[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One major precursor of carbonyl stress, methylglyoxal (MG), is elevated in the plasma of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this precursor contributes to the progression of vascular injury, hypertension and renal injury in diabetic nephropathy patients. This molecule induces salt-sensitive hypertension via a reactive oxygen species-mediated pathway. We examined the role of MG in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardio-renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive (Dahl S) rats, which is a rat model of CKD. Nine-week-old Dahl S rats were fed a 1% NaCl diet, and 1% MG was added to their drinking water for up to 12 weeks. Blood pressure and cardio-renal injuries were compared with rats treated with tap water alone. The angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), candesartan (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), was administered to MG Dahl S rats to determine the impact of this drug on the pathogenesis of MG-induced CKD. A progressive increase in systolic blood pressure was observed (123±1-148±5 mm Hg) after 12 weeks of MG administration. MG administration significantly increased urinary albumin excretion, glomerular sclerosis, tubular injury, myocardial collagen content and cardiac perivascular fibrosis. MG also enhanced the renal expression of Nɛ-carboxyethyl-lysine (an advanced glycation end product), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (a marker of oxidative stress), macrophage (ED-1) positive cells (a marker of inflammation) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) oxidase activity. Candesartan treatment for 4 weeks significantly reduced these parameters. These results suggest that MG-induced hypertension and cardio-renal injury and increased inflammation and carbonyl and oxidative stress, which were partially preventable by an ARB.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 31 January 2013; doi:10.1038/hr.2012.204.
Hypertension Research 01/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blockade of the T-type calcium channel (TCC), which is expressed in the renal efferent arterioles of the juxtamedullary nephron and vasa recta, has been shown to protect against renal injury. Studies were designed to determine the effects of a specific TCC blocker, R(-) efonidipine [R(-)EFO], on the regulation of renal circulation.
Renal medullary blood flux (MBF) and cortical blood flux (CBF) were simultaneously monitored using laser-Doppler flowmetry in Sprague-Dawley rats. Responses were also determined in rats with angiotensin II (AngII) induced renal ischemia. Intravenous (i.v.) or renal interstitial (r.i.) infusion of R(-)EFO (0.25 mg/h, i.v. or r.i.) significantly increased MBF by 24.0 ± 7.0 and 21.0 ± 4.4%, respectively, but without changing CBF or mean arterial pressure. The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-argininemethylester (L-NAME, 1 μg/kg per min, i.v. or r.i.) significantly attenuated R(-)EFO-induced increase in MBF. R(-)EFO inhibited the AngII-mediated (50 ng/kg per min, i.v.) reduction of MBF (28.4 ± 1.7%), which was associated with increased urinary NO(2) + NO(3) excretion and decreased urinary hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) excretion. Intracellular H(2)O(2) fluorescence (real-time fluorescence imaging) in the epithelial cells of isolated medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) significantly increased following AngII stimulation (1 μmol/L, 235 ± 52 units), which was significantly inhibited by pre and coincubation with R(-)EFO. R(-)EFO stimulation also increased the intracellular NO concentration in the epithelial cells of mTAL (220 ± 62 units).
These results suggest that TCC blockade with R(-)EFO selectively increases MBF, an effect that appears to be mediated by changes in renal NO and oxidative stress balance, which may protect against ischemic renal injury in the renal medullary region.
Journal of Hypertension 06/2012; 30(8):1620-31. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin sensitivity (IS). The role of RAS in insulin resistance and muscular circulation has yet to be elucidated. Therefore, this study sought to determine the mechanisms of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and/or diuretics on IS and capillary density (CD) in fructose-fed rats (FFRs). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either normal chow (control group) or fructose-rich chow for 8 weeks. For the last 4 weeks, FFRs were allocated to four groups: an FFR group and groups treated with the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), with the ARB losartan, or both. IS was evaluated by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique at week 8. In addition, CD in the extensor digitorum longus muscle was evaluated. Blood pressure was significantly higher in the FFRs than in the controls. HCTZ, losartan and their combination significantly lowered blood pressure. IS was significantly lower in the FFR group than in the controls and was even lower in the HCTZ group. Losartan alone or combined with HCTZ significantly increased IS. In all cases, IS was associated with muscular CD, but not with plasma adiponectin or lipids. These results indicate that losartan reverses HCTZ-exacerbated insulin resistance, which can be mediated through the modulation of muscular circulation in rats with impaired glucose metabolism.
Hypertension Research 09/2011; 35(1):48-54. · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylglyoxal, a metabolite of the glycolysis pathway, may play an important role in the development of diabetes and hypertension, but the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate whether methylglyoxal could directly induce insulin resistance and salt sensitivity in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Rats were allocated to four groups: control (normal drinking water), 1% methylglyoxal in drinking water, 1% methylglyoxal plus N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (800 mg/kg per day), a methylglyoxal scavenger, or TM2002 (100 mg/kg per day), an advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) inhibitor. After 4-week treatment insulin resistance was evaluated by an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique. In another set of rats, either a high-salt diet (4%) alone, standard rat chow with 1% methylglyoxal in drinking water or high-salt diet plus methylglyoxal was given for 4 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was performed to measure nitrotyrosine and methylglyoxal-induced AGEs, N-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) in the kidney.
Four-week treatment with NAC or TM2002 completely improved methylglyoxal-induced insulin resistance. Co-administration of methylglyoxal and high-salt diet significantly increased systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion, urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances excretion and the renal nitrotyrosine expression in the kidney (markers of oxidative stress) compared with methylglyoxal or high-salt diet alone. Renal CEL was significantly increased in methylglyoxal-treated rats compared with nonmethylglyoxal-treated rats.
These results indicate that methylglyoxal-induced insulin resistance and salt sensitivity at least in part by increasing oxidative stress and/or AGEs formation in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study provides further evidence for methylglyoxal as one of the causative factors in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and salt-sensitive hypertension.
Journal of Hypertension 07/2009; 27(8):1664-71. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies were designed to determine the effects of increases of renal perfusion pressure on the production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) within the renal outer medulla. Sprague-Dawley rats were studied with either the renal capsule intact or removed to ascertain the contribution of changes of medullary blood flow and renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure on H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) production. Responses to three 30-minute step changes of renal perfusion pressure (from approximately 85 to approximately 115 to approximately 145 mm Hg) were studied using adjustable aortic occluders proximal and distal to the left renal artery. Medullary interstitial H(2)O(2) determined by microdialysis increased at each level of renal perfusion pressure from 640 to 874 to 1593 nmol/L, as did H(2)O(2) urinary excretion rates, and these responses were significantly attenuated by decapsulation. Medullary interstitial NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-) increased from 9.2 to 13.8 to 16.1 mumol/L, with parallel changes in urine NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-), but decapsulation did not significantly blunt these responses. Over the range of renal perfusion pressure, medullary blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) rose approximately 30% and renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure rose from 7.8 to 19.7 cm H(2)O. Renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure and the natriuretic and diuretic responses were significantly attenuated with decapsulation, but medullary blood flow was not affected. The data indicate that pressure-induced increases of H(2)O(2) emanated largely from increased tubular flow rates to the medullary thick-ascending limbs of Henle and NO largely from increased medullary blood flow to the vasa recta. The parallel pressure-induced increases of H(2)O(2) and NO indicate a participation in shaping the "normal" pressure-natriuresis relationship and explain why an imbalance in either would affect the blood pressure salt sensitivity.