[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recognizing inconsistencies between the extant fear appeal theories and emotion literature, this research integrated cognitive appraisal theory and functional emotion theory into a fear appeal literature and proposed a model that describes a process through which both fear and anxiety can contribute to adaptive responses. Findings from an experiment (N = 927) supported the predictions. Fear and anxiety emerged as distinct constructs. Perceived susceptibility was a stronger predictor of anxiety than fear, while perceived severity was a stronger predictor of fear than anxiety. In addition, greater fear and anxiety led to greater response efficacy through increased motivation to obtain protection-related information and heightened attention to such information, thus mediating the threat and coping appraisal processes. The SEM model testing the predictions showed that perceived susceptibility had the strongest total effects on protection intention, followed by anxiety, perceived severity, and fear.
Communication Monographs 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/03637751.2015.1044257 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New media-based interactive risk communication has gained increasing attention and importance. While extant research has focused on the main effects of interactivity on attitudinal and behavioral outcomes, little research has investigated how risk message content may interact with risk message modality such as interactivity in generating effects, or the psychological processes underlying it. In this study, we examined the interaction effect of interactivity, threat, and response efficacy on individuals’ involvement with risk message, attitudes toward vaccination, and information seeking intention in the context of meningococcal vaccination through a 2 (interactivity: low, high) × 2 (threat: low, high) × 2 (response efficacy: low, high) experiment. Results indicated a significant three-way interaction among interactivity, threat, and response efficacy on message involvement: individuals with high-threat, high-response efficacy perceptions were more involved with the message when it was presented in a more interactive modality. With high-threat, low-response efficacy, the interactive modality of the message did not influence levels of message involvement. Furthermore, message involvement mediated the effect of the three-way interaction among threat, response efficacy, and interaction on information seeking intentions. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Journal of Risk Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1080/13669877.2014.988284 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Video game goals are important features of video games. Player’s interaction with goals can not only shape the gaming experience by evoking cognitive and affective reactions in players, but also lead to learning outcomes. However, there are few empirical studies on the effects of interacting with game goals, and no previous research has manipulated goal setting. In two experimental studies, participants were randomly assigned to one of the following five conditions: self-set goal repetitive play, assigned goal repetitive play, no-set goal repetitive play, no-set goal single play, and no play. Results show that playing earthquake preparedness video games generates significant learning outcomes; playing repeatedly with self-set goals yields greater learning compared to playing once with no-set goals or not playing; and cognitive reactions mediates the relation between goal interaction and learning. Implications of the results for the design and evaluation of future video games for learning are explored.
Computers in Human Behavior 05/2013; 29(3):858–869. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2012.11.003 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perceived lack of realism in alcohol advertising messages promising positive outcomes and antialcohol and antidrug messages portraying negative outcomes of alcohol consumption has been a cause for public health concern. This study examined the effects of perceived realism dimensions on personal probability estimation through identification and message minimization. Data collected from college students in U.S. Midwest in 2010 (N = 315) were analyzed with multilevel structural equation modeling. Plausibility and narrative consistency mitigated message minimization, but they did not influence identification. Factuality and perceptual quality influenced both message minimization and identification, but their effects were smaller than those of typicality. Typicality was the strongest predictor of probability estimation. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research are provided.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perceived realism may be a crucial message characteristic facilitating narrative-based persuasion. This study examined dimensions of perceived realism and their roles in narrative persuasion. Data based on responses to messages on three topics showed that perceived realism was multidimensional. Its dimensions included plausibility, typicality, factuality, narrative consistency, and perceptual quality. Plausibility predicted emotional involvement, but not identification. Typicality predicted identification, but not emotional involvement. Narrative consistency and perceptual quality predicted message evaluation. Emotional involvement, identification, and message evaluation, in turn, predicted attitudes. Implications for theory, research, and message design pertinent to narrative persuasion are discussed.
Communication Research 06/2012; 41(6):828-851. DOI:10.1177/0093650212450585 · 2.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although numerous media literacy interventions have been developed and delivered over the past 3 decades, a comprehensive meta-analytic assessment of their effects has not been available. This study investigates the average effect size and moderators of 51 media literacy interventions. Media literacy interventions had positive effects (d=.37) on outcomes including media knowledge, criticism, perceived realism, influence, behavioral beliefs, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior. Moderator analyses indicated that interventions with more sessions were more effective, but those with more components were less effective. Intervention effects did not vary by the agent, target age, the setting, audience involvement, the topic, the country, or publication status.
Journal of Communication 06/2012; 62(3):454-472. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01643.x · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined how message framing effects can be moderated by two types of risk: (a) perceived effectiveness in preventing a risk and (b) perceived susceptibility to the risk. The results indicate that the perceived effectiveness moderated framing effects on the intention to use sunscreen such that a loss-framed message was more effective when perceived effectiveness was low, whereas a gain-framed message was more effective when perceived effectiveness was high. In addition, perceived susceptibility to skin cancer moderated framing effects on the intention to use sunscreen and the intention to wear long pants such that a loss-framed message was more effective when perceived susceptibility was high.
Journal of Health Psychology 12/2011; 17(6):929-40. DOI:10.1177/1359105311428536 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether and how exposure to tanned images on television is related to tanning attitudes and intentions among men and women, using the influence of presumed influence model (Gunther & Storey, 2003). The model showed a better fit with the male rather than female sample. In addition, among males, exposure to tanned-men images on television was directly associated with protanning attitudes and was indirectly associated with protanning intentions. Corresponding direct and indirect associations were not found among females. Instead, the results suggest females may project their own protanning intentions into the estimation of protanning norms among male and female peers. These results suggest the social perceptual processes underlying the link between television exposure and tanning tendencies of men and women may differ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adolescents are frequently thought of as having strong desires for independence and defiance of authority. Using psychological reactance theory, this study investigated the effects of gain and loss frame messages advocating sun safety behavior on the perceived threats to freedom of high school-aged adolescents. A loss, rather than a gain, frame message produced greater perceived threats to freedom among adolescents. Perceived threats to freedom were associated with anger, but anger was not associated with attitudes toward behavior. Perceived threats to freedom were not associated with negative cognitions, but more negative cognitions were associated with less positive attitudes toward behavior. Implications of the findings on future research are explored.
Communication Research Reports 10/2011; 28(4):308-317. DOI:10.1080/08824096.2011.616242
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The smoking rate among adult men in South Korea is one of the highest in the world, standing at about 53%. Although various mass media-based educational initiatives have been taken to reduce this rate, their contribution toward the smoking risk perceptions of South Koreans has not been investigated. This study examined the association between genre-specific media exposure and personal and social risk perceptions of smokers and nonsmokers. Data from a survey of 558 South Korean college students (39% smokers) show that genre-specific media exposure differentially predicts personal and social risk perceptions of smokers and nonsmokers. News media exposure predicted smokers' personal risk perceptions, whereas entertainment media exposure predicted nonsmokers' personal risk perceptions. Exposure to a hybrid genre, health infotainment, predicted social risk perceptions, but not personal risk perceptions, of both smokers and nonsmokers. High rates of exposure to medical documentary were associated with low personal risk perceptions of nonsmokers, but not smokers. These results collectively suggest that mixed-media strategies may effectively address perceptions of personal and social risk of smoking. Suggestions for future research, and theoretical and practical implications, are offered.
Journal of Health Communication 02/2011; 16(5):533-49. DOI:10.1080/10810730.2010.546488 · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether and how dimensions of perceived realism of television medical dramas are linked to perceptions of physicians. The three dimensions of perceived realism were considered: plausibility, typicality, and narrative consistency. Data from a survey of college students were examined with confirmatory factor analyses and hierarchical regression analyses. Across the three dramas (ER, Grey’s Anatomy, and House), narrative consistency predicted positive perceptions about physicians. Perceived plausibility and typicality of the medical dramas showed no significant association with perceptions about physicians. These results illustrate the importance of distinguishing different dimensions of perceived realism and the importance of narrative consistency in influencing social beliefs.
Journal of Media Psychology Theories Methods and Applications 01/2011; 23(3):141-148. DOI:10.1027/1864-1105/a000047 · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether magazine exposure is related to stereotypical beliefs about tanned women. A survey of White college women (n=205) assessed their exposure to beauty/fashion and health/fitness magazines. Outcome variables were the beliefs that tanned women are fashionable, fit, and shallow. Attention to the tanned women's images in health magazines positively predicted the belief that tanned women are fit and that tanned women are shallow; in contrast, attention to the images in beauty magazine negatively predicted the belief that tanned women are fit. Number of beauty magazines women read negatively predicted the belief that tanned women are shallow. The belief that tanned women are fit was unrelated, but the belief that tanned women are shallow was negatively related, with tanning attitudes.
Body image 09/2010; 7(4):364-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bodyim.2010.04.002 · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines predictors and the role of attitude toward the message and perceived message quality in the gain- and loss-framed antidrug persuasion of adolescents. Identification predicted the perceived effectiveness of gain- but not loss-frame ads, whereas perceived realism contributed to the perceived effectiveness of both frame ads. Positive affect predicted the attitude toward the gain-frame ads, whereas negative affect predicted the perceived quality of the loss-frame ads. Attitude toward the message was a stronger predictor of the effectiveness of gain-frame ads, while perceived message quality but not attitude toward the message was correlated with the effectiveness of loss-frame ads. Discussion focuses on implications for formative evaluation of health communication campaign messages.
Health Communication 06/2010; 25(4):303-11. DOI:10.1080/10410231003773326 · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using theories on group identity and voluntary risk taking, data gathered through seven focus groups involving 43 fraternity members were analyzed to understand the ways in which the members construct the problems of and solutions to excessive drinking. Control emerged as a metaconcept that is both an undercurrent and interconnection to the expressed opinions. The possession and practice of control discriminated three levels of in-group versus out-group membership. Perspectives on solutions were predicated upon the perceived risk of lack of control and intergroup dynamics. Implications on intervention and policy efforts are discussed.
Health Communication 04/2010; 25(3):212-20. DOI:10.1080/10410231003698887 · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between theoretically grounded psychosocial motivators and the sun safety practice intentions of rural youth.
A survey was given to 219 members of FFA (Future Farmers of America) at high schools in the rural Midwest (average age = 16).
Perceived self-efficacy, peer norms, response efficacy, and susceptibility predicted protective clothing and sunscreen use intentions. Among boys, perceived norms among same-sex peers; but among girls, norms among both same- and opposite-sex peers, were significant.
Self-efficacy should be an important component of sun safety education for rural youth. Gender-specific peer norms should also be addressed.
American journal of health behavior 01/2010; 34(4):412-9. DOI:10.5993/AJHB.34.4.3 · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: Social norms interventions for reducing excessive drinking on college campuses have reported mixed results. In an attempt to understand the inconsistencies, this study examined some of the under‐examined aspects of the social norms approach. Design: A cross‐sectional survey of undergraduate students at two large mid‐western universities in the USA was conducted. Norm proximity (campus vs. friends' norms), norm types (descriptive vs. injunctive norms), and college drinker types (frequent binge drinkers, occasional binge drinkers, and non‐binge drinkers) were differentiated. Findings: The influences of friends' norms are stronger than those of campus and those of descriptive norms are stronger than injunctive norms. Friends' descriptive norms influenced frequent and occasional binge drinkers' behavior most strongly, whereas the campus descriptive norm and self‐efficacy influenced non‐binge drinkers' behavior. Conclusions: Proximity and types of norms as well as types of college drinkers will need to be distinguished in the future design and evaluation of social norms interventions.
Journal of Substance Use 07/2009; 11(6):417-429. DOI:10.1080/14659890600738982 · 0.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Much research has documented the significant influence of self-efficacy on smoking cessation, but considerably less is known as to what health communicators can do to promote or address barriers to self-efficacy. This study investigated personal, social, and cultural correlates of smoking self-efficacy. A survey of college smokers was done in South Korea, where the current smoking rate among males is over 56%. At the personal level, the perceived success-fullness of the last quit trial positively predicted self-efficacy. At the social level, interpersonal communication with friends was positively associated with self-efficacy. The cultural orientation of independent self-construal was positively associated with self-efficacy. These results indicate that factors affecting smokers' self-efficacy are operative in multiple domains and levels. Future communication programs should promote positive perceptions about prior quit trials, and segment the audience in terms of their self-construal to effectively enhance self-efficacy.
Health Communication 07/2009; 24(4):337-45. DOI:10.1080/10410230902889381 · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improving the effectiveness of antidrug ads is an important public health concern. Central to achieving this aim is identifying the message strategies that address the differential characteristics of adolescent audiences. This study examined the effects of gain versus loss frame antidrug ads on adolescents with different social and behavioral characteristics. A posttest-only experiment was conducted to examine if these audience factors moderate the effects of message framing. Loss-frame messages, rather than gain-frame messages, were more persuasive for adolescents who report that their friends use drugs. Neither gain nor loss framing had a persuasive advantage for adolescents who report that their friends do not use drugs, although this outcome may be the result of a ceiling effect. Implications of the results for future theory and research are discussed.
Journal of Communication 08/2008; 58(3):428 - 446. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.00393.x · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The perceived as well as actual (in) effectiveness of anti-drug ads has been prominent in public discourse and concern. Using the third person effect hypothesis, this study examined adolescents' perceptions on the effect of anti-drug ads and the perception's relationship to attitudes and intentions concerning drug use. The results suggested that adolescents estimated the anti-drug ad effect on the basis of their behavioral experience, the self-anchored expectancy of a pro-social media effect: Those who had used drugs anticipated the effect of anti-drug ads to be smaller than those who had not used drugs. The perceived informative realism of anti-drug ads influenced the perceived message quality, which in turn influenced the perceived effect on self. The perceived effect on self was positively associated with anti-drug attitudes and intentions. The implications on future third person perception research and anti-drug campaign efforts are discussed.
Communication Research 04/2008; 35(2):169-189. DOI:10.1177/0093650207313158 · 2.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health communication campaigns, as an outcome of and an input into the social process, can create unintended as well as intended effects. The present paper represents an initial conceptual treatment of the unintended effects, the less studied of the two. It suggests that unintended effects can manifest in multiple dimensions, including those of time lapse, levels of analysis, audience types, content specificity, and valence. On these dimensions, a typology organizes available evidence to offer an outlook on 11 types of unintended effects, including obfuscation, dissonance, boomerang, epidemic of apprehension, desensitization, culpability, opportunity cost, social reproduction, social norming, enabling, and system activation. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.
Journal of Communication 06/2007; 57(2):293 - 317. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2007.00344.x · 2.45 Impact Factor