2). In conclusion, YW do not have attenuated muscle damage compared to PMW who do not make use of hormonal replacement therapy. In addition, YW have a greater anti-inflammatory response after eccentric exercise compared to PMW.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological responses and the association between variation in exercise load and self-reported occurrence of upper respiratory illness (URI) symptoms in young basketball athletes.
The sample was composed of twelve young male athletes aged 12.7 ± 0.6 years, with a height of 170 ± 10 cm, body mass of 57.6 ± 12.6 kg, and fat-free mass of 18.7 ± 5.9%. Daily training and occurrences of URI symptoms were recorded. Blood samples were collected at baseline (M1) and after 8 weeks (M2) of the preparatory period of periodization training to measure total and differential leukocyte counts, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).
There was a significant decrease in monocytes at M2 compared to M1 (P = 0.004). There were no significant alterations in total leukocytes (P = 0.07), neutrophils (P = 0.07), or lymphocytes (P = 0.09). No significant changes in plasma concentrations of TNF-α (P = 0.30) or IL-6 (P = 0.90) were found. The weekly load from week 6 was higher when compared with weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8 (P < 0.05), and week 8 was the lowest when compared with week 5 (P < 0.05). Self-reported URI incidences were highest at weeks 1 and 2.
Variations in weekly training load during the preparatory period were not correlated with changes in self-reported occurrence of URI incidences, suggesting that young athletes may have an attenuated response to exercise-induced perturbations to the immune system.
Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2012; 3:43-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The QoL of postmenopausal women may be compromised as a result of climacteric symptoms associated with psychosocial and cultural determinants. Regular physical activity can attenuate the symptoms of postmenopausal women regarding physical and behavioral changes, positively influencing QoL. This study aimed to assess QoL, in addition to morphofunctional variables, body composition and muscle strength, in postmenopausal women before and after 16 weeks of RT. The subjects were 32 healthy, non-active women who were not under hormone replacement therapy (HRT), classified as control group (CG, n=16) and training group (TG, n=16). RT was structured on the frequency of three times per week and intensity prescribed by a target zone of maximum repetition. The assessment of QoL was conducted by WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire (The WHOQOL Group, 1998). The results show that the RT promoted a significant increase in muscle strength indicators for leg press, bench press and curl, not to mention in the facets of energy (p=0.025) in the physical domain and access to health services (p=0.038) in the environmental domain, the pre- and post-intervention moments on the TG. However, QoL values remained the same for all evaluated domains, with higher values for the physical domain of the TG, but still lacking statistical relevance. It was concluded that the 16-week program of RT was not enough to influence the perception of QoL in postmenopausal women, despite significant changes in muscle strength and in the "energy" facet of the physical domain. We suggest further studies with an extended intervention time and an increased number of participants, considering the changes promoted by RT on the analyzed variables.
Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 05/2011; 54(2):361-5. · 1.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate muscle strength and hypertrophy indicators on increases of strength after 32 weeks of resistance training (RT), prescribed by the target of maximum repetitions in postmenopausal women. Fourteen physically inactive healthy women participated in this study. Three times a week they participated on RT. Body composition was measured by the technique of skinfold thickness. The hypertrophy indicators were represented by total and regional lean mass: arm muscle area (AMA) and thigh muscle area (TMA). Muscle strength was assessed through the test of one maximum repetition in exercises of horizontal leg press and arm curl. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman test. Results showed increases in muscle strength, AMA but not in TMA. Arm curl was strongly correlated to AMA. Leg press seemed to be associated to neural components of increases in strength. Muscle strength significantly increased after 32 weeks of RT regardless of increases in lean mass.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the relationship between resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition of postmenopausal women.
Thirty physically inactive women participated in the study, and their age average was 54,33 +/- 5,20 years old. Oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry after 12 hours of fasting and the values were calculated according to the equation of Weir. Body composition was obtained by the method of skinfolds and the measurement of waist circumference (WC) was used to assess abdominal fat. The linear correlation of Pearson was used to establish correlations between the variables.
We found significant correlations of TMR with the CC (0.42) and the lean mass (LM) (r = 0.48).
The variables of body composition that can be involved in the determination of the RMR are LM and WC.
Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 08/2009; 53(6):755-9. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study evaluated the relationship between resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition of postmenopausal women. Methods: Thirty physically inactive wo- men participated in the study, and their age average was 54,33 ± 5,20 years old. Oxygen con- sumption was measured by indirect calorimetry after 12 hours of fasting and the values were calculated according to the equation of Weir. Body composition was obtained by the method of skinfolds and the measurement of waist circumference (WC) was used to assess abdominal fat. The linear correlation of Pearson was used to establish correlations between the variables. Results: We found significant correlations of TMR with the CC (0.42) and the lean mass (LM) (r = 0.48). Conclusions: The variables of body composition that can be involved in the determination of the RMR are LM and WC. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2009;53(6):755-9