[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) in primary pterygia.
We included tissue samples from 88 excised primary (including 34 grade 1, 28 grade 2, and 26 grade 3) pterygia and from 7 nasal epibulbar conjunctivae segments used as control samples. Sections from each pterygium were immunostained with CD31 and lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1) monoclonal antibodies to evaluate LMVD and blood microvessel density. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis to measure expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and VEGF-C messenger RNA (mRNA) in the pterygia.
A small number of CD31-positive LYVE-1-negative blood vessels and only a few CD31- and LYVE-1-positive lymphatic vessels were detected in the normal epibulbar conjunctiva segments. Lymphatic vessels were mildly increased in grade 1 pterygia but were dramatically increased in grades 2 and 3 pterygia. Lymphatic microvessel density correlated closely with blood microvessel density in grades 1, 2, and 3 pterygia (P < .05 for all). The width and area of pterygia were significantly correlated with LMVD. In addition, we found a significant relationship between VEGF-C mRNA expression and LMVD in grades 1, 2, and 3 pterygia, whereas VEGF-A mRNA expression correlated closely with LMVD only in grade 1 pterygia.
Lymphatic microvessel density increases dramatically in grades 2 and 3 pterygia. Transient upregulation of VEGF-C might be responsible for the occurrence of lymphangiogenesis.
Archives of ophthalmology 06/2012; 130(6):735-42. · 3.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the time course of hemangiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, inflammation after corneal alkaline burns and compare with the importance of corneal hemangiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and inflammation in allograft rejection on alkali-burned cornea bed, respectively.
Rat corneal hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis were examined by whole mount immunofluorescence and double enzyme-histochemistry, and the state of corneal inflammation was evaluated by inflammation index scoring and histopathology. Then, corneal transplantations were divided into six groups and performed before the burn (group A) and on day 3 (group B), 2 weeks (group C), 5 weeks (group D), 6 weeks (group E) and 8 weeks (group F) after alkaline burns, respectively. The immune rejection of grafts was evaluated by interferon-gamma, interleukin-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and slit-lamp examination.
Both corneal lymphatic and blood vessels reached the top 2 weeks after the burn. Corneal lymphangiogenesis disappeared 5 weeks after the burn, and corneal hemangiogenesis regressed completely 3 weeks later. Corneal inflammation was strong on day 3, but resolved 6 weeks after the burn. Compared with other groups, the mean survival time of groups B (4.67 +/- 1.03 days) and C (5.00 +/- 0.63 days) was significantly shorter (P < 0.05). The difference of mean survival time of grafts between group D (9.50 +/- 1.05 days) and group E (9.83 +/- 0.75 days), between group D and group F (10.00 +/- 0.89 days) was not significant (P > 0.05).
Corneal lymphangiogenesis presents for a shorter duration than corneal hemangiogenesis or corneal inflammation but plays a crucial role in allograft rejection on alkali-burned cornea bed.
Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 12/2009; 37(9):874-83. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To discuss the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) after keratoplasty in rats.
The Fischer 344 rat corneas were transplanted into Lewis rat eyes. The expression of VEGF-C in cornea was examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. The association of corneal lymphangiogenesis, corneal inflammation, and rejection score (RS), with VEGF-C in transplanted corneas was also examined.
Both VEGF-C protein and mRNA upregulated dramatically in rat transplanted corneas. The immunoreactivity was at peak on the 3rd day and the 14th day after keratoplasty, respectively. VEGF-C mRNA was strongly and positively correlated with inflammatory index (IF) (r = 0.93; p < 0.01), lymphatic vessel counting (LVC) (r = 0.40; p < 0.05), and RS (r = 0.50; p < 0.05). The development of VEGF-C mRNA, IF, and RS was almost parallel in the second week after keratoplasty.
VEGF-C was expressed in rat transplanted corneas. The expression of VEGF-C correlated closely with corneal inflammation, corneal lymphangiogenesis, and allograft rejection.
Current eye research 07/2009; 34(7):553-61. · 1.51 Impact Factor