[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oil of Pinus koraiensis (EOPK) is biologically active compound obtained from the leaves of P. koraiensis. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer mechanism of EOPK in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2014; 14(1):275. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among many signals to regulate hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) is also involved in various biological activities such as cell growth, survival, invasion, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis. Thus, in the present study, molecular mechanisms of coumestrol were investigated on the SPHK1 and HIF-1α signaling pathway in hypoxic PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Coumestrol significantly suppressed SPHK1 activity and accumulation of HIF-1α in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in hypoxic PC-3 cells. In addition, coumestrol inhibited the phosphorylation status of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK 3β) signaling involved in cancer metabolism. Furthermore, SPHK1 siRNA transfection, sphigosine kinase inhibitor (SKI), reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhanced the inhibitory effect of coumestrol on the accumulation of HIF-1α and the expression of pAKT and pGSK 3β in hypoxic PC-3 cells by combination index. Overall, our findings suggest that coumestrol suppresses the accumulation of HIF-1α via suppression of SPHK1 pathway in hypoxic PC-3 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females, and cancer invasion and metastasis are the leading causes of cancer death in breast cancer patients. Pterostilbene, a naturally occurring dimethylether analogue of resveratrol, has been demonstrated to possess anti-cancer effects. However, inhibitory effects of pterostilbene on cell migration and invasion and its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the anti-invasive mechanisms of pterostilbene in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 cells. Pterostilbene effectively inhibited serum-induced migration and invasion without affecting the viability of breast cancer cells. The mRNA expression and activity of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) were markedly reduced by pterostilbene treatment. Moreover, pterostilbene attenuated nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and DNA binding of NF-κB on uPA promoter. In addition, pterostilbene significantly impaired the activity of Rac1 and the expression of WASP-family verprolin-homologous protein-2 (WAVE-2) and actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3). Overall, these results suggest that pterostilbene caused considerable suppression of cell migration and invasion through blocking NF-κB-mediated uPA expression and Rac1/WAVE/Arp2/3 pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background exposure to organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been linked to type 2 diabetes. As OC pesticides and PCBs mainly accumulate in adipose tissue and there are physiological and clinical differences between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), we explored if there were associations of OC pesticides and PCBs in VAT or SAT with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Participants were 50 patients with or without type 2 diabetes who underwent surgery for either cancer or benign liver or gallbladder lesions. We analyzed 14 OC pesticides and 22 PCB congeners in both VAT and SAT. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Although concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs were strongly correlated between VAT and SAT, absolute concentrations differed substantially between them. In particular, concentrations of all PCBs were consistently about 5-10 times higher in VAT than SAT, but these patterns were independent of diabetes status. Some OC pesticides or PCBs, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordanes, and PCBs with 5 or less chlorides showed significant associations with diabetes or insulin resistance. For example, when tertiles of concentration-based summary measures were used, adjusted ORs were 1.0, 2.3, and 9.0 (P trend=0.02) for DDTs in VAT and 1.0, 2.1, and 5.7 (P trend=0.08) for PCBs with 5 or less chlorides. This study generally confirmed previous findings using serum concentrations. It would be useful to study pharmacodynamics of POPs in VAT and SAT further.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome creates risk factors for coronary heart disease, diabetes, fatty liver, obesity and several cancers. Our group has already reported that the essential oil from leaves of Pinus koraiensis SIEB (EOPK) exerted antihyperlipidemic effects by upregulating the low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibiting acyl-coenzyme A, cholesterol acyltransferases. We evaluated in the current study the anti-diabetic effects of EOPK on mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetes and on HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells. EOPK significantly protected HIT-T15 cells from STZ-induced cytotoxicity and reduced the blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic mice when compared with the untreated control. EOPK consistently and significantly suppressed the α-amylase activity in a dose-dependent manner and enhanced the expression of insulin at the mRNA level in STZ-treated HIT-T15 cells, while the expression of insulin was attenuated. EOPK also significantly abrogated the population of reactive oxygen species when compared to the untreated control in STZ-treated HIT-T15 cells. Furthermore, EOPK significantly reduce nitric oxide production, suppressed the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase and suppressed the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in STZ-treated HIT-T15 cells, implying its potential application to diabetic retinopathy. Overall, our findings suggest that EOPK had hypoglycemic potential by inhibiting reactive oxygene species (ROS), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and VEGF in STZ-treated mice and HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells as a potent anti-diabetic agent.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 10/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though Mica, a thin and sheet like mineral, has been used as a mineral medicine for treatment of bleeding, dysentery and inflammation in traditional medicine including Ayurveda, the biological evidences of Mica were not clearly elucidated so far. Thus, in the present study, the antitumor mechanism of particled Mica (STB-HO) was examined in colorectal cancers.
Athymic nude mice were inoculated with HCT116 colon cancer cells and orally administered STB-HO daily for 41 days, and HCT116 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with STB-HO for 0 ~ 24 hours to perform immunoblotting, cytotoxicity assay, FACs analysis and measurement of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion and other experiments. Significant differences of all date were evaluated using Student's t-test and a Turkey-Kramer multiple-comparison post test.
STB-HO significantly suppressed the tumor volume and weight in athymic nude mice inoculated with HCT116 cells at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Thus, the in vivo antitumor mechanism of STB-HO was to elucidated in vitro as well. STB-HO exerted cytotoxicity in HCT116, SW620 and HCT15 colorectal cancer cells. Also, STB-HO increased G1 cell population in a time and concentration dependent manner, enhanced the expression of p21, p27, p53 as cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, attenuated the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 and also reduced the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in HCT116 cells. Consistently, STB-HO suppressed the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 in HCT116, SW620 and HCT15 cells. Also, STB-HO inhibited the VEGF mediated proliferation and also attenuated the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and Akt in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).
Collectively, these findings suggest that STB-HO has chemopreventive potential via G1 arrest and inhibition of proliferation and VEGFR2 in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2013; 13(1):189. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We here investigated the anticancer mechanism of 1-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (LPC), one of the lysophosphatidylcholines, in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562 cells. LPC significantly showed cytotoxicity at 80 μM and induced apoptosis by sub-G1 accumulation, increase in Annexin V positive and caspase activation. LPC enhanced histone H3 acetylation but decreased histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and HDAC3 expression. LPC also inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3, its DNA binding activity and nuclear co-localization of HDAC3 and STAT3. In addition, LPC effectively attenuated the expression of survival genes such as Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and survivin but did not affect COX-2 expression in K562 cells. Furthermore, LPC suppressed phosphorylation of Src and Janus activated kinase 2 while promoted the expression of tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1). Consistently, silencing SHP-1 and pervanadate, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatase, reversed inactivation of HDAC and STAT3, cleavages of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in LPC-induced apoptosis. Of note, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that LPC suppressed the binding of HDAC3 and STAT3 to Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and survivin promoter. Overall, our findings indicate that inactivation of STAT3 and HDAC mediates LPC-induced apoptosis in CML K562 cells.
Cell biochemistry and biophysics 06/2013; · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ginkgetin is a natural biflavonoid isolated from leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. Though it was known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza virus, anti-fungal activity, osteoblast differentiation stimulating activity and neuro-protective effects, the underlying antitumor mechanism of ginkgetin still remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, anti-cancer mechanism of ginkgetin was elucidated in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Ginkgetin suppressed the viability of PC-3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner and also significantly increased the sub-G1 DNA contents of cell cycle in PC-3 cells. Ginkgetin activated caspase-3 and attenuated the expression of survival genes such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, survivin and Cyclin D1 at protein and mRNA levels. Consistently, pan-caspase inhibitor Z-DEVD-fmk blocked sub G1 accumulation and cleavages of PRAP and caspase 3 induced by ginkgetin in PC-3 cells. Overall, these findings suggest that ginkgetin induces apoptosis in PC-3 cells via activation of caspase 3 and inhibition of survival genes as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for prostate cancer treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our group previously reported that essential oil of Pinus koraiensis (EOPK) exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A. In the present study, we investigated the antiobesity and hypolipidemic mechanism of EOPK using in vitro 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo HFD-fed rats. EOPK markedly suppressed fat accumulation and intracellular triglyceride associated with downregulation of adipogenic transcription factor expression, including PPAR γ and CEBP α in the differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, EOPK attenuated the expression levels of FABP and GPDH as target genes of PPAR γ during adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, PPAR γ inhibitor GW9662 enhanced the decreased expression of FABP and PPAR γ and fat accumulation induced by EOPK. To confirm the in vitro activity of EOPK, animal study was performed by administering normal diet, HFD, and/or EOPK at the dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Consistently, EOPK significantly suppressed body weight gain, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and AI value and increased HDL cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry revealed that EOPK treatment abrogated the expression of PPAR γ in the liver tissue sections of EOPK-treated rats. Taken together, our findings suggest that EOPK has the antiobesic and hypolipidemic potential via inhibition of PPAR γ -related signaling.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:947037. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, antitumor mechanism of cinnamaldehyde derivative CB-PIC was elucidated in human SW620 colon cancer cells. CB-PIC significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased sub-G1 accumulation, and cleaved PARP with apoptotic features, while it enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK alpha and ACC as well as activated the ERK in hypoxic SW620 cells. Furthermore, CB-PIC suppressed the expression of HIF1 alpha, Akt, and mTOR and activated the AMPK phosphorylation in hypoxic SW620 cells. Conversely, silencing of AMPK α blocked PARP cleavage and ERK activation induced by CB-PIC, while ERK inhibitor PD 98059 attenuated the phosphorylation of AMPK α in hypoxic SW620 cells, implying cross-talk between ERK and AMPK α . Furthermore, cotreatment of CB-PIC and metformin enhanced the inhibition of HIF1 α and Akt/mTOR and the activation of AMPK α and pACC in hypoxic SW620 cells. In addition, CB-PIC suppressed the growth of SW620 cells inoculated in BALB/c athymic nude mice, and immunohistochemistry revealed that CB-PIC treatment attenuated the expression of Ki-67, CD34, and CAIX and increased the expression of pAMPK α in CB-PIC-treated group. Interestingly, CP-PIC showed better antitumor activity in SW620 colon cancer cells under hypoxia than under normoxia, since it may be applied to chemoresistance. Overall, our findings suggest that activation of AMPK α and ERK mediates CB-PIC-induced apoptosis in hypoxic SW620 colon cancer cells.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:974313. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the dysregulation of ribosome biogenesis is closely associated with tumor progression, in the current study, the critical role of ribosome biogenesis related signaling was investigated in melatonin and/or puromycin induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Despite its weak cytotoxicity, melatonin from 3 mM attenuated the expression of 45S pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA), UBF as a nucleolar transcription factor, and fibrillarin at mRNA level and consistently downregulated nucleolar proteins such as UBF and fibrillarin at protein level in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assay revealed that UBF was also degraded by melatonin in MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast, melatonin attenuated the expression of survival genes such as Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, cyclinD1, and cyclin E, suppressed the phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and STAT3, and cleaved PARP and activated caspase 3 only at a high concentration of 12 mM. However, combined treatment of melatonin (3 mM) and puromycin (1 μM) synergistically inhibited viability, attenuated the expression of 45S pre-rRNA and UBF, and consistently downregulated UBF, XPO1 and IPO7, procaspase 3, and Bcl-xL in MDA-MB 231 cells. Overall, these findings suggest that melatonin can be a cancer preventive agent by combination with puromycin via the inhibition of 45S pre-rRNA and UBF in MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:879746. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose (PGG) was well known to have antitumor activities in breast, prostate, kidney, liver cancers and HL-60 leukemia via regulation of caspase 3, p53, S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) and insulin receptor signaling, the underlying mechanism of PGG-induced apoptosis linked with reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and DAXX was never elucidated in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cells until now. Herein PGG significantly decreased the viability of CML cell lines such as K562 and KBM-5 without hurting normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). PGG increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells and the sub-G1 cell population as well as activated caspase cascades including caspase-8, -9 and -3 in K562 cells. Interestingly, a significant activation of JNK by PGG was observed by MULTIPLEX assay and Western blotting. Conversely, JNK inhibitor D-JNKi suppressed the cleavages of caspase 3 and PARP induced by PGG in K562 cells. Also, PGG dramatically enhanced generation of ROS and reduced the expression of death-domain-associated protein (DAXX). Of note, ROS inhibitor acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reversed JNK-dependent apoptosis and DAXX inhibition induced by PGG. Overall, these findings suggest that ROS-dependent JNK activation and DAXX downregulation are critically involved in PGG-induced apoptosis in K562 cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2012; 424(3):530-7. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer invasion and metastasis are the main causes of treatment failure and death in cancer patients. Piceatannol (3,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural analogue of resveratrol. This study investigated the anti-invasive mechanisms of piceatannol in MDA-MB-231 cells. Piceatannol significantly reduced serum-induced cell invasion and migration as well as adhesion without affecting the viability of cells. Furthermore, piceatannol markedly inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity and expression at both protein and mRNA levels. Piceatannol attenuated phosphoinisitide-3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylation of AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), whereas phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) was increased. Moreover, piceatannol inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and DNA binding of NF-κB on MMP-9 promoter. In addition, piceatannol diminished NF-κB nuclear translocation through blocking the inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) phosphorylation in the cytoplasm. These results proposed piceatannol as a potential anti-invasive agent by inhibiting MMP-9 involved in PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 04/2012; 60(16):4083-9. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test whether tanshinones inhibit prostate cancer (PCa) growth at least in part through inhibiting androgen receptor (AR) signaling.
We evaluated cell growth, survival and AR signaling parameters of PCa cells after exposure to tanshinones in in vitro models. We also tested the in vivo inhibitory efficacy of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) against LNCaP xenograft model in athymic nude mice.
For androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, a colony growth assay showed strong inhibitory potency following the order of TIIA≈cryptotanshinone>tanshinone I, being 10-30 folds higher than Casodex (racemic). TIIA inhibited growth of LNCaP cells more than several androgen-independent PCa cell lines. All 3 tested tanshinones were devoid of AR agonist activity under castrate condition. Mechanistically, tanshinones inhibited AR nuclear translocation within 2 h, decreased protein and mRNA abundance of AR and its target prostate-specific antigen within 12 h, and stimulated proteosomal degradation of AR. Oral administration of TIIA (25 mg/kg, once daily) retarded LNCaP xenograft growth and down-regulated tumor AR abundance in athymic nude mice.
AR targeting action of tanshinones was distinct from Casodex and contributed to prostate cancer growth suppression in vitro and in vivo.
Pharmaceutical Research 01/2012; 29(6):1595-608. · 4.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although cryptotanshinone (CT) was known to exert antitumor activity in several cancers, its molecular mechanism under hypoxia still remains unclear. Here, the roles of AEG-1 and HIF-1α in CT-induced antitumor activity were investigated in hypoxic PC-3 cells. CT exerted cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells and suppressed HIF-1α accumulation and AEG-1 expression in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Also, AEG-1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, HIF-1α siRNA transfection enhanced the cleavages of caspase-9,3, and PAPR and decreased expression of Bcl-2 and AEG1 induced by CT in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Of note, DMOG enhanced the stability of AEG-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia. Additionally, CT significantly reduced cellular level of VEGF in PC-3 cells and disturbed tube formation of HUVECs. Consistently, ChIP assay revealed that CT inhibited the binding of HIF-1α to VEGF promoter. Furthermore, CT at 10 mg/kg suppressed the growth of PC-3 cells in BALB/c athymic nude mice by 46.4% compared to untreated control. Consistently, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Ki-67, CD34, VEGF, carbonic anhydrase IX, and AEG-1 indices in CT-treated group compared to untreated control. Overall, our findings suggest that CT exerts antitumor activity via inhibition of HIF-1α, AEG1, and VEGF as a potent chemotherapeutic agent.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:390957. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ergosterol peroxide (EP) derived from edible mushroom has been shown to exert anti-tumor activity in several cancer cells. In the present study, anti-angiogenic activity of EP was investigated with the underlying molecular mechanisms in human multiple myeloma U266 cells.
Despite weak cytotoxicity against U266 cells, EP suppressed phosphorylation, DNA binding activity and nuclear translocalization of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in U266 cells at nontoxic concentrations. Also, EP inhibited phosphorylation of the upstream kinases Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and Src in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EP increased the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 at protein and mRNA levels, and conversely silencing of the SHP-1 gene clearly blocked EP-mediated STAT3 inactivation. In addition, EP significantly decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of STAT3 target genes at cellular and protein levels as well as disrupted in vitro tube formation assay. Moreover, EP significantly suppressed the growth of U266 cells inoculated in female BALB/c athymic nude mice and immunohistochemistry revealed that EP effectively reduced the expression of STAT3 and CD34 in tumor sections compared to untreated control.
These findings suggest that EP can exert antitumor activity in multiple myeloma U266 cells partly with antiangiogenic activity targeting JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway as a potent cancer preventive agent for treatment of multiple myeloma cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Though melatonin was known to regulate gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in chick astrocytes and mouse hepatocytes, the underlying mechanism by melatonin was not elucidated in hydrogen peroxide- (H(2)O(2)-) treated HaCaT keratinocyte cells until now. In the current study, though melatonin at 2 mM and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) at 300 μM showed weak cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocyte cells, melatonin significantly suppressed the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H(2)O(2)-treated HaCaT cells compared to untreated controls. Also, the scrape-loading dye-transfer assay revealed that melatonin enhances the intercellular communication by introducing Lucifer Yellow into H(2)O(2)-treated cells. Furthermore, melatonin significantly enhanced the expression of connexin 26 (Cx26) and connexin 43 (Cx43) at mRNA and protein levels, but not that of connexin 30 (Cx30) in H(2)O(2)-treated HaCaT cells. Of note, melatonin attenuated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) more than p38 MAPK or JNK in H(2)O(2)-treated HaCaT cells. Conversely, ERK inhibitor PD98059 promoted the intercellular communication in H(2)O(2)-treated HaCaT cells. Furthermore, combined treatment of melatonin (200 μM) and vitamin C (10 μg/mL) significantly reduced ROS production in H(2)O(2)-treated HaCaT cells. Overall, these findings support the scientific evidences that melatonin facilitates gap junctional intercellular communication in H(2)O(2)-treated HaCaT keratinocyte cells via inhibition of connexin 26/43 and ERK as a potent chemopreventive agent.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:589365. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our group previously reported that tanshinone IIA induced apoptosis via a mitochondria dependent pathway in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. In the present study, the roles of androgen receptor (AR) and p53 signaling pathways were investigated in tanshinone IIA-induced G1 arrest in LNCaP cells. Tanshinone IIA significantly inhibited the growth and proliferation of LNCaP cells by colony formation and BrdU incorporation assays, respectively. Tanshinone IIA induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and down-regulated cyclin D1, CDK2 and CDK4. Furthermore, tanshinone IIA activated the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser 15 residue and its downstream p21 and p27. Additionally, tanshinone IIA suppressed the expression of AR and prostate specific antigen (PSA). Conversely, silencing p53 using its specific siRNA reversed cyclin D1 expression inhibited by tanshinone IIA. However, knockdown of AR had no effect on the p53/p21/p27 signaling pathway activated by tanshinone IIA in LNCaP cells. In AR siRNA-transfected cells, tanshinone IIA did not cause cell cycle arrest and reduce cyclin D1, implying that AR is essential to induce G1 arrest by tanshinone IIA in LNCaP cells. Taken together, the findings suggest that tanshinone IIA induces G1 arrest via activation of p53 signaling and inhibition of AR in LNCaP cells.
Phytotherapy Research 10/2011; 26(5):669-74. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease of the arteries that is characterized by subendothelial accumulation of lipid-rich macrophages, called foam cells. We sought to identify the molecular details of cross-talk between liver X receptor α (LXRα) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) for the formation of triglyceride-rich foam cells under hypoxic conditions.
We first observed that expression of LXRα and its target lipogenic genes was time-dependently induced in human primary macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells under hypoxia. Similarly, TO901317, an activator of LXRα, enhanced the expression level and the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. Second, we demonstrated that LXRα increased HIF-1α protein stability through a physical interaction between the ligand binding domain of LXRα and the oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-1α. Third, we found that the activation of HIF-1α or LXRα synergistically induced triglyceride accumulation in macrophages. Finally, we showed that LXRα and HIF-1α were codistributed in the macrophages of atherosclerotic lesions of patients.
These results suggest that the positive feed-forward regulation of transcriptional activity and protein stability of LXRα and HIF-1α has an important impact in foam cell formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ETHONOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cortex Mori Radicis (CMR), the root epidermis of Morus alba L., has been traditionally used for cough treatment in Oriental medicine. In the present study, immunological mechanism of CMR in inhibition of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was investigated in a mouse asthma model.
Experimental asthma model was established in Balb/c mice sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA), followed by aerosol allergen challenges. CMR (50 or 200mg/kg) was orally administered for 6-weeks from 3-weeks after OVA sensitization. AHR, pulmonary eosinophilic accumulation, immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, Th2 cytokine expression, and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) were evaluated by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
CMR significantly reduced AHR response, eosinophil infiltration, and production of serum histamine and OVA-specific IgE. Furthermore, CMR suppressed Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, -5 and -13 at protein (secreted) and mRNA levels. Of note, CMR significantly increased Foxp3(+) Tregs population and enhanced Foxp3(+) mRNA expression in a mouse asthma model.
CMR exerts anti-allergic effect via enhancement of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and inhibition of Th2 cytokines in a mouse asthma model as a potent anti-asthmatic agent.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 08/2011; 138(1):40-6. · 2.32 Impact Factor