Gábor Katona

Heim Pal Children'S Hospital, Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary

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Publications (23)23.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is surgical. The incidence of postoperative respiratory complications in this population is 5-25%. Aim: The aim of the authors was to present the preoperative evaluation and monitoring procedure elaborated in Heim Pál Children Hospital, Budapest. Method: 142 patients were involved in the study. Patient history was obtained and physical examination was performed in all cases. Thereafter, polysomnography was carried out, the severity of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was determined, and the patients underwent tonsilloadenotomy. Results: 45 patients with mild, 50 patients with moderate and 47 patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were diagnosed. There was no complication in patients with mild disease, while complications were observed in 6 patients in the moderate group and 24 patients in the severe group (desaturation, apnea, stridor, stop breathing) (p<0.000). In patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, no significant difference was noted in preoperative apnoea-hypapnea index (p = 0.23) and in nadir oxygen saturation values (p = 0.73) between patients with and without complication. Conclusions: Patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome should be treated in hospital where pediatric intensive care unit is available. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(18), 703-707.
    Orvosi Hetilap 05/2014; 155(18):703-7.
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    ABSTRACT: To establish a mathematical model of middle ear gas pressure regulation and to discuss potential implications for pathophysiology-oriented theoretical approach to middle ear surgery, with particular attention to mastoid obliteration. Numerous studies support that small mastoid volume is associated with cholesteatoma. Latest studies show that mastoid obliteration is an effective technique to lower the recurrence rate in these ears. A mathematical model was used to predict the development of gas pressure balance in the function of different middle ear volumes (VME), considering normal and dysfunctional Eustachian tube. Published data as gas pressure input values and our 3D CT reconstruction data in healthy and pathologic middle ears of children were applied. The model predicted ≤6.66 daPa pressure fluctuations in VME ≥3 ml, compared to ≥16 daPa of a VME ≤1 ml at perfect ET function, because of the different pressure change rate and pressure buffer effect of the MEs. Substantially larger fluctuations can be expected in a VME <3 ml with malfunctioning ET. Modeling mastoid obliteration predicts similar pressure fluctuations to a VME ≥3 ml resulting from elimination of gas exchange surface. Pressure change is faster in smaller MEs than in larger ones. Healthy MEs between 3 and 6 ml are very sensitive to the duration of a potential ET dysfunction to develop ME pathology. In MEs with poor mastoid pneumatization and dysfunctional ET, typical in cholesteatoma cases, mastoid obliteration as surgical reduction of mucosal surface for gas exchange can improve ME gas pressure balance resulting in better long-term outcome.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 03/2014; · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis is a rare complication of acute otitis media whose clinical presentation has changed with the early use of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to analyze the changing clinical signs, vaccination status, therapeutic management and outcome of these patients. Method Retrospective chart review of 10 children treated with otogenic lateral sinus thrombosis in a tertiary level teaching hospital in Budapest, Hungary, from January 1998 till August 2013. Results Patients were divided into Early and Late presenting groups. In the Early presenting group, sepsis developed within one week after the onset of acute otitis media. At admission otological symptoms were predominant. The Late presenting group experienced acute otitis media several weeks prior to presentation and in this group neurologic symptoms dominated the clinical picture at admission. All patients received antibiotics. Eight of them were also treated with low molecular weight heparin. All children underwent cortical mastoidectomy. After surgery, the clinical signs of elevated intracranial pressure transiently worsened. This manifested as progression of papilledema in seven children, causing severe visual disturbance in two cases. After medical treatment and serial lumbar punctures all patients except one recovered. This child has permanent visual acuity failure of 0.5 D unilaterally. At one year follow up complete and partial recanalization were noted in five and two patients, respectively. Conclusion After mastoidectomy the signs of elevated intracranial pressure can transiently worsen, papilledema can progress. Daily bedside monitoring of visual acuity and regular ophthalmoscopy with neurologic examination is recommended during hospitalization. Close follow up is advised up to one year. When the dominant sinus is occluded, the clinical scenario is more protracted and severe.
    International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Childhood exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) increases a child's burden of respiratory conditions, but parental smoking bans may reduce such morbidity. This study evaluated household smoking bans and their relationship to respiratory illness in an outpatient otolaryngology clinic. Methods: The study was performed at the Heim Pal National Children's Hospital, Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Department (Budapest, Hungary) from July to November, 2010. A consecutive series of children's caregivers were approached to participate in a survey measuring household smoking bans, upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms and illnesses, and socioeconomic factors. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Of the 215 caregivers recruited for the study, 208 agreed to participate (response rate of 96.7%). More than half of the children were male (54%), and 39% lived in a household with at least one member who smoked. Smoking was frequently banned inside the car (91.3%) and home (85.1%). Respondents felt it easiest to ask friends (97.1%) and family members not living in the household (98.1%) to refrain from smoking inside the home. Respondents also found it easier to ask a stranger (81.7%) or a family member (61.1%) not to smoke around the child. Logistic regression showed that respondents for children with a history of pneumonia found it less difficult to ask visitors in the home not to smoke compared to children without pneumonia (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06-0.98). Conversely, respondents for children who had had adenoidectomy found it over three times more difficult to ask strangers not to smoke near the child compared to those of children without adenoidectomy (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 1.43-6.38). Conclusions: In a population of children visiting an outpatient ENT clinic in Budapest, Hungary, we found a high degree of exposure to SHS. The ease with which caregivers felt towards asking others not to smoke predicted specific respiratory conditions. Since the ENT clinic offers a wonderful opportunity for clinicians to counsel parents on tobacco cessation, increased tobacco education of these providers is needed.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 01/2014; 11(2):1747-55. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst, which is most frequently found in the middle ear. The matrix of cholesteatoma is histologically similar to the matrix of the epidermoid cyst of the skin (atheroma); their epithelium is characterized by hyperproliferation. The c-MYC protooncogene located on chromosome 8q24 encodes a transcription factor involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous studies have found aneuploidy of chromosome 8, copy number variation of c-MYC gene, and the presence of elevated level c-MYC protein in cholesteatoma. In this study we have compared the expression of c-MYC gene in samples taken from the matrix of 26 acquired cholesteatomas (15 children and 11 adults), 15 epidermoid cysts of the skin (atheromas; head and neck region) and 5 normal skin samples (retroauricular region) using RT-qPCR, providing the first precise measurement of the expression of c-MYC gene in cholesteatoma. We have found significantly elevated c-MYC gene expression in cholesteatoma compared to atheroma and to normal skin samples. There was no significant difference, however, in c-MYC gene expression between cholesteatoma samples of children and adults. The significant difference in c-MYC gene expression level in cholesteatoma compared to that of atheroma implies a more prominent hyperproliferative phenotype which may explain the clinical behavior typical of cholesteatoma.
    BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:639896.
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    ABSTRACT: A large amount of studies have investigated the association between sleep and memory systems. However, remarkably little is known of the effect of sleep disorders on declarative and nondeclarative memory for children. In the present study we examined the effects of sleep disorders on different aspects of memory functions by testing children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which is characterized by disrupted sleep patterns. We used "The War of the Ghosts" test to measure declarative memory and the Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task. This enabled us to measure two aspects of nondeclarative memory-general skill learning and sequence-specific learning-separately. Ten children with SDB and 10 healthy controls participated in this study. Our data showed dissociation between declarative and nondeclarative memory in children with SDB. They showed impaired declarative memory, while the sequence-specific and general skill learning was similar to that of healthy controls, in spite of sleep disruption. Our findings suggest that sleep-disordered breathing affects declarative and nondeclarative memory differently in children. Moreover, these findings imply that the disrupted sleep pattern influences the more attention-demanding and cortical structure-guided explicit processes, while the less attention-demanding implicit processes mediated by subcortical structures are preserved.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 07/2013; · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From an acoustic aspect, fixation of the medial end of an ossicular replacement prosthesis to the stapedial footplate would be desirable. Technically, ionomer cement seems an ideal material for this purpose. The objective was to determine the aluminum level of the perilymph after the application of ionomer cement on the stapedial footplate. An experimental study on rabbits. A total of 25 Pannon White rabbits were divided into three groups. Five rabbits (group I) underwent sham operation; in 15 animals (group II) ionomer cement was applied onto the stapedial footplate; and in 5 cases (group III) the application of the cement onto the footplate was followed by opening of the vestibulum. In groups of 5, the animals were killed on day 1, 7, 30, 180, or 365 postoperatively. Fluid samples were taken from the vestibulum and their aluminum levels were determined. The average aluminum level in the fluid was insignificantly lower in group II than in group I, but significantly lower in groups I and II than in group III. As a glue, ionomer cement safely can be applied directly onto the footplate without the threat of raising the perilymphatic aluminum level, provided that there is no perilymph leakage. However, in the event of an open vestibulum, the application of cement onto the footplate is to be strongly discouraged due to the danger of a consequent increase in the aluminum level in the perilymph and the cerebrospinal fluid. NA. Laryngoscope, 2013.
    The Laryngoscope 07/2013; · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder in children, which is associated with enhanced inflammatory status. Inflammation-associated changes could be monitored by the assessment of exhaled biomarker profile. This study aimed to compare the exhaled biomarker profile in children with OSAS and habitual snorers. METHODS: Eighteen children with OSAS (8±2 years, mean±SD) and ten non-OSAS subjects with habitual snoring (9±2 years) were recruited. Exhaled breath was collected from the lower airways, processed using an electronic nose (E-nose) and analyzed off-line using principal component analysis, followed by discrimination analysis and logistic regression to build a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Exhaled biomarker pattern of OSAS patients was discriminated from that of control subjects (p=0.03, cross-validation accuracy: 64%), ROC curve analysis (area: 0.83) showed 78% sensitivity and 70% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The altered exhaled biomarker pattern in OSAS might reflect accelerated airway and/or systemic inflammation in diseased state. Breath pattern analysis by an E-nose can serve as a new tool to monitor inflammation in children with OSAS.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 06/2013; · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pediatric otolaryngology clinics have tremendous access to children with allergic conditions, yet no research has evaluated in this setting environmental tobacco smoke and the occurrence of atopic diseases. Methods Caregivers or parents of 201 consecutive patients in a Hungarian pediatric otolaryngology clinic were queried on otolaryngologic conditions; self-reported diagnoses of atopic diseases; and tobacco smoke exposure. Results A history of asthma was reported in 10.3% of children; 38.7% had at least one parent who smoked. Fifteen out of the 20 children with asthma (75.0%) had at least one parent who smoked. Having a diagnosis of hay fever and having a parent who smoked greatly increased the odds of having a diagnosis of asthma. Conclusions Second hand smoke exposure among children in an otolaryngology clinic was common, and was associated with co-existing atopic conditions. Pediatric otolaryngologists have an important opportunity to address parental smoking as part their care of children.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 01/2013; · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical and radiological outcomes in children treated with lateral sinus thrombosis secondary to acute mastoiditis considering also contralateral sinus hypoplasia. This study was a retrospective chart review, conducted in tertiary pediatric hospital. Medical reports of eight children with acute mastoiditis and lateral sinus thrombosis from 1998 to 2011 were examined in terms of therapy, clinical recovery and radiological proof of lateral sinus recanalization. Three children presented hypoplasia of contralateral venous drainage system. Condition of sinuses was regularly monitored with MRI. Otologically and neurologically, all children recovered fully. All received antibiotics; six received additional low molecular weight heparin therapy. Mastoidectomy was performed on six cases. Incision and thrombectomy were applied in the other two, one involving internal jugular vein ligation. This latter case presented also contralateral venous hypoplasia; visual impairment proved permanent. The other two children with contralateral sinus hypoplasia recovered fully after steroid, dehydration and low molecular weight heparin therapy. Recanalization occurred in all children except the one with internal jugular vein ligation, in whom good collateral circulation was observed. There were no bleeding complications. Anatomical variations of cerebral venous drainage system can frequently be observed and should be considered in treatment planning. Mastoidectomy with antibiotics and additional low molecular weight heparin treatment is a safe, promising alternative to thrombectomy and internal jugular vein ligation in children with lateral sinus thrombosis following acute mastoiditis, also having contralateral sinus hypoplasia. Recanalization can be expected within two to five months.
    Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 11/2012; · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Discuss effect and dynamics of propranolol (PR) treatment in infantile haemangioma (IH) of head and neck in children during follow-up. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2011, 22 children with head and neck infantile haemangioma (IH) treated by PR were recruited into the study. In a retrospective chart review clinical data were analyzed at 5 consecutive, different check-up time from 1 week to 12-14 months. Effectiveness of PR treatment was assessed by a symptom score method. RESULTS: In the whole series a significant regression was observed in 13 patients (59%) in the first week of the therapy. Further five patients showed this time a marked, two mild improvements, and two children did not respond initially to the PR therapy. In one of them (case #8) later on a mild improvement could be seen too. At the second check-up (1 month after initiating PR therapy) 50% of children showed definitive improvement compared to the first visit. Difference between first and second check-ups was significant, and between the 4th and 5th visits the improvement showed the lowest rate. Comparison of IH regression between the 2nd and the 5th check-ups resulted in a p value a little larger than 0.05. There was not significant correlation between the initial IH severity and the treatment effectiveness at the follow-ups (p>0.05). No significant differences were found in treatment effectiveness concerning the IH localizations, too. CONCLUSION: PR treatment is highly effective in children with IHs. The most striking effect is seen at the first week of treatment; later improvement is much slower, sometimes with periods of stagnations. The cause of this is probably the spectacular early effect of vasoconstriction, though other impacts of PR to the individual molecular markers of IH seemed to be less impressive clinically. However, treatment should be continued for at least 6 months because early cessation can cause a relapse.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 08/2012; · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many, but not all, studies have found a correlation between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and acute otitis media (AOM) and other adverse otologic outcomes. Given its high personal and societal costs and the divergent findings of the effect of ETS on middle ear disease, the aim of the current study was to assess the impact and possible determinant factors of ETS on recurrent (two or more) episodes of AOM. The study was performed at Heim Pal Children's Hospital, Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Department, Budapest, Hungary. Caregivers of a convenience sample of 412 children attending the ENT outpatient clinic were surveyed via a 22-item questionnaire regarding demographics, socioeconomics, and smoking behaviours of the child's family; as well as care-givers' self report of the number of AOM episodes of the child. Of the 412 participants, 155 (38%) children's parents smoked. In bivariate analysis, two or more episodes of AOM correlated with reported hearing problems, day care enrolment, parental employment and increased age of the child. In multivariate logistic regression, parental smoking more than doubled a child's risk for recurrent AOM while increased maternal employment (e.g. part-time or full-time versus unemployed) boosted risk up to fourfold. Among children whose parents smoked, half-packs of cigarettes smoked per day and day care attendance doubled or nearly tripled, respectively, the risk of recurrent AOM episodes. Childhood exposure to ETS is high among an ENT clinic population of Hungarian children. Such exposure correlates with AOM episodes, ENT operations and conductive hearing loss. Data such as these argue for strict laws smoke-free laws not only in Hungary, but also in Europe and around the world.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 04/2012; 76(7):989-93. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Grade II and III (according to Sadé's classification) retraction pockets (RPs) in 40 ears of 30 children were excised transmeatally with simultaneous ventilation tube insertion. At a mean follow-up of 16.1 months, an intact tympanic membrane and mild, grade I retractions not requiring treatment were observed in 32 ears (80%). The mean air-bone gap had decreased from 22.4 to 9.7 dB. Two residual perforations and six recurrent grade II RPs were detected, all these eight ears undergoing further surgery. The second surgery solved both of the residual perforations and four of the six grade II recurrences. The age of the children did not influence the success rate, whereas bilateral pathology, a higher grade and more extensive RPs were associated with a higher rate of unsuccessful cases. A staging system is introduced to ease the selection of candidates with a good prognosis for this procedure.
    Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 02/2011; 268(11):1549-56. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical course and laboratory findings initially strongly suggested the presence of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis in a 15-year-old boy. However, during the search for the origin of the infection, the otorhinolaryngological examination revealed mucosal abnormalities of the nose and paranasal sinuses, which, together with the histopathology of the renal biopsy and the presence of antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies in the serum, were consistent with Wegener's granulomatosis. The differential diagnostic process and the difficulties encountered in the management of the case are presented.Wegener's granulomatosis is not a common diagnosis in children, and may easily be overlooked in young patients, being misinterpreted as an infectious disease of the respiratory tract followed by acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis.
    International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra 01/2011; 6(2):65-68.
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the pneumatization of the temporal bone in age-matched healthy children and in children with otitis media with effusion (OME). Prospective case-control study. Tertiary hospital center. This study included 40 healthy children and 56 children with OME, with age ranging from 2 to 18 years. Mastoid volume and surface determination by 3-dimensional reconstruction of axial temporal bone computed tomographic images. Mastoid volume and surface area comparison of healthy children and children with OME. The mastoid cell system (MCS) grows continuously up to the age of 18 years, with different intensities. The mean ± SD MCS volume and surface of children with OME are significantly lower (2.82 ± 1.51 ml and 40.45 ± 18.14 cm, respectively) than those of healthy children (10.05 ± 5.3 ml and 84.47 ± 37.95 cm, respectively). The mastoid volume and surface area of the left and right ears correlate well in healthy children. In children with bilateral OME, the ipsilateral and contralateral ears can be largely different. The ratio of surface and volume is constant in age groups. In children with OME, the functional volume of MCS acting as a pressure buffer and the surface area serving for gas exchange are small. In case of OME, 1 ear could be more seriously affected by the disease. Otitis media with effusion presumably has a negative effect on the mastoid pneumatization process. The surface-to-volume ratio is constant through chronological age and is a good indicator of a normal middle ear function.
    Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 11/2010; 32(1):64-70. · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 09/2010; · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that the prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing, especially among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis in 6-12-year-old schoolchildren in Budapest. A total of 6335 children aged between 6 and 12 years attending 21 randomly selected primary schools in Budapest were surveyed in September 2007 by using a questionnaire consisting in part of questions compiled by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and in part of questions based on our own experience. 3933 of the questionnaires (1976 M/1957 F) were appropriately completed by the parents. The prevalence of current allergic rhinitis was 14.9% (n=530), that of physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis was 11.6% (n=413), and that of cumulative allergic rhinitis was 26.5% (n=943). Male gender (p<0.001), family history of atopy (p<0.001), eczema (p<0.001), urticaria (p<0.001), itchy-watery eyes (p<0.001), coughing (p<0.001), wheezing (p<0.001), a hearing impairment (p<0.001), itching of the palate (p<0.001), frequent upper airway infection (p<0.001), frequent rhinosinusitis (p<0.001), a history of tonsillectomy (p<0.01), a history of adenoidectomy (p<0.001), antibiotics given in the first year of life (p<0.001), paracetamol given in the first year of life (p<0.001), living in a green area (p<0.001), the consumption of soft drinks containing preservatives or colourants (p<0.04), feather bedding (p<0.01), living in a house made of concrete (p<0.001), living not far from an air-polluting factory or mine (p<0.001), and long-lasting disease before the appearance of the allergy (p<0.001) were all significant factors involving an increased risk of allergic rhinitis symptoms. The frequent consumption of tomatoes, nuts, margarine and butter significantly affected the cumulative allergic rhinitis prevalence. Overall, the 12-month prevalence of allergic rhinitis in these 6-12-year-old children in Budapest was 14.9%, which is higher than reported from other European countries. Our findings differ from those on other cohorts in that exposure to ragweed and to indoor environmental factors in concrete housing estates in Budapest may be of particular importance as concerns allergic sensitization.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 03/2010; 74(5):503-9. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first pediatric otorhinolaryngological department was set up in Hungary at the Heim Pál Children's Hospital, Budapest in 1948. The first head of the department and the founder of Hungarian pediatric otorhinolaryngology was Ferenc Kallay. He was followed in leadership by Jeno Hirschberg, and at present Gábor Katona. In Budapest 10 pediatric otolaryngological departments and in other parts of the country seven departments have been working until recently with overall 344 beds. The Pediatric Otorhinolaryngological Section was developed in 1977. The discipline is independent specialty since 1978. Conferences with various special topics have been organized every year since then. Two international congresses were held in Hungary: the first one in Eger, 1986 presided by Jeno Hirschberg and Zoltán Lábas; and the second in Budapest in 2008, organized by Gábor Katona. The Hungarian pediatric otorhinolaryngologists assumed initiative role in the development of this special discipline six decades ago, early joined in the international life and have had important positions in several international associations (IFOS, ESPO, UEP, IALP, IAP) as president, board member or chairman of committees. Besides the organizational work, they have taken part in the scientific and research work as well: in the present paper the authors detail the results achieved by them in several topics of pediatric otorhinolaryngology.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 07/2009; 73(9):1228-33. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective survey of the number, age, gender, month of admission, type of persistent acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and case history of pediatric patients who did not respond to conservative therapy, and of those who suffered from complications of acute sinusitis. The case charts of all children (<19 years of age) admitted to our department between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2006 with persistent acute bacterial rhinosinusitis that within 14-26 days against the course of appropriate conservative therapy have not recovered and complications of acute sinusitis were subjected to a retrospective review. Of the 339 patients 182 were admitted with persistent acute bacterial rhinosinusitis and did not respond to conservative therapy and 157 children were diagnosed with secondary complications of acute sinusitis. Males predominated overall (54.8%). The most endangered age range was between 3 and 6 years. The highest number of admissions occurred in March. The maxillary sinus was most frequently involved. Orbital complications were observed in 150 patients: 126 cases of preseptal cellulitis, 9 of orbital cellulitis, 4 of subperiosteal abscess, and 11 of orbital abscess. Further two children were diagnosed with intracranial complications, four patients presented with osteomyelitis and the remaining one exhibited mucocele. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most commonly cultured pathogen. There were no mortalities, and morbidity occurred in only two cases. The topicality and importance of this subject are illustrated by taking into account of two cases. The complications of acute rhinosinusitis are challenging, but the prognosis can be favorable. Early diagnosis and surgical drainage procedures in conjunction with aggressive medical management remain the standard of care for these critically ill patients.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 06/2009; 73(11):1507-12. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Union Européen des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has been promoting harmonization of specialist training programs in Europe. Anticipating a future contribution to a European standard for training specialists for tertiary care of children with otorhinolaryngology (ORL)-related problems this Round Table was organized by ESPO. The presentations refer to six European countries. The number of ORL specialists (including pediatric ORL specialists) appeared to vary from +/-8 to +/-1 per 100,000 inhabitants, suggesting significant differences as far as their contribution to health care is concerned. Numbers for pediatricians vary from 12 to 3 and for family doctors from 50 to 100 per 100,000. In two countries pediatric ORL has the status of an official sub-specialty for tertiary care, requiring at least 2 years of additional training for qualified ORL specialists. In three other countries specific centers for pediatric ORL are present, although the sub-specialty has no official status. In the last a center for pediatric otorhinolaryngology has not yet been established and facilities for training in pediatric ORL are not available. For each country various aspects of current practice of tertiary ORL care for children are presented. It is concluded that a European standard for pediatric ORL could be most useful, if it would not only refer to current diagnostic and therapeutic skills but also to relevant scientific knowledge and skills. However, it should be recognized that the relevance of today's standards is restricted, as medicine and medical technology are rapidly developing.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 04/2009; 73(6):839-41. · 0.85 Impact Factor