[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treating perimeters of vegetation with residual insecticides for protection from mosquito vectors has potential for U.S. military force health protection. However, for current U.S. military operations in hot-arid environments with little or no vegetation, residual applications on portable artificial materials may be a viable alternative. We evaluated bifenthrin residual treatments of U.S. military camouflage netting under hot-arid field conditions in a desert area in southern California exposed to abundant wild Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. We assessed the ability of the treatment to reduce the numbers of mosquitoes penetrating perimeters of netting and reaching CO2-baited mosquito traps. Treated camouflage netting barriers reduced mosquitoes by > or = 50% for 7-14 days and by 20-35% for 21-28 days compared to untreated barriers. Although reductions may be translated into reductions in risk of exposure to mosquito-borne diseases, we emphasize that barrier treatments should be a component in a suite of insect control measures to be effective.
Military medicine 08/2010; 175(8):599-606. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultra-low-volume (ULV) and thermal fog aerosol dispersals of pesticides have been used against mosquitoes and other insects for half a century. Although each spray technology has advantages and disadvantages, only 7 studies have been identified that directly compare their performance in the field. US military personnel currently operating in hot-arid environments are impacted by perpetual nuisance and disease vector insect problems, despite adulticide operations using modern pesticide-delivery equipment such as ULV. None of the identified comparative studies has looked at the relative feasibility and efficacy of ULV and thermal fog equipment against mosquitoes in hot-arid environments. In this study we examine the impact of ULV and thermal fog applications of malathion against caged sentinel mosquitoes in the field in a warm temperate area of Florida, followed by a similar test in a hot-dry desert area of southern California. Patterns of mortality throughout 150 m x 150 m grids of sentinel mosquitoes indicate greater efficacy from the thermal fog application in both environments under suboptimal ambient weather conditions. We discuss the implications of these findings for future military preventive medicine activities and encourage further investigations into the relative merits of the 2 technologies for force health protection.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 06/2010; 26(2):183-97. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treating perimeters with residual insecticides for protection from mosquito vectors has shown promise. These barrier treatments are typically evaluated in temperate or tropical areas using abundant vegetation as a substrate. However, there is an emerging interest to develop this technology to protect deployed US troops in extreme desert environments with sparse vegetation. We used a remote desert area in the Coachella Valley, California, to 1) evaluate bifenthrin barrier treatments on native xeric vegetation and 2) compare treatments applied with electrostatic and conventional spray technologies. Through a combination of laboratory bioassays on treated and control vegetation sampled at specific intervals over 63 days, synchronized with field surveillance of mosquitoes, we measured the temporal pattern of bioactivity of bifenthrin barriers under natural hot, dry, and dusty desert conditions. Regardless of spray technology, mosquito catch in treated plots was about 80% lower than the catch in control plots 1 day after treatment. This reduction in mosquito numbers in treated plots declined each week after treatment but remained at about 40% lower than control plots after 28 days. Field data were corroborated by results from bioassays that showed significantly higher mosquito mortality on treated vegetation over controls out to 28 days postspray. We concluded that barrier treatments in desert environments, when implemented as part of a suite of integrated control measures, may offer a significant level of protection from mosquitoes for deployed troops. Given the comparable performance of the tested spray technologies, we discuss considerations for choosing a barrier treatment sprayer for military scenarios.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 07/2009; 25(2):184-93. · 0.83 Impact Factor