[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Schwarz FF-8 (FF-8) and AIK-C measles virus vaccine strains are currently used for vaccination in Japan. Here, the complete genome nucleotide sequence of the FF-8 strain has been determined and its genome sequence found to be remarkably similar to that of the AIK-C strain. These two strains are differentiated only by two nucleotide differences in the phosphoprotein gene. Since the FF-8 strain does not possess the amino acid substitutions in the phospho- and fusion proteins which are responsible for the temperature-sensitivity and small syncytium formation phenotypes of the AIK-C strain, respectively, other unidentified common mechanisms likely attenuate both the FF-8 and AIK-C strains.
Microbiology and Immunology 03/2011; 55(7):518-24. DOI:10.1111/j.1348-0421.2011.00339.x · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent for acute measles and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Although numerous mutations have been found in the MV genome of SSPE strains, the mutations responsible for the neurovirulence have not been determined. We previously reported that the SSPE Osaka-2 strain but not the wild-type strains of MV induced acute encephalopathy when they were inoculated intracerebrally into 3-week-old hamsters. The recombinant MV system was adapted for the current study to identify the gene(s) responsible for neurovirulence in our hamster model. Recombinant viruses that contained envelope-associated genes from the Osaka-2 strain were generated on the IC323 wild-type MV background. The recombinant virus containing the M gene alone did not induce neurological disease, whereas the H gene partially contributed to neurovirulence. In sharp contrast, the recombinant virus containing the F gene alone induced lethal encephalopathy. This phenotype was related to the ability of the F protein to induce syncytium formation in Vero cells. Further study indicated that a single T461I substitution in the F protein was sufficient to transform the nonneuropathogenic wild-type MV into a lethal virus for hamsters.
Journal of Virology 11/2010; 84(21):11189-99. DOI:10.1128/JVI.01075-10 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attenuated live vaccines of measles virus (MV) have been developed from clinical isolates by serial propagation in heterologous cells, mainly chicken embryonic cells. The safety and effectiveness of these vaccines have been well established. However, the molecular mechanism of their attenuation remains a subject of investigation. The CAM-70 MV vaccine strain was developed from the Tanabe strain by serial propagation in chicken embryonic cells. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of each gene in the CAM-70 strain to efficient growth in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF). We used a cloned MV IC323 based on the wild-type IC-B strain and generated a series of IC323s that possess one or more of the CAM-70 genes. Then, we examined the infection of CEF and CEF expressing human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule with the recombinant MVs. Our results demonstrated that MV needs to adapt to CEF at both the entry and postentry steps and that the CAM-70 matrix protein gene plays an important role in adaptation to CEF at the early stage of the virus replication cycle. The CAM-70 large protein gene was responsible for the efficient transcription and replication in CEF, and the CAM-70 hemagglutinin and fusion protein genes were responsible for efficient entry. Investigations focusing on these genes might elucidate unknown molecular mechanisms underlying the attenuation of MV.
Journal of Virology 10/2009; 83(22):11645-54. DOI:10.1128/JVI.01110-09 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CAM-70 measles virus (MV) vaccine strain is currently used for vaccination against measles. We examined the fusion-inducing ability of the CAM-70 hemagglutinin (H) protein and found that it was impaired in both CD46- and signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-expressing cells. We also generated recombinant MVs possessing H genes derived from the CAM-70 strain. The CAM-70 H protein impaired viral growth in both CD46- and SLAM-expressing cells. In peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC), the CAM-70 strain did not grow efficiently. Infection with recombinant MVs revealed that impaired growth of the CAM-70 strain was attributed to the H gene only partly in PBL and largely in Mo-DC. Thus, impaired fusion-inducing ability of the H protein may be one of the underlying molecular mechanisms resulting in the attenuation of the CAM-70 strain.