[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biofilms are complex aggregation of microbial cells which aid the indwelling cells to survive and flourish well in the hostile environments. Besides, biofilms act as multicellular entities and provide resistance toward antibiotics and other bactericidal agents which makes their eradication cumbersome. Biofilm-related infections are tough to treat in healthcare, and they are equally important in agriculture as they afflict the crop survival and productivity. It is indeed important to develop a biofilm control strategy to combat biofilm related infections in agriculture. In recent years, biosurfactants have been exploited as potential antibiofilm candidates to languish the vigor of biofilm formers by selectively eradicating the biofilms. Biosurfactants are the surface active metabolites produced by microbes and are proven to have multifarious role in many fields right from bioremediation to biomedical applications. Biosurfactants due to their surface modifying property, modulate the biofilm forming ability of pathogens which directly prevents microbial colonization and biofilm formation. This chapter summarizes the importance of antibiofilm agents and the role of biosurfactants in eradicating biofilms formed by disease causing pathogens.
Bacterial metabolites in Sustainable Agroecosystem, 1 edited by Dinesh K. Maheshwari, 11/2015: chapter Significance of Biosurfactants as Antibiofilm Agents in Eradicating Phytopathogens; Springer International Publishing., ISBN: 978-3-319-24652-9
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm and quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential of tender coconut water (TCW) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TCW significantly inhibited the QS regulated violacein, virulence factors and biofilm production without affecting their growth. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the down-regulation of autoinducer synthase, transcriptional regulator and virulence genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis of a petroleum ether extract of the TCW hydrolyte revealed that 2-furaldehyde diethyl acetal (2FDA) and palmitic acid (PA) are the major compounds. In vitro bioassays confirmed the ability of 2FDA to inhibit the biofilm formation and virulence factors. In addition, the combination of PA with 2FDA resulted in potent inhibition of biofilm formation and virulence factors. The results obtained strongly suggest that TCW can be exploited as a base for designing a novel antipathogenic drug formulation to treat biofilm mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogen, has been known to form hypoxic biofilms on medical devices which in turn confers resistance towards antifungals, resulting in subsequent therapeutic failures. Inclusion of anti-biofilm agents in the control of infections is a topic of current interest in developing potential anti-infectives. The in vitro anti-fungal and anti-biofilm efficacy of 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol [DTBP] was evaluated in this study, which revealed the potential fungicidal action of DTBP at higher concentrations where fluconazole failed to act completely. DTBP also inhibited the production of hemolysins, phospholipases and secreted aspartyl proteinase which are the crucial virulence factors required for the invasion of C. albicans. Various anti-biofilm assays and morphological observations revealed the efficacy of DTBP in both inhibiting and disrupting biofilms of C. albicans. Inhibition of hyphal development, a key process that aids in initial adhesion of C. albicans, was observed, and this could be a mechanism for the anti-biofilm activity of DTBP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study explores the efficacy of limonene, a cyclic terpene found in the rind of citrus fruits, for antibiofilm potential against species of the genus Streptococcus, which have been deeply studied worldwide owing to their multiple pathogenic efficacy. Limonene showed a concentration-dependent reduction in the biofilm formation of Streptococcus pyogenes (SF370), with minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of 400 μg ml - 1. Limonene was found to possess about 75-95 % antibiofilm activity against all the pathogens tested, viz. Streptococcus pyogenes (SF370 and 5 clinical isolates), Streptococcus mutans (UA159) and Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 6249) at 400 μg ml - 1 concentration. Microscopic analysis of biofilm architecture revealed a quantitative breach in biofilm formation. Results of a surface-coating assay suggested that the possible mode of action of limonene could be by inhibiting bacterial adhesion to surfaces, thereby preventing the biofilm formation cascade. Susceptibility of limonene-treated Streptococcus pyogenes to healthy human blood goes in unison with gene expression studies in which the mga gene was found to be downregulated. Anti-cariogenic efficacy of limonene against Streptococcus mutans was confirmed, with inhibition of acid production and downregulation of the vicR gene. Downregulation of the covR, mga and vicR genes, which play a critical role in regulating surface-associated proteins in Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus mutans, respectively, is yet further evidence to show that limonene targets surface-associated proteins. The results of physiological assays and gene expression studies clearly show that the surface-associated antagonistic mechanism of limonene also reduces surface-mediated virulence factors.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 08/2015; 64(8):879-90. DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.000105 · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epibacterial communities of co-occurring eukaryotic hosts of Palk Bay origin (five seaweed species (Gracilaria sp, Padina sp, Enteromorpha sp, Sargassum sp, and Turbinaria sp) and one seagrass [Cymodaceae sp]) were analyzed for diversity and compared using 16S rRNA based Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis analysis. Diversity index revealed that Turbinaria sp hosts highest bacterial diversity while it was least in Gracilaria sp. The DGGE band profile showed that the epibacterial community differed considerably among the studied species. Statistical assessment using cluster analysis and Non-metric multidimensional scale analysis also authenticated the observed variability. Despite huge overlap, the composition of bacterial community structure differed significantly among the three closely related species namely Sargassum, Turbinaria and Padina. In addition, Enteromorpha and Sargassum, one being chlorophyta and the other phaeophyta showed about 80% similarity in bacterial composition. This differs from the general notion that epibacterial community composition will vary widely depending on the host phyla. The results extended the phenomenon of host specific epibacterial community irrespective of phylogeny and similarity in geographical location.
Indian journal of experimental biology 06/2015; 53(6):417-23. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes), a multi-virulent, exclusive human pathogen responsible for various invasive and non-invasive diseases possesses biofilm forming phenomenon as one of its pathogenic armaments. Recently, antibiofilm agents have gained prime importance, since inhibiting the biofilm formation is expected to reduce development of antibiotic resistance and increase their susceptibility to the host immune cells.
The current study demonstrates the antibiofilm activity of 3Furancarboxaldehyde (3FCA), a floral honey derived compound, against GAS biofilm, which was divulged using crystal violet assay, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The report is extended to study its effect on various aspects of GAS (morphology, virulence, aggregation) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (132μg/ml). 3FCA was found to alter the growth pattern of GAS in solid and liquid medium and increased the rate of auto-aggregation. Electron microscopy unveiled the increase in extra polymeric substances around cell. Gene expression studies showed down-regulation of covR gene, which is speculated to be the prime target for the antibiofilm activity. Increased hyaluronic acid production and down regulation of srtB gene is attributed to the enhanced rate of auto-aggregation. The virulence genes (srv, mga, luxS and hasA) were also found to be over expressed, which was manifested with the increased susceptibility of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to 3FCA treated GAS. The toxicity of 3FCA was ruled out with no adverse effect on C. elegans.
Though 3FCA possess antibiofilm activity against GAS, it was also found to increase the virulence of GAS. This study demonstrates that, covR mediated antibiofilm activity may increase the virulence of GAS. This also emphasizes the importance to analyse the acclimatization response and virulence of the pathogen in the presence of antibiofilm compounds prior to their clinical trials.
PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0127210. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0127210 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emergence of extended antibiotic resistance among
bacterial pathogens often leads to the failure of existing antibiotics
to treat bacterial infections; therefore, there is an urgent
need to look for novel alternative treatment measures. The aim
of this study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (QS)
potential of Synechococcus sp., to prevent the onset of bacterial
infections as an alternate to antibiotics. A total of 110
marine cyanobacterial strains were screened for their anti-QS
activity against biomarker strain Chromobacterium violaceum
(ATCC 12472) and aquatic bacterial pathogens Vibrio harveyi
(MTCC 3438) and Vibrio vulnificus (MTCC 1145). Of the 110
strains tested, the extract of unicellular algae Synechococcus
sp. (Q-25) exhibited the efficient reduction in the production
of violacein pigment of C. violaceum to the level of 82 %,
bioluminescence of V. harveyi to 91 % and protease in
V. vulnificus to 63 %. In V. harveyi and V. vulnificus, it exhibited
a significant reduction of 71 and 84 % in biofilm formation
and 66 and 68%in EPS production, respectively, without
any antibacterial activity. Confocal laser scanning microscopic
and light microscopic analyses further confirmed that the
Q-25 extract effectively prevented initial attachment as well as
disrupting the architecture of mature biofilm, when compared
to their untreated controls. In addition, the characterization of
active principle by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
analysis confirmed the presence of stable bioactive compound
hexadecanoic acid in the extract. Hence, this study clearly
revealed the antibiofilm and QS inhibitory potential of the
cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp.
Keywords Aquaculture . Vibriosis . Antibiotic resistance .
Quorum sensing . Cyanobacteria . Hexadecanoic acid
Journal of Applied Phycology 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10811-015-0554-0 · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections, accounting for about 40 % of all hospital-acquired infections. The bacterial spectrum of nosocomial UTIs is broad and the treatment of UTIs is becoming difficult owing to the emergence of drug resistance. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate novel and alternative therapeutic strategies to treat UTIs. Since UTIs are caused by uropathogens with quorum sensing (QS)-dependent biofilm forming abilities, interruption of QS systems may be a novel approach to combat drug resistance. In the present study, a methanol extract (and hexane extract derived from it) of the medicinal plant Hyptis suaveolens (L.) were shown to have anti-QS activity against the biosensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472). Furthermore, the hexane extract of H. suaveolens (HEHS) inhibited biofilm formation by uropathogens such as Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. HEHS promotes the loosening of biofilm architecture and strongly inhibits in vitro biofilm formation by uropathogens, which was more apparent from microscopic images. In addition to this, HEHS reduces the production of QS-dependent virulence factors like protease and hemolysin, along with motility. The partial purification and GC-MS analysis of the active fraction revealed the presence of several therapeutically important compounds which may synergistically act on the uropathogens and possibly reduce the QS-dependent phenotypes. These findings suggest HEHS as potential phytotherapeutic agent which can be employed to formulate protective strategies against biofilm linked infections caused by uropathogens.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 02/2015; 107(4). DOI:10.1007/s10482-015-0402-x · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coral Associated Bacteria (CAB) (N = 22) isolated from the mucus of the coral Acropora digitifera were screened for biosurfactants using classical screening methods; hemolysis test, lipase production, oil displacement, drop collapse test and emulsifying activity. Six CAB (U7, U9, U10, U13, U14, and U16) were found to produce biosurfactants and were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Providencia rettgeri, Psychrobacter sp., Bacillus flexus, Bacillus anthracis, Psychrobacter sp., and Bacillus pumilus respectively. Their cell surface hydrophobicity was determined by Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon assay and the biosurfactants produced were extracted and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Since the biosurfactants are known for their surface modifying capabilities, antibiofilm activity of positive isolates was evaluated against biofilm forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC10145. Stability of the active principle exhibiting antibiofilm activity was tested through various temperature treatments ranging from 60 to 100 °C and Proteinase K treatment. CAB isolates U7 and U9 exhibited stable antibiofilm activity even after exposure to higher temperatures which is promising for the development of novel antifouling agents for diverse industrial applications. Further, this is the first report on biosurfactant production by a coral symbiont.
Indian Journal of Microbiology 12/2014; 54(4). DOI:10.1007/s12088-014-0474-8 · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Group A Streptococci (GAS) are involved in a number of life threatening diseases and biofilm formation by these pathogens are considered as an important virulence determinant as it mediates antibiotic resistance among them. In the present study, we have explored the ability of (+)-usnic acid, a lichen secondary metabolite, as an antibiofilm agent against four serotypes of Streptococcus pyogenes causing pharyngitis. Usnic acid inhibited the biofilms of M serotypes M56, st38, M89 efficiently and the biofilm of M74 to a lesser extent. Confocal imaging of the treated samples showed that usnic acid reduced the biomass of the biofilms when compared to that of the control. Fourier Transfer Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated that usnic acid reduced the cellular components (proteins and fatty acids) of the biofilms. Interestingly, the FT-IR spectrum further revealed that usnic acid probably acted upon the fatty acids of the biofilms as evident from the disappearance of a peak at 2,455-2,100 cm(-1) when compared to the control only in serotypes M56, st38 and M89 but not in M74. The present study shows, for the first time, that usnic acid can act as an effective antibiofilm agent against GAS.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 11/2014; 107(1). DOI:10.1007/s10482-014-0324-z · 1.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intercellular communication in bacteria (quorum sensing, QS) is an important phenomenon in disease dissemination and pathogenesis, which controls biofilm formation also. This study reports the anti-QS and anti-biofilm efficacy of seaweed Gracilaria gracilis associated Vibrio alginolyticus G16 against Serratia marcescens. Purification and mass spectrometric analysis revealed the active principle as phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) [PD]. PD affected the QS regulated virulence factor production in S. marcescens and resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in biofilm (85%), protease (41.9%), haemolysin (69.9%), lipase (84.3%), prodigiosin (84.5%) and extracellular polysaccharide (84.62%) secretion without hampering growth, as evidenced by XTT [2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. qPCR analysis confirmed the down-regulation of the fimA, fimC, flhD and bsmA genes involved in biofilm formation. Apart from biofilm inhibition and disruption, PD increased the susceptibility of S. marcescens to gentamicin when administered synergistically, which opens another avenue for combinatorial therapy where PD can be used to enhance the efficacy of conventional antibiotics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A halotolerant α-amylase having the ability of digesting the insoluble raw starches was characterized from Bacillus subtilis S8-18, a marine sediment isolate from Palk Bay region. The electrophoresis techniques unveiled that the α-amylase was indeed a monomer with a molecular weight of 57 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 60 °C and 6.0 respectively. The enzyme was highly stable for 24 h over a wide range of pH from 4.0 to 12.0 by showing 84-94% activity. Interestingly, by retaining 72% activity even after 24 h, the enzyme also showed tolerance towards 28% NaCl. The α-amylase retained a minimum of 93% residual activity in 1 mM concentration for the selected divalent metal ions. The enzyme was found to be chelator resistant as it remained unaffected by 1 mM of EDTA and exhibited 96% activity even at 5 mM concentration. Furthermore, though 1% SDS caused remarkable reduction (68%) in amylase activity, the enzyme showed tolerance towards other detergents (1% of Triton-X and Tween 80) with 85% activity. Additionally, the α-amylase enzyme is capable of hydrolyzing the insoluble raw starch substrates which was evident from the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and spectrophotometric analyses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since Streptococcus mutans is the principal etiologic agent causing dental caries, by encompassing an array of unique virulence traits, emerging treatment strategies that specifically target the virulence of this pathogen may be promising as alternative approaches compared to conventional antibiotic therapy. In this perspective, we investigated chloroform extract of cell-free culture supernatant from mangrove rhizosphere bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (MMS-50) in terms of anticariogenic properties of S. mutans, without suppressing its viability. Crude chloroform extract of MMS-50 was subjected to column and high performance liquid chromatographic techniques to obtain the active fraction (AF), and MMS-50 AF was used for all further assays. GC–MS and FT-IR were carried out to identify the major components present in MMS-50 AF. Comparative gene expression analysis of some biofilm-forming and virulence genes (vicR, comDE, gtfC, and gbpB) was done by real-time PCR. Cyclo(L-leucyl-L-prolyl) was found to be the chief compound in MMS-50 AF responsible for bioactivity. The minimum and maximum inhibitory concentrations of MMS-50 AF against S. mutans were found to be 100 and 250 μg/mL, respectively. Anti-virulence assays performed using below-sub-MIC levels of MMS-50 AF (30 μg/mL) resulted in significant reduction in adherence (68%), acid production, acid tolerance, glucan synthesis (32%), biofilm formation (53.5%) and cell surface hydrophobicity, all devoid of affecting its viability. The micrographs of CLSM and SEM further confirmed the antibiofilm and anti-virulence efficacies of MMS-50 AF. Expression data showed significant reduction in expression of all studied virulence genes. Thus, the current study unveils the anticariogenic potential of cyclo(L-leucyl-L-prolyl) from B. amyloliquefaciens, as well as its suitability as a novel and alternative anticariogenic agent against dental caries.
Research in Microbiology 05/2014; 165(4). DOI:10.1016/j.resmic.2014.03.004 · 2.71 Impact Factor