ABSTRACT: Surgery for perforated small bowel malignancy is associated with dismal morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of the paper was to highlight our institution's surgical experience in the management of patients with malignant small bowel perforation.
A retrospective review of all patients who underwent operative intervention for malignant small bowel perforation from 2004 to 2007 was performed. The diagnosis was confirmed upon histological evaluation.
Emergency surgery was performed in seven patients with perforated small bowel malignancy during the study period. All were above 55 years old, with the majority (6/7) having an ASA score of 3 and above. Pneumoperitoneum on chest radiograph was seen in only one patient while computed tomographic scans demonstrating the pathology were performed in the rest. All patients underwent exploratory laparotomy with resection of the diseased segments within 24 h of admission. Jejunum and the ileum were the sites of perforation in six and one patients, respectively. Three patients had synchronous small bowel tumours. Two patients had stoma created due to extensive peritoneal soilage and haemodynamic instability. Lymphoma was the aetiology in four patients. The other pathologies included leiomyosarcoma (n = 1) and metastatic lung tumours (n = 2). The 30-day peri-operative mortality rate was 42.9% (n = 3). One was discharged to a hospice while another two received chemotherapy upon discharge. These three patients passed away within a year from the surgery. The last patient defaulted follow up.
In our small series, patients who were admitted for perforated small bowel malignancy have a high peri-operative mortality rates. For those who survived the initially operation, the long term outlook is still dismal.
The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 02/2012; 10(1):6-8. · 1.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Peritonitis from small bowel perforation is associated with prohibitive morbidity and mortality rates. The aims of our study were to review our institution's experience in the surgical management of small bowel perforation and to identify factors that could predict morbidity and mortality.
A retrospective review of all patients who underwent operative intervention for peritonitis from small bowel perforation from January 2003 to May 2008 was performed. Patients were identified from the hospital's diagnostic index and operating records. The severity of abdominal sepsis for all patients was graded using the Mannheim peritonitis index (MPI). All the complications were graded according to the classification proposed by Clavien and group.
Forty-seven patients, of median age 68 years (18-95 years), formed the study group. Pneumoperitoneum on chest radiographs was seen in only 11 (23.4%) patients. Foreign body ingestion (17.0%), adhesions (14.9%), and malignancy (12.8%) accounted for majority of the pathologies. There was one patient who had several small bowel perforations from Degos disease. Small bowel resection was performed in the majority of the patients (74.5%). The mortality rate in our series was 19.1%, while another 57.4% patients had perioperative complications. On univariate analysis, American Society of Anesthesiologists score >or= 3, MPI > 26, hypotension, stoma creation, abnormal electrolyte level, and renal impairment were related to worse outcome, while the three independent variables that were related to worse outcome after multivariate analysis were MPI > 26, hypotension, and abnormal serum potassium level.
Surgery for small bowel perforation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Patients with more severe peritonitis and physiological derangement were more likely to fare worse.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 12/2009; 14(3):493-9. · 2.83 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the epidemiology, aetiology and management of upper limb ischaemia in a series of 8 patients presenting to a tertiary referral centre over a 4-year period and the review of the pertinent literature.
Details of patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) due to critical ischaemia of the upper limbs were obtained from admission summaries through the Computerised Patient Support System (CPSS) and operative notes through LOTUS.
There were 8 patients who presented with upper limb ischaemia excluding trauma and iatrogenic causes over the last 4 years. All patients underwent embolectomy. One patient had an amputation post-embolectomy. Our short-term results were encouraging with 7 patients who were well enough to be discharged. One patient had a massive brainstem stroke and was discharged home for comfort care at the request of the family.
Careful physical examination and history taking, prompt recognition of upper limb ischaemia and active approach to management in the form of embolectomy are crucial in obtaining a good outcome and reducing the risk of late disabling effects.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 10/2009; 38(10):891-3. · 1.25 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Delayed diagnosis of patients with severe liver injuries is associated with an adverse outcome. As computed tomographic (CT) scan is not always available in the management of blunt abdominal trauma worldwide, the present study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of selected haematological markers in predicting the presence of hepatic injury and its severity after blunt abdominal trauma.
A retrospective review of all patients with blunt abdominal trauma presented to our institution over a 3-year period was performed. Patients were excluded if they suffered penetrating injuries, died in the emergency department or if the required blood tests were not performed within 24h of the accident. The grading of the hepatic injury was verified using CT scans or surgical findings.
Ninety-nine patients with blunt abdominal trauma had the required blood tests performed and were included in the study. The median injury severity score was 24 (range 4-75). Fifty-five patients had hepatic injuries, of which 47.3% were minor (Grades I and II) while 52.7% had major hepatic injuries (Grades III-V). There were no patients with Grade VI injuries. A raised ALT was strongly associated with presence of hepatic injuries (OR, 109.8; 95% CI, 25.81-466.9). This relation was also seen in patients with raised AST>2 times (OR, 21.33; 95% CI, 7.27-62.65). This difference was not seen in both bilirubin and ALP. ALT>2 times normal was associated with major hepatic injuries (OR, 7.15; 95% CI, 1.38-37.14; p=0.012) while patients with simultaneous raised AST>2 times and ALT>2 times had a stronger association for major hepatic injuries (OR, 8.44; 95% CI, 1.64-43.47).
Abnormal transaminases levels are associated with hepatic injuries after blunt abdominal trauma. Patients with ALT and AST>2 times normal should be assumed to possess major hepatic trauma and managed accordingly. Patients with normal ALT, AST and LDH are unlikely to have major liver injuries.
Injury 06/2009; 40(9):978-83. · 1.98 Impact Factor