Henna Mäkeläinen

Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (13)28.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Probiotics are commonly consumed in the form of supplements and fermented (drink) yogurts. However, alternative carriers are possible and especially cheese seems to be well suited. Selected Lactobacillus strains (L. acidophilus NCFM and L. rhamnosus HN001) were observed to grow during ripening and maintain viability throughout 3 months shelf life. Consumption of 15g of cheese would provide a required daily dose of 109 CFU. Bifidobacterium lactis appeared to be less well suited for application in cheese. In vitro simulation of digestion showed that in a commercial cheese, the Lactobacillus strains were able to survive conditions similar to those found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the strains were able to modulate the composition and activity of the simulated intestinal microbiota. A subsequent dietary intervention study indicated that consumption of the probiotic cheese was able to increase phagocytosis activity and the fraction of phagocytic cells in healthy elderly volunteers. The improvement in innate immunity was similar to what was observed earlier for reconstituted milk containing L. rhamnosus HN001; showing that cheese is an equally good and effective carrier for this particular strain as milk. The health effect of the increased phagocytosis remains, however, to be determined.
    07/2010; 9(3). DOI:10.1007/BF03223337
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    ABSTRACT: The current screening study aimed at identifying promising prebiotic and synbiotic candidates. The fermentation of xylo-oligosaccharides, xylan, galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, lactitol, gentiobiose and pullulan was investigated in vitro. The ability of these established and potential prebiotic candidates to function as a sole carbon source for probiotic (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus), intestinal and potential pathogenic microbes (Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus) was assessed in pure cultures. Xylo-oligosaccharides were fermented with high specificity by the tested Bifidobacterium lactis strains and lactitol by lactobacilli, whereas galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides and gentiobiose were utilised by a larger group of microbes. Xylan, polydextrose and pullulan were utilised to a limited extent by only a few of the tested microbes. The results of this screening study indicate that xylo-oligosaccharides and lactitol support the growth of a limited number of beneficial microbes in pure cultures. Such a high degree of specificity has not been previously reported for established prebiotics. Based on these results, the most promising prebiotics and synbiotic combinations can be selected for further testing.
    Beneficial Microbes 06/2010; 1(2):139-48. DOI:10.3920/BM2009.0029 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A semi-continuous, anaerobic colon simulator, with four vessels mimicking the conditions of the human large intestine, was used to study the fermentation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS). Three XOS compounds and a xylan preparation were fermented for 48 hours by human colonic microbes. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used as a prebiotic reference. As a result of the fermentation, the numbers of Bifidobacterium increased in all XOS and xylan simulations when compared to the growth observed in the baseline simulations, and increased levels of Bifidobacterium lactis were measured with the two XOS compounds that had larger distribution of the degree of polymerisation. Fermentation of XOS and xylan increased the microbial production of short chain fatty acids in the simulator vessels; especially the amounts of butyrate and acetate were increased. XOS was more efficient than FOS in increasing the numbers of B. lactis in the colonic model, whereas FOS increased the Bifidobacterium longum numbers more. The selective fermentation of XOS by B. lactis has been demonstrated in pure culture studies, and these results further indicate that the combination of B. lactis and XOS would form a successful, selective synbiotic combination.
    Beneficial Microbes 03/2010; 1(1):81-91. DOI:10.3920/BM2009.0025 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in cheese were studied using models simulating the human gastrointestinal tract with the aim of investigating whether the cheese matrix affected the survival and metabolic properties of these probiotic strains. Probiotics in cheese survived in the simulated upper gastrointestinal tract model, and numbers of L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus and total lactobacilli were increased in the colonic fermentation simulations of the probiotic cheese when compared with the non-probiotic cheese used as a control. The cheese matrix also beneficially affected cyclooxygenase-gene expression of colonocytes in a cell culture model. Freeze-dried probiotics, which were also analysed in the colonic simulator, showed similar changes in Lactobacillus numbers, although gave a stronger increase and also affected other microbial groups. These results indicate that the probiotic microbes in cheese survive in the gastrointestinal tract and that the cheese matrix does not seem to affect the probiotic survival.
    International Dairy Journal 11/2009; DOI:10.1016/j.idairyj.2009.06.005 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • H. Mäkeläinen, M. Juntunen, O. Hasselwander
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    ABSTRACT: Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are chains of xylose molecules linked with β1–4 bonds (Figure 8.1 ) with degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 10.
    07/2009: pages 245-258;
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the prebiotic potential of two novel candidates, sophorose and panose, with in vitro methods. The growth of single microbial strains was first assessed for both substrates in pure cultures, and panose was further analysed in the simulated colon model with mixed human faecal culture. Quantitative PCR and flow cytometry were used to determine the microbial group and strain densities after the simulated colonic fermentation of panose, and chromatographic methods were utilized to analyse metabolite concentrations. In pure cultures, sophorose and panose were both fermented only by few beneficial strains, and in the colon simulator, panose gave a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Bifidobacterium lactis, concomitantly decreasing Bacteroides group. Butyrate and acetate production was significantly increased together with decreased markers of protein fermentation as a result of panose fermentation. Panose had bifidogenic activities in vitro, and these potential beneficial effects should be further assessed in vitro and in vivo. The current study has provided the first data on pure panose fermentation by the endogenous microbiota and extends our knowledge of the selective fermentation of oligosaccharides by the intestinal microbes.
    Letters in Applied Microbiology 07/2009; 49(6):666-72. DOI:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2009.02698.x · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observational evidence suggests that dietary glycemic load may be one environmental factor contributing to the variation in acne prevalence worldwide. To investigate the effect of a low glycemic load (LGL) diet on endocrine aspects of acne vulgaris, 12 male acne sufferers (17.0 +/- 0.4 years) completed a parallel, controlled feeding trial involving a 7-day admission to a housing facility. Subjects consumed either an LGL diet (n = 7; 25% energy from protein and 45% from carbohydrates) or a high glycemic load (HGL) diet (n = 5; 15% energy from protein, 55% energy from carbohydrate). Study outcomes included changes in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and its binding proteins (IGFBP-I and IGFBP-3). Changes in HOMA-IR were significantly different between groups at day 7 (-0.57 for LGL vs. 0.14 for HGL, p = 0.03). SHBG levels decreased significantly from baseline in the HGL group (p = 0.03), while IGFBP-I and IGFBP-3 significantly increased (p = 0.03 and 0.03, respectively) in the LGL group. These results suggest that increases in dietary glycemic load may augment the biological activity of sex hormones and IGF-I, suggesting that these diets may aggravate potential factors involved in acne development.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 06/2008; 52(6):718-26. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200700307 · 4.91 Impact Factor
  • Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology, 11/2007: pages 44 - 53; , ISBN: 9780470996003
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    ABSTRACT: No previous study has sought to examine the influence of dietary composition on acne vulgaris. We sought to compare the effect of an experimental low glycemic-load diet with a conventional high glycemic-load diet on clinical and endocrine aspects of acne vulgaris. A total of 43 male patients with acne completed a 12-week, parallel, dietary intervention study with investigator-masked dermatology assessments. Primary outcomes measures were changes in lesion counts, sex hormone binding globulin, free androgen index, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. At 12 weeks, total lesion counts had decreased more in the experimental group (-21.9 [95% confidence interval, -26.8 to -19.0]) compared with the control group (-13.8 [-19.1 to -8.5], P = .01). The experimental diet also reduced weight (P = .001), reduced the free androgen index (P = .04), and increased insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (P = .001) when compared with a high glycemic-load diet. We could not preclude the role of weight loss in the overall treatment effect. This suggests nutrition-related lifestyle factors play a role in acne pathogenesis. However, these preliminary findings should be confirmed by similar studies.
    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 09/2007; 57(2):247-56. DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2007.01.046 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the pathogenesis of acne is currently unknown, recent epidemiologic studies of non-Westernized populations suggest that dietary factors, including the glycemic load, may be involved. The objective was to determine whether a low-glycemic-load diet improves acne lesion counts in young males. Forty-three male acne patients aged 15-25 y were recruited for a 12-wk, parallel design, dietary intervention incorporating investigator-blinded dermatology assessments. The experimental treatment was a low-glycemic-load diet composed of 25% energy from protein and 45% from low-glycemic-index carbohydrates. In contrast, the control situation emphasized carbohydrate-dense foods without reference to the glycemic index. Acne lesion counts and severity were assessed during monthly visits, and insulin sensitivity (using the homeostasis model assessment) was measured at baseline and 12 wk. At 12 wk, mean (+/-SEM) total lesion counts had decreased more (P=0.03) in the low-glycemic-load group (-23.5 +/- 3.9) than in the control group (-12.0 +/- 3.5). The experimental diet also resulted in a greater reduction in weight (-2.9 +/- 0.8 compared with 0.5 +/- 0.3 kg; P<0.001) and body mass index (in kg/m(2); -0.92 +/- 0.25 compared with 0.01 +/- 0.11; P=0.001) and a greater improvement in insulin sensitivity (-0.22 +/- 0.12 compared with 0.47 +/- 0.31; P=0.026) than did the control diet. The improvement in acne and insulin sensitivity after a low-glycemic-load diet suggests that nutrition-related lifestyle factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of acne. However, further studies are needed to isolate the independent effects of weight loss and dietary intervention and to further elucidate the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2007; 86(1):107-15. · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of oat products with increasing beta-glucan content on the glycemic (GI) and insulin indexes (II) of oat products, and to establish the effect of physical properties of beta-glucan on these physiological responses. Test group (n=10) randomly attended to three glucose tolerance tests and glycemic response tests for four oat bran products. Functional Foods Forum and the Department of Food Chemistry, University of Turku, and the Department of Food Technology, University of Helsinki. One male and nine female volunteers were recruited from university students and staff, and all completed the study. GI and II of different products were calculated for each subject using the average of parallel glucose tolerance tests and the subsequent glycemic/insulinemic responses for each product. Average indexes for products were calculated according to the individual data. The glycemic responses to oat products with increasing amounts of beta-glucan had lower peak values than the reference glucose load. The amount of extractable beta-glucan had a high correlation between the glycemic and insulinemic response. In addition to the total amount of beta-glucan in oat products, the amount of extractable beta-glucan in oat products explains the magnitude of the decrease in glycemic responses to carbohydrate products.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 07/2007; 61(6):779-85. DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602561 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bifidobacteria are important members of the intestinal microbiota and are considered to contribute to maintaining health. However, the level of bifidobacteria colonising the intestine of elderly subjects tends to be lower than in younger adults. Therefore, two Bifidobacterium longum strains, isolated from healthy elderly, were chosen for supplementation of the endogenous Bifidobacterium microbiota in the elderly. Bifidobacteria are generally regarded safe for human consumption. However, since the strains are intended for consumption by the elderly, whom may be more prone to disease, it is important to ascertain their safety. For this purpose, the strains were given to healthy adult volunteers. No side effects were reported and no undesirable changes observed in the immune parameters measured. Based on this study it appears that the two strains are well tolerated by human subjects and there are no reservations about their food use.
    Microbiology and Immunology 02/2003; 47(12):911-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2003.tb03464.x · 1.31 Impact Factor
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