[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Burkholderia spp. strains collected in Spain over a 13-year period from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 148), non-CF patients (n = 103) and from environmental sources (n = 64) were characterised. One hundred and forty-one of the examined strains were involved in seven suspected nosocomial disease outbreaks. Strains were identified by their 16s rRNA and recA genes. Their genetic relatedness, the possession of cable pili and the B. cepacia epidemic strain marker (BCESM), and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents were studied using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), cblA and esmR genes analysis, and by the E-test, respectively. The genomovar distribution for the 315 strains was as follows: B. stabilis 29.5 %, B. cepacia 14.9 %, B. multivorans 11.1 %, B. cenocepacia IIIA 9.5 %, B. vietnamiensis 3.8 %, B. cenocepacia IIIB 3.5 %, and B. ambifaria and B. pyrrocinia 0.3 % each. The genetic diversity of the B. cepacia complex (Bcc) was ample, with 57 different SpeI types, showing a genetic similarity of 36.4-96.6 %. No strain carried cblA, whereas 25 B. cenocepacia genotypes harboured BCESM (23 from patients with CF). Antimicrobial resistance rates to tobramycin (TOB; 86 %) and imipenem (IPM; 67 %) were high. The strains from patients with CF showed significantly greater resistance to piperacillin (PIP), levofloxacin (LVX) and co-trimoxazole (SXT) than those isolated from non-CF patients (p < 0.05). In conclusion, B. cenocepacia was the most prevalent genomovar found in patients with CF (19.1 %), whereas B. cepacia was the most common among non-CF patients (20.7 %). B. stabilis (47.6 %) was the most common environmental genomovar. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents depended on genomovar status and strain origin.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 08/2012; 31(12). DOI:10.1007/s10096-012-1707-6 · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the major pathogens involved in nosocomial outbreaks. The clonal diversity of 729 epidemic strains isolated from 19 Spanish hospitals (mainly from intensive care units) was analyzed over an 11-year period. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 58 PFGE types that were subjected to susceptibility testing, rpoB gene sequencing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). All PFGE types were multidrug resistant; colistin was the only agent to which all pathogens were susceptible. The 58 PFGE types were grouped into 16 clones based on their genetic similarity (cutoff of 80%). These clones were distributed into one major cluster (cluster D), three medium clusters (clusters A, B, and C), and three minor clusters (clusters E, F, and G). The rpoB gene sequencing and MLST results reflected a clonal distribution, in agreement with the PFGE results. The MLST sequence types (STs) (and their percent distributions) were as follows: ST-2 (47.5%), ST-3 (5.1%), ST-15 (1.7%), ST-32 (1.7%), ST-79 (13.6%), ST-80 (20.3%), and ST-81 (10.2%). ST-79, ST-80, and ST-81 and the alleles cpn60-26 and recA29 are described for the first time. International clones I, II, and III were represented by ST-81, ST-2, and ST-3, respectively. ST-79 and ST-80 could be novel emerging clones. This work confirms PFGE and MLST to be complementary tools in clonality studies. Here PFGE was able to demonstrate the monoclonal pattern of most outbreaks, the inter- and intrahospital transmission of bacteria, and their endemic persistence in some wards. MLST allowed the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of Spanish clones to be monitored and permitted international comparisons to be made.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human infection due to Bacillus pumilus is exceptional. We report 3 cases of cutaneous infection caused by B. pumilus that occurred in 3 shepherds, 2 of whom were members of the same family. The lesions appeared to have a morphology similar to that of cutaneous anthrax lesions. Two patients were cured after treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate, and the third patient was cured after prolonged treatment with ciprofloxacin. To our knowledge, primary cutaneous infection due to B. pumilus has not been reported. B. pumilus should be considered in patients who develop lesions suggestive of cutaneous anthrax.