The American journal of emergency medicine 03/2013; · 1.54 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The electrocardiogram (ECG) is characterised by little sensitivity and specificity in the diagnostic evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism (APE).
To assess the significance of ECG changes in predicting myocardial injury and prognosis in patients with APE.
The study group consisted of 225 patients (137 women and 88 men), mean age: 66.0 ± 15.2 years, in whom the diagnosis of APE was made, mostly based on computed tomography (n = 206, 92%).
We observed 26 in-hospital deaths (mortality rate: 11.5%) and complications occurred in 58 (25.7%) patients. Elevated levels of troponin were observed in 103 (46%) patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that in-hospital mortality was associated with: coronary chest pain (0.06-0.53, OR 0.18), systolic blood pressure below 100 mm Hg (2.3-13.64, OR 5.61), heart rate above 100 bpm (1.17-15.11, OR 4.21), the S1Q3T3 sign (1.31-6.99, OR 3.02), QR in V(1) (1.60-12.32, OR 4.45), ST-segment depression in V(4)-V(6) (0.99-5.40, OR 2.31), ST-segment elevation in III (0.99-6.96, OR 2.64), ST-segment elevation in V(1) (1.74-9.49, OR 4.07); borderline (1.51-16.07, OR 4.93), moderate (1.42-17.74, OR 5.01) and severe troponin elevation (2.88-36.38, OR 10.24). In patients with cTnT(+), compared to patients with normal troponin levels, the following ECG changes were significantly more common: the S1Q3T3 sign (43 vs 21%, p = 0.003), negative T waves in V(2)-V(4) (57 vs 27%, p = 0.0001), ST-segment depression in V(4)-V(6) (40 vs 14%, p = 0.001), ST-segment elevation in III (22 vs 7%, p = 0.0006), V(1) and V(2) (43 vs 10%, p = 0.0001) and QR in V(1) (16 vs 5%, p = 0.007).
ECG parameters are useful in predicting myocardial injury and assessing prognosis in patients with APE.
Kardiologia polska 01/2011; 69(9):933-8. · 0.51 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The clinical picture of acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is often uncharacteristic and may mimic acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or lung diseases, leading to misdiagnosis. In 50% of patients, APE is accompanied by chest pain and in 30-50% of the patients markers of myocardial injury are elevated.
To perform a retrospective assessment of how often clinical manifestations and investigations (ECG findings and elevated markers of myocardial injury) in patients with APE may be suggestive of ACS.
We included 292 consecutive patients (109 men and 183 women) from 17 to 89 years of age (mean age 65.4 ± 15.5 years) with APE diagnosed according the ESC guidelines.
Among the 292 patients included in the study 33 patients died during hospitalisation (mortality rate 11.3%) and 73 (25.0%) patients developed complications. A total of 75 (25.7%) patients were classified as high risk according to the ESC risk stratification, 163 (55.8%) as intermediate risk and 54 (18.5%) as low risk. Chest pain on and/or before admission was reported by 128 (43.8%) patients, including 73 (57.0%) patients with chest pain of coronary origin, 52 (40.6%) patients with chest pain of pleural origin and 3 patients with pain of undeterminable origin based on the available documentation. A total of 56 (19.2%) patients had a history of ischaemic heart disease and 5 (1.7%) had a history of myocardial infarction. A total of 8 (2.7%) patients were admitted with the initial diagnosis of ACS. The high-risk group consisted of 15 (20.6%) patients with a typical retrosternal chest pain and 60 (27.3%) patients without the typical anginal pain. Elevated troponin was observed in 103 (35.3%) patients. The ECG changes suggestive of myocardial ischaemia (inverted T waves, ST-segment depression or elevation) were observed in 208 (71.2%) patients. The following findings were significantly more common in high-risk versus non-high-risk patients: ST-segment depression in V4-V6 (42.6% vs 23.9%, p = 0.02), ST-segment elevation in V1 (46.7% vs 20.0%, p = 0.0002) and aVR (70.7% vs 40.1%, p = 0.0007).
One third of patients with APE may present with all the manifestations (pain, elevated troponin and ECG changes) suggestive of ACS. The ECG changes suggestive of myocardial ischaemia are observed in 70% of the patients with ST-segment depression in V4-V6 and ST-segment elevation in V1 and aVR being significantly more common in high-risk vs non-high-risk patients.
Kardiologia polska 01/2011; 69(3):235-40. · 0.51 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Electrocardiogram (ECG) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) presents many abnormalities. There are no data concerning prognostic significance of ST-elevation (STE) in lead aVR in patients with APE. Aim: To assess the prevalence of STE in aVR in patients with APE and its correlation with clinical course as well as other ECG parameters recorded at admission.
The retrospective analysis of 293 patients with APE diagnosed according to the ESC guidelines (182 females, 111 males, mean age 65.4 ± 15.5 years).
The STE in lead aVR was observed in 133 (45.3%) patients. In comparison with patients without STE, patients with STE in lead aVR (STaVR[+]) had significantly more often systolic blood pressure 〈 90 mm Hg on admission (27% vs 10%, p 〈 0.001) and positive troponin level (64.8% vs 27.9%, p 〈 0.001). Thrombolytic therapy (14.3% vs 5.6%, p = 0.009) and catecholamines (29.3% vs 7.5%, p 〈 0.001) were more frequently used in patients with STaVR(+). The overall mortality (16.5% vs 6.9%, p = 0.009) and complication rates during hospitalisation (38.3% vs 12.5%, p 〈 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with STaVR(+). The STaVR(+) was significantly more frequent in patients with negative T-waves in inferior leads (59.4% vs 39.4%, p 〈 0.001), STE in lead III (24% vs 5.6%, p 〈 0.001), STE in lead V1 (46.6% vs 7.5%, p 〈 0.001), ST depression in lead V(4)-V(6) (48.9% vs 7.5%, p 〈 0.001), right bundle branch block (15.8% vs 8.1%, p = 0.04), QR sign in lead V1 (18% vs 6.2%, p 〈 0.001) and SI-QIII-TIII (46.6% vs 21.2%, p 〈 0.001).
The presence of STE in lead aVR in patients with APE is associated with poor prognosis. The presence of STE in lead aVR could be an easily obtainable and noninvasive ECG parameter, helpful in risk stratification of patients with APE.
Kardiologia polska 01/2011; 69(7):649-54. · 0.51 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To assess the influence of electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern on prognosis and complications of patients hospitalized with acute pulmonary embolism (APE).
We performed a retrospective analysis of 292 patients who had confirmed APE. There were 183 females and 109 males, the age range was 17 to 89 years, and the mean age was 65.4 ± 15.5 years.
In our study group, there were 33 deaths (mortality rate, 11.3%), and 73 (25%) patients developed complications during hospitalization. Based on European Society of Cardiology risk stratification, we classified 75 (25.7%) patients as high risk, 163 (55.8%) patients as intermediate risk, and 54 (18.5%) patients as low risk. A comparison between patients with complicated APE and those with no complications during hospitalization indicated that the following ECG parameters were more common in patients who had complications: atrial fibrillation, S1Q3T3 sign, negative T waves in leads V2-V4, ST segment depression in leads V4-V6, ST segment elevation in leads III, V1 and aVR, qR in lead V1, complete right bundle branch block (RBBB), greater number of leads with negative T waves, and greater sum of the amplitude of negative T waves. In multivariate analysis, the sum of negative T waves (OR 0.88; p = 0.22), number of leads with negative T waves (OR 1.46; p = 0.001), RBBB (OR 2.87; p = 0.02) and ST segment elevation in leads V1 (OR 3.99; p = 0.00017) and aVR (OR 2.49; p = 0.011) were independent predictors of complications during hospitalization. In turn, in multivariate analysis, only the sum of negative T waves (OR 0.81; p = 0.0098), number of leads with negative T waves [OR 1.68; p = 0.00068] and ST segment elevation in lead V1 (OR 4.47; p = 0.0003) were independent predictors of death during hospitalization.
In our population of APE patients, the sum of negative T waves, the number of leads with negative T waves and the ST segment elevation in lead V1 were independent predictors of death during hospitalization. In turn, the sum of negative T waves, the number of leads with negative T waves, and RBBB and ST segment elevation in leads V1 and aVR were independent predictors of complications during hospitalization. We conclude that ECG analysis may be a useful noninvasive method for risk stratification of patients with APE.
Cardiology journal 01/2011; 18(6):648-53. · 1.31 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a life-threatening disease. Mortality in APE still remains very high in spite of progress in diagnostic tools. Mortality rate is about 30% in patients with unrecognised APE. APE is one of the main causes of in-hospital mortality.
To asses management of patients with APE in the Małopolska region.
This registry consists of 205 consecutive patients who were hospitalised in 6 cardiology departments between 1 January 2005 and 30 September 2007, with the mean age of 65.1 +/- 15.3 years (124 females and 81 males). Mean hospitalisation duration 14.6 days (1-52 days).
During hospitalisation 23 (11.2%) patients died. Complications (death, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, use of catecholamines, respiratory therapy and ventilation) during in-hospital stay were observed in 57 (27.8%) patients. Fifty-three patients were haemodynamically unstable (cardiogenic shock or hypotension). The troponin I or T level was assessed in 147 (71.7%) patients and in 50 (34.0%) was positive. In patients with positive troponin we observed 11 (22.0%) deaths, while in patients with normal troponin T or I level 6 (6.2%) deaths occurred. In patients with normal blood pressure we observed a significant difference in mortality in patients with elevated vs. normal troponin level (14.3 vs. 2.5%, p = 0.02). Thrombolytic therapy was used in 20 (9.8%) patients. In patients treated with thrombolytic therapy 9 (45%) deaths were observed. We divided patients according to the ESC 2008 guidelines risk stratification. The 'non-high risk' group consisted of 152 (74.1%) patients, and mortality was 3.9%. The 'high-risk' group consisted of 53 (26.8%) patients. The 'non-high risk' group was divided into the following subgroups: 1. moderate-high (with 2 risk factors: both RV dysfunction and positive injury markers) mortality - 8.1%; 2. moderate subgroup with one risk factor, mortality - 3.6%; 3. low risk - no risk factors - 0% mortality.
1. In our registry mortality rate in patients with APE was 11%. 2. In about 30% of patients APE was under mask of acute coronary syndrome or syncope, 34% of patients had elevated troponin level, and 30% of patients had complication during hospitalisation. 3. In patients treated with thrombolytics mortality rate was 45%. 4. Reperfusion strategy (trombolysis or embolectomy) in the high risk group was used in only 41% of patients. 5. Elevated troponin level in normotensive patient was associated with 4-fold times higher risk of death. 6. New risk stratification according to the ESC guidelines 2008 correctly predicts prognosis in everyday clinical practise.
Kardiologia polska 08/2009; 67(7):735-41. · 0.51 Impact Factor