[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations are frequently observed during stem cell differentiation and there is evidence that it may control adipogenesis. The Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 channel (TRPM4) is a key regulator of Ca2+ signals in excitable and non-excitable cells. However, its role in human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs), in particular during adipogenesis, is unknown. We investigated TRPM4 in hASCs and examined its impact on histamine-induced Ca2+ signaling and adipogenesis. By RT-PCR, we identified TRPM4 gene expression in hASCs and human adipose tissue. Electrophysiological recordings revealed currents with the characteristics of those reported for the channel. Furthermore, molecular suppression of TRPM4 with shRNA diminished the Ca2+ signals generated by histamine stimulation, mainly via H1 receptors. The increases in intracellular Ca2+ were due to influx via voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of the L-type (Cav1.2) and release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Inhibition of TRPM4 by shRNA inhibited adipogenesis as indicated by the reduction in lipid droplet accumulation and adipocyte gene expression. These results suggest that TRPM4 is an important regulator of Ca2+ signals generated by histamine in hASCs and is required for adipogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The success of nonviral transfection using polymers hinges on efficient nuclear uptake of nucleic acid cargo and overcoming intra- and extracellular barriers. By incorporating PKKKRKV heptapeptide pendent groups as nuclear localization signals (NLS) on a polymer backbone, we demonstrate protein expression levels higher than those obtained from JetPEI and Lipofectamine 2000, the latter being notorious for coupling high transfection efficiency with cytotoxicity. The orientation of the NLS peptide grafts markedly affected transfection performance. Polymers with the sequence attached to the backbone from the valine residue achieved a level of nuclear translocation higher than the levels of those having the NLS groups attached in the opposite orientation. The differences in nuclear localization and DNA complexation strength between the two orientations correlated with a striking difference in protein expression, both in cell culture and in vivo. Polyplexes formed from these comb polymer structures exhibited transfection efficiencies superior to those of Lipofectamine 2000 but with greatly reduced toxicity. Moreover, these novel polymers, when administered by intramuscular ultrasound-mediated delivery, allowed a high level of reporter gene expression in mice, demonstrating their therapeutic promise in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) are promising tools for delivery of cytotherapy against cancer. However, ASCs can exert profound effects on biological behavior of tumor cells. Our study aimed to examine the influence of ASCs on gene expression and epigenetic methylation profiles of prostate cancer cells as well as the impact of expressing a therapeutic gene on modifying the interaction between ASCs and prostate cancer cells.
ASCs were modified by lentiviral transduction to express either green fluorescent protein as a control or pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) as a therapeutic molecule. PC3 prostate cancer cells were cultured in the presence of ASC culture-conditioned media (CCM), and effects on PC3 or DU145. Ras cells were examined by means of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, EpiTect methyl prostate cancer-focused real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction arrays, and luciferase reporter assays.
ASCs transduced with lentiviral vectors were able to mediate expression of several tumor-inhibitory genes, some of which correlated with epigenetic methylation changes on cocultured PC3 prostate cancer cells. When PC3 cells were cultured with ASC-PEDF CCM, we observed a shift in the balance of gene expression toward tumor inhibition, which suggests that PEDF reduces the potential tumor-promoting activity of unmodified ASCs.
These results suggest that ASC-PEDF CCM can promote reprogramming of tumor cells in a paracrine manner. An improved understanding of genetic and epigenetic events in prostate cancer growth in response to PEDF paracrine therapy would enable a more effective use of ASC-PEDF, with the goal of achieving safer yet more potent anti-tumor effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have examined the role of a novel cytokine, interleukin-27 (IL-27), in mediating interactions between prostate cancer and bone. IL-27 is the most recently characterized member of the family of heterodimeric IL-12-related cytokines and has shown promise in halting tumor growth and mediating tumor regression in several cancer models, including prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is frequently associated with metastases to the bone, where the tumor induces a vicious cycle of communication with bone cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts) to induce bone lesions which are a significant cause of pain and skeletal-related events for patients including a high fracture risk. We describe our findings in delivering IL-27 therapy and its effect on prostate cancer cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts at different stages of differentiation. We also examined the potential of IL-27 gene delivery by sonoporation (sonodelivery) with the goal of treating and reducing the growth of prostate cancer at a bone metastatic site in vivo. We used a new model of immune-competent prostate adenocarcinoma and characterized the tumor-growth reduction, gene expression, and effector cellular profiles. Our results suggest that IL-27 can be effective in reducing tumor growth, can help normalize bone structure, and can promote enhanced accumulation of effector cells in prostate tumors. These results are promising, because they are relevant to developing a novel IL-27-based strategy that can treat both the tumor and the bone, by using this simple and effective sonodelivery method for treating prostate tumor bone metastases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevations in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration are a phenomena commonly observed during stem cell differentiation but cease after the process is complete. The Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 (TRPM4) is an ion channel that controls Ca(2+) signals in excitable and non-excitable cells. However, its role in stem cells remains unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize TRPM4 in rat dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs) and to determine its impact on Ca(2+) signaling and the differentiation process. We identified TRPM4 gene expression in DFSCs, but not TRPM5, a closely related channel with similar function. Perfusion of cells with increasing buffered Ca(2+) resulted in a concentration-dependent activation of currents typical for TRPM4, which were also voltage-dependent and had Na(+) conductivity. Molecular suppression with shRNA decreased channel activity and cell proliferation during osteogenesis, but not adipogenesis. As a result, enhanced mineralization and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity were observed during osteoblast formation, although DFSCs failed to differentiate into adipocytes. Furthermore, the normal agonist-induced first and secondary phases of Ca(2+) signals were transformed into a gradual and sustained increase which confirmed the channels' ability to control Ca(2+) signaling. Using whole genome microarray analysis, we identified several genes impacted by TRPM4 during DFSC differentiation. These findings suggest an inhibitory role for TRPM4 on osteogenesis while it appears to be required for adipogenesis. The data also provide a potential link between the Ca(2+) signaling pattern and gene expression during stem cell differentiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We will focus on the therapeutic applications of ultrasound (US) for gene transfection or 'sonoporation'. Sonoporation therapy or 'sonotherapy' is an emerging physical method for delivering drugs and/or nucleic acids for treating cancer. Because of its non-invasive nature, sonotherapy has the potential to be competitive with other treatment delivery methods such as viruses or lipofection. For nucleic acid delivery, sonoporation in the presence of microbubbles (MB) significantly enhances transfection efficiency. Sonoporation is an ideal means of delivering pDNA, and it has a similar efficiency as electroporation or other physical gene therapy techniques, with potentially fewer side effects. Typically, nonphysical means of gene delivery have suffered from lower efficiencies compared to viral vectors, however, several studies suggest that sonoporation pDNA delivery could be a simple and inexpensive method that only requires a plasmid, MB, and a sonoporation device. Sonoporation could also be used to target MB to certain cells/tissues, delivering localized therapies. Using high-performance probes, more precise and safer sonoporation treatments will be developed, and newer therapeutic prospects will be realized.
Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition) 01/2012; 4:988-1006.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on novel approaches in the field of nanotechnology-based carriers utilizing ultrasound stimuli as a means to spatially target gene delivery in vivo, using nanoparticles made with either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or other polymers. We specifically discuss the potential for gene delivery by particles that are echogenic (amenable to destruction by ultrasound) composed either of polymers (PLGA, polystyrene) or other contrast agent materials (Optison, SonoVue microbubbles). The use of ultrasound is an efficient tool to further enhance gene delivery by PLGA or other echogenic particles in vivo. Echogenic PLGA nanoparticles are an attractive strategy for ultrasound-mediated gene delivery since this polymer is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for drug delivery and diagnostics in cancer, cardiovascular disease, and also other applications such as vaccines and tissue engineering. This paper will review recent successes and the potential of applying PLGA nanoparticles for gene delivery, which include (a) echogenic PLGA used with ultrasound to enhance local gene delivery in tumors or muscle and (b) PLGA nanoparticles currently under development, which could benefit in the future from ultrasound-enhanced tumor targeted gene delivery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have examined the potential of a novel cytokine, interleukin-27 (IL-27), for gene therapy of prostate cancer. IL-27 is the most recently characterized member of the family of heterodimeric IL-12-related cytokines and has shown promise in halting tumor growth and mediating tumor regression in several cancer models. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of a new mode of gene delivery to prostate tumors: low-frequency ultrasound irradiation or "sonoporation." We also examined the potential of IL-27 gene delivery by sonoporation to treat and reduce the growth of prostate cancer in vivo. We used three models of immune-competent prostate adenocarcinoma and characterized the tumor-growth reduction, gene-profile expression, and effector cellular profiles. Our results suggest that IL-27 can be effective in reducing tumor growth and can help enhance accumulation of effector cells in prostate tumors in vivo. These results are promising, because they are potentially relevant to developing novel therapies that can be translated by using the novel and effective sonoporation gene-therapy delivery strategy.
Human gene therapy 07/2011; 22(12):1537-50. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose-derived stromal/mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) have gained interest as promising tools for delivering cancer therapy. Adipose tissue can be obtained readily in amounts sufficient for ASC isolation, which can be expanded rapidly, allowing its use at low passage numbers, and can be transduced by viral and nonviral means. Our goal was to examine the potential of ASC to deliver cytokine gene therapies melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (MDA-7) or pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) to cancer cells. These novel cytokines are a potent proapoptotic and an antiangiogenesis mediator, respectively, with potential as antitumor agents. Expression of cytokine therapies did not adversely affect ASC biology, and these cells were still able to differentiate and retain normal viability. The ASC cytokine therapies were efficient in reducing tumor cell growth in coculture and also in suppressing in vitro angiogenesis phenotypes. We also observed that ASC retained their innate ability to migrate toward tumor cells in coculture, and this ability could be blocked by inhibition of CXCR4 signaling. The ASC were found to be nontumorigenic in vitro using a soft agar assay, as well as in vivo, utilizing 2 prostate cancer xenograft models. The ASC-MDA7 only reduced tumor growth in the TRAMP-C2-Ras (TC2Ras) prostate cancer model. The ASC-PEDF, however, reduced growth in both the TC2Ras and the PC3 highly aggressive prostate cancer models, and it was able to completely prevent prostate tumor establishment in vivo. In conclusion, ASC expressing PEDF and MDA7 could effectively reduce prostate tumor growth in vivo, suggesting ASC-cytokine therapies might have translational applications, especially the PEDF modality.
Stem cells and development 06/2011; 21(7):1112-23. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined whether the novel cell-cycle regulator cdk2-associated protein 1 (p12(cdk2ap1) or cdk2ap1), recently shown to regulate prostate cancer cell cycle and apoptosis, could have the capacity to reduce invasiveness and/or reduce malignant biological interactions between prostate cancer and bone cells. We also examined whether combining two cell-cycle arrest stimuli, cdk2ap1 plus bicalutamide (or casodex, CDX), could help enhance inhibition of prostate cancer cell phenotypes.
We stably expressed cdk2ap1 in prostate cancer cell lines using lentiviral vectors, as well as several different co-culture assays to quantify cellular invasion, migration, and the effect of the treatments on interaction with the bone microenvironment.
We have determined that cdk2ap1 can further augment the effects of CDX on cell-cycle arrest, growth inhibition, and cellular invasion. Using a coculture model, we observed that either cdk2ap1 or cdk2ap1/CDX combination were able to reduce chemotaxis towards osteoblasts, and also reduce the osteoblastic proliferative response to prostate cancer. Also modified by cdk2ap1 and CDX were several signaling pathways associated with prostate cancer/bone crosstalk mechanisms involved in prostate cancer progression.
These results suggest that either cdk2ap1 or the cdk2ap1/CDX combination hold promise in regulating prostate cancer growth and malignant phenotypes, and potentially also in reducing procarcinogenic interactions with a bone microenvironment model, restoring malignant phenotypes and signaling to a more benign state.
The Prostate 03/2011; 71(4):353-67. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevation in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration stimulates glucagon secretion from pancreatic α-cells. The Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 4 channel (TRPM4) is critical for Ca(2+) signaling. However, its role in glucagon secreting α-cells has not been investigated. We identified TRPM4 gene expression and protein in the αTC1-6 cell line using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Furthermore, we performed a detailed biophysical characterization of the channel using the patch-clamp technique to confirm that currents typical for TRPM4 were present in αTC1-6 cells. To investigate TRPM4 function, we generated a stable knockdown clone using shRNA and a lentiviral vector. Inhibition of TRPM4 significantly reduced the responses to different agonists during Ca(2+) imaging analysis with Fura-2AM. The reduction in the magnitude of Ca(2+) signals resulted in decreased glucagon secretion. These results suggested that depolarization by TRPM4 may play an important role in controlling glucagon secretion from α-cells and perhaps glucose homeostasis.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 01/2011; 335(2):126-34. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of expressing the cell cycle regulator protein cdk2-associating protein1 (cdk2ap1) in inhibiting growth of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Expression of cdk2ap1 correlated with reduction in several SCC malignant cell phenotypes, including reduced angiogenesis. We observed several alterations in gene expression consistent with classical functions of cdk2ap1, including upregulation of cell cycle inhibitory genes, and an upregulation in expression of genes belonging to both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic cascades. Interestingly, we also uncovered a profile of gene expression and activation of signaling pathways that may suggest new tumor-suppressive functions for cdk2ap1 through downregulation of invasion/metastasis and modulation of antiangiogenesis by upregulation of the TGFβ signaling pathway. Blocking of the TGFβ1 pathway resulted in inhibition of the cdk2ap1 antiangiogenesis phenotype. In combination, these data support the role of cdk2ap1 as a tumor suppressor gene that can regulate SCC tumor growth in a cell autonomous manner through decreases in invasiveness and a non-cell autonomous manner through decreases in angiogenesis phenotypes, and these are novel phenotypes induced by cdk2ap1.
Microvascular Research 12/2010; 80(3):324-31. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although most prostate cancers respond well to initial treatments, a fraction of prostate cancers are more aggressive and will recur and metastasize. At that point, there are few treatment options available. Significant efforts have been made to identify biomarkers that will identify these more aggressive cancers to tailor a more vigorous treatment in order to improve outcome. Polycomb Group protein enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) was found to be overexpressed in metastatic prostate tumors, and is considered an excellent candidate for such a biomarker. Scattered studies have found that EZH2 overexpression causes neoplastic transformation, invasion, and growth of prostate cells. However, these studies utilized different systems and cell lines, and so are difficult to correlate with one another.
In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of the phenotypic effects of EZH2 in a panel of five prostate cancer cell lines was performed. By using multiple cell lines, and examining overexpression and knockdown of EZH2 concurrently, a broad view of EZH2's role in prostate cancer was achieved.
Overexpression of EZH2 led to more aggressive behaviors in all prostate cell lines tested. In contrast, downregulation of EZH2 reduced invasion and tumorigenicity of androgen-independent (AI) cell lines CWR22Rv1, PC3, and DU145, but not of androgen-dependent (AD) cell lines LAPC4 and LNCaP.
Findings from this study suggest that AI prostate tumors are more dependent on EZH2 expression than AD tumors. Our observations provide an explanation for the strong correlation between EZH2 overexpression and advanced stage, aggressive prostate cancers.
The Prostate 05/2010; 70(6):675-88. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transient receptor potential melastatin type 7 channel (TRPM7) is a member of the TRP family of ion channels that is essential for cell proliferation and viability. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow are a potential source for tissue repair due to their ability to differentiate into specialized cells. However, the role of TRPM7 in stem cells is unknown. In this study, we characterized TRPM7 in mouse MSCs using molecular biology, immunocytochemistry, and patch clamp. We also investigated TRPM7 function using a lentiviral vector and specific shRNA to knockdown gene expression. By RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, we identified TRPM7, but not TRPM6, a close family member with similar function. Electrophysiological recordings during depletion of intracellular Mg(2+) or Mg(2+)-ATP resulted in the development of currents typical for the channel. Furthermore, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (1 pM-100 microM) inhibited TRPM7 in a concentration-dependent manner. The molecular suppression of TRPM7 significantly decreased MSC proliferation and viability as determined by MTT assay. In addition, TRPM7 gene expression was up-regulated during osteogenesis. These findings demonstrate that TRPM7 is required for MSC survival and perhaps involved in the differentiation process.
Stem cells and development 11/2009; 19(9):1393-403. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) is a master regulatory protein that plays a critical role in development as part of the polycomb repressive complex 2. Polycomb repressive complex 2 controls numerous cell cycle and regulatory genes through trimethylation of histone 3, which results in chromatin condensation and transcriptional silencing. EZH2 overexpression has been correlated with high incidence of more aggressive, metastatic prostate cancers. Although this correlation means EZH2 could prove valuable as a biomarker in clinical settings, the question remains whether EZH2 is actually responsible for the initiation of these more aggressive tumor types. In this study, EZH2-mediated neoplastic transformation of the normal prostate epithelial cell line benign prostate hyperplasia 1 (BPH1) was confirmed by in vivo tumor growth and in vitro colony formation. Furthermore, EZH2 transformation resulted in increased invasive behavior of BPH1 cells, indicating that EZH2 may be responsible for aggressive behavior in prostate cancers. BPH1 was also transformed with the classic oncogenes myristoylated Akt and activated Ras(V12) to allow phenotype comparisons with the EZH2-transformed cells. This study marks the first demonstration of neoplastic transformation in prostate cells mediated by EZH2 and establishes that EZH2 possesses stronger transforming activity than Akt but weaker activity than activated Ras.
Molecular Cancer Research 10/2009; 7(9):1456-65. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of expressing the cell cycle regulator cdk2ap1, downregulated in prostate cancer cell lines, in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth.
Expression of cdk2ap1 using a tet-inducible lentiviral system modified growth rate, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and reduced the invasive ability of prostate cancer cell lines, as assayed by cell viability, cell cycle profiling, Caspase 3/7 detection, and matrigel invasion assays. We examined the effect of expressing cdk2ap1 on gene expression profiles of cytokine, invasion, apoptotic, and androgen response pathways using quantitative real-time PCR, and used androgen-responsive reporter gene assays, and methylation-sensitive PCR to examine the mechanism of cdk2ap1 interaction with androgen-responsive pathways.
The expression of cdk2ap1 correlated with a reduction in cellular growth, irrespective of inhibition or stimulation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathways. Cell cycle arrest, increased apoptosis, and a reduction in invasiveness phenotypes were observed upon cdk2ap1 expression. Enhanced demethylation at the AR promoter, AR expression increases, and enhanced AR transcriptional activity correlated with cdk2ap1 expression.
Our findings support a novel concept by which cell cycle inhibitor genes can impact prostate cancer phenotypes by restoring a tumor suppressive function to androgen-responsive pathways and this function may involve modulation of a subset of functions of the AR.
The Prostate 08/2009; 69(14):1586-97. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of expressing the cell cycle regulator cdk2ap1 in epithelial or stromal cell compartments to reduce SCC growth in vitro and in vivo. Cell-autonomous and/or non-cell-autonomous expression of cdk2ap1 reduced tumor growth and invasion and altered cell cycle, adhesion, invasion, angiogenesis, and apoptotic gene expression, as assessed by several in vitro phenotype assays, quantitative real-time PCR, and in vivo molecular imaging using a novel three-way xenograft animal model. Our findings suggest that the interactions between cancer cells and fibroblasts that promote abnormal growth can be minimized by expressing cdk2ap1, supporting a novel concept by which tumor/growth suppressor genes can impact tumorigenesis phenotypes from non-cell-autonomous interactions within the tumor microenvironment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective treatment for recurrent, disseminated prostate cancer is notably limited. We have developed adenoviral vectors with a prostate-specific two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system that would express therapeutic genes at a robust level to target metastatic disease. The TSTA system employs the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter/enhancer to drive a potent synthetic activator, which in turn activates the expression of the therapeutic gene. In this study, we explored different configurations of this bipartite system and discovered that physical separation of the two TSTA components into E1 and E3 regions of adenovirus was able to enhance androgen regulation and cell-discriminatory expression. The TSTA vectors that express imaging reporter genes were assessed by noninvasive imaging technologies in animal models. The improved selectivity of the E1E3 configured vector was reflected in silenced ectopic expression in the lung. Significantly, the enhanced specificity of the E1E3 vector enabled the detection of lung metastasis of prostate cancer. An E1E3 TSTA vector that expresses the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene can effectively direct positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the tumor. The prostate-targeted gene delivery vectors with robust and cell-specific expression capability will advance the development of safe and effective imaging guided therapy for recurrent metastatic stages of prostate cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treating recurrent prostate cancer poses a great challenge to clinicians. Research efforts in the last decade have shown that adenoviral vector-based gene therapy is a promising approach that could expand the arsenal against prostate cancer. This maturing field is at the stage of being able to translate many preclinical discoveries into clinical practices. At this juncture, it is important to highlight the promising strategies including prostate-targeted gene expression, the use of oncolytic vectors, therapy coupled to reporter gene imaging, and combined treatment modalities. In fact, the early stages of clinical investigation employing combined, multimodal gene therapy focused on loco-regional tumor eradication and showed promising results. Clinicians and scientists should seize the momentum of progress to push forward to improve the therapeutic outcome for the patients.