Samir Benosman

Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States

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Publications (6)38.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when unfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the organelle, triggering signal transduction events that contribute either to cellular adaptation and recovery or alternatively to cellular dysfunction and death. ER stress has been implicated in numerous diseases. To identify novel modulators of ER stress, we undertook a siRNA library screen of the kinome, revealing Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-2 (IRAK2) as a contributor to unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling and ER stress-induced cell death. Knocking down expression of IRAK2 (but not IRAK1) in cultured mammalian cells suppresses ER stress-induced expression of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP and activation of stress kinases. Similarly, RNAi-mediated silencing of the IRAK family member Tube (but not Pelle) suppresses activation of stress kinase signaling induced by ER stress in Drosophila cells. The action of IRAK2 maps to the IRE1 pathway, rather than the PERK or ATF6 components of the UPR. Interestingly, ER stress also induces IRAK2 gene expression in an IRE1/XBP1-dependent manner, suggesting a mutually supporting amplification loop involving IRAK2 and IRE1. In vivo, ER stress induces Irak2 expression in mice. Moreover, Irak2 gene knockout mice display defects in ER stress-induced CHOP expression and IRE1 pathway signaling. These findings demonstrate an unexpected linkage of the innate immunity machinery to UPR signaling, revealing IRAK2 as a novel amplifier of the IRE1 pathway.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e64256. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic ablations of p73 have shown its implication in the development of the nervous system. However, the relative contribution of ΔNp73 and TAp73 isoforms in neuronal functions is still unclear. In this study, we have analyzed the expression of these isoforms during neuronal death induced by alteration of the amyloid-β precursor protein function or cisplatin. We observed a concomitant up-regulation of a TAp73 isoform and a down-regulation of a ΔNp73 isoform. The shift in favor of the pro-apoptotic isoform correlated with an induction of the p53/p73 target genes such as Noxa. At a functional level, we showed that TAp73 induced neuronal death and that ΔNp73 has a neuroprotective role toward amyloid-β precursor protein alteration or cisplatin. We investigated the mechanisms of p73 expression and found that the TAp73 expression was regulated at the promoter level. In contrast, regulation of ΔNp73 protein levels was regulated by phosphorylation at residue 86 and multiple proteases. Thus, this study indicates that tight transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms regulate the p73 isoform ratios that play an important role in neuronal survival.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 286(50):43013-25. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic ablations of p73 have shown its implication in the development of the nervous system. However, the relative contribution of ΔNp73 and TAp73 isoforms in neuronal functions is still unclear. In this study, we have analyzed the expression of these isoforms during neuronal death induced by alteration of the amyloid-β precursor protein function or cisplatin. We observed a concomitant up-regulation of a TAp73 isoform and a down-regulation of a ΔNp73 isoform. The shift in favor of the pro-apoptotic isoform correlated with an induction of the p53/p73 target genes such as Noxa. At a functional level, we showed that TAp73 induced neuronal death and that ΔNp73 has a neuroprotective role toward amyloid-β precursor protein alteration or cisplatin. We investigated the mechanisms of p73 expression and found that the TAp73 expression was regulated at the promoter level. In contrast, regulation of ΔNp73 protein levels was regulated by phosphorylation at residue 86 and multiple proteases. Thus, this study indicates that tight transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms regulate the p73 isoform ratios that play an important role in neuronal survival.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 286(50):43013-43025. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin-derived anticancer therapy has been used for three decades despite its side effects. Other types of organometallic complexes, namely, some ruthenium-derived compounds (RDC), which would display cytotoxicity through different modes of action, might represent alternative therapeutic agents. We have studied both in vitro and in vivo the biological properties of RDC11, one of the most active compounds of a new class of RDCs that contain a covalent bond between the ruthenium atom and a carbon. We showed that RDC11 inhibited the growth of various tumors implanted in mice more efficiently than cisplatin. Importantly, in striking contrast with cisplatin, RDC11 did not cause severe side effects on the liver, kidneys, or the neuronal sensory system. We analyzed the mode of action of RDC11 and showed that RDC11 interacted poorly with DNA and induced only limited DNA damages compared with cisplatin, suggesting alternative transduction pathways. Indeed, we found that target genes of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway, such as Bip, XBP1, PDI, and CHOP, were activated in RDC11-treated cells. Induction of the transcription factor CHOP, a crucial mediator of endoplasmic reticulum stress apoptosis, was also confirmed in tumors treated with RDC11. Activation of CHOP led to the expression of several of its target genes, including proapoptotic genes. In addition, the silencing of CHOP by RNA interference significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of RDC11. Altogether, our results led us to conclude that RDC11 acts by an atypical pathway involving CHOP and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and thus might provide an interesting alternative for anticancer therapy.
    Cancer Research 07/2009; 69(13):5458-66. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MDMX has been shown to modulate p53 in dividing cells after DNA damage. In this study, we investigated the role of MDMX in primary cultures of neurons undergoing cell death. We found that DNA damage, but also membrane-initiated apoptotic stresses (glutamate receptor; Amyloid beta precursor) or survival factor deprivation downregulated MDMX protein levels. Forced downregulation of murine double minute X (MDMX) by shRNA induced apoptosis suggesting that MDMX is required for survival in neurons. Protease inhibitors prevented the loss of MDMX after neurotoxic treatments, indicating a regulation of protein stability. Some, but not all, neurotoxic stresses induced phosphorylation of MDMX at serine 367, further supporting regulation at the protein level. Interestingly, we found that depending on the stimulus either p53 or E2F1 was induced, but overexpression of MDMX inhibited the transcriptional activity of both proapoptotic factors, and maintained neuronal viability upon neurotoxic stresses. Taken together, our data show that MDMX is an antiapoptotic factor in neurons, whose degradation is induced by various stresses and allows activation of p53 and E2F-1 during neuronal apoptosis.
    Cell Death and Differentiation 01/2008; 14(12):2047-57. · 8.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sprouty (Spry) proteins are ligand-inducible inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases-dependent signaling pathways, which control various biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation and survival. Here, we investigated the regulation and the role of Spry2 in cells of the central nervous system (CNS). In primary cultures of immature neurons, the neurotrophic factor BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) regulates spry2 expression. We identified the transcription factors CREB and SP1 as important regulators of the BDNF activation of the spry2 promoter. In immature neurons, we show that overexpression of wild-type Spry2 blocks neurite formation and neurofilament light chain expression, whereas inhibition of Spry2 by a dominant-negative mutant or small interfering RNA favors sprouting of multiple neurites. In mature neurons that exhibit an extensive neurite network, spry2 expression is sustained by BDNF and is downregulated during neuronal apoptosis. Interestingly, in these differentiated neurons, overexpression of Spry2 induces neuronal cell death, whereas its inhibition favors neuronal survival. Together, our results imply that Spry2 is involved in the development of the CNS by inhibiting both neuronal differentiation and survival through a negative-feedback loop that downregulates neurotrophic factors-driven signaling pathways.
    Cell Death and Differentiation 11/2007; 14(10):1802-12. · 8.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

75 Citations
38.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2007–2008
    • University of Strasbourg
      • • Laboratoire de signalisations moléculaires et neurodégénérescence
      • • Faculty of Medicine
      Strasbourg, Alsace, France