[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mini-Mental State Examination cutoffs have been presented for schooling levels to screen cognitive impairment. However, items may behave differently with regards to education. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of education on MMSE subscales and items.
Community-dwelling participants aged 65 years or more (n = 990, females = 637, age = 74.1 years, range 65-108) were stratified as illiterate (n = 373), 1-8 (n = 540), 9-12 (n = 63), and more than 12 years of schooling (n = 14) and were screened with MMSE and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire. To make the Mini-Mental State Examination items comparable, each item was transformed into z scores. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of schooling on MMSE subs and items controlling for age, sex, and activities of daily life.
Temporal and space orientation, attention/calculation, repetition, reading, writing, and drawing scores improved as education increased, but not memory registration, three step command, and naming. Reading and writing displayed the largest coefficients, whereas education exerted no influence on naming and three step command tasks.
Education does not exert an important effect on naming, three step command, memory registration, and delayed recall. As memory is a key factor for diagnosing dementia, these items could be considered despite education.
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 09/2010; 32(3):223-30. DOI:10.1590/S1516-44462010005000009 · 1.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of physical exercise on the treatment of depressive elderly adults has not been investigated thus far in terms of changes in cortical hemispheric activity. The objective of the present study was to identify changes in depressive symptoms, quality of life, and cortical asymmetry produced by aerobic activity. Elderly subjects with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (DSM-IV) were included. Twenty patients (70% females, 71 +/- 3 years) were divided into an exercise group (pharmacological treatment plus aerobic training) and a control group (undergoing pharmacological treatment) in a quasi-experimental design. Pharmacological treatment was maintained stable throughout the study (antidepressants and anxiolytics). Subjects were evaluated by depression scales (Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and the Short Form Health Survey-36, and electroencephalographic measurements (frontal and parietal alpha asymmetry) before and after 1 year of treatment. After 1 year, the control group showed a decrease in cortical activity on the right hemisphere (increase of alpha power), which was not observed in the exercise group. The exercise group showed a significant decrease of depressive symptoms, which was not observed in the control group. This result was also accompanied by improved treatment response and remission rate after 1 year of aerobic exercise associated with treatment. This study provides support for the effect of aerobic training on alpha activity and on depressive symptoms in elderly patients. Exercise facilitates the treatment of depressive elderly adults, leading to clinical and physical improvement and protecting against a decrease in cortical activity.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 06/2010; 43(6):585-92. DOI:10.1590/S0100-879X2010007500041 · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An analysis of cortical activity by electroencephalogram (EEG) may show different patterns in depressed and normal individuals.
Our study aimed (1) to compare the total mean frequency (TMF) and mean EEG frequency per bands (MFB) in depressed and healthy elderly individuals, and (2) to verify the effect of exercise as an additional treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD; according to DSM-IV) via an assessment of depressive symptoms, TMF and MFB.
This research was divided into 2 studies. In study 1, we assessed 45 elderly individuals (13 normal and 32 depressive) in a cross-sectional design to search for differences in TMF and MFB. In study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study to assess the effect of exercise on MDD. Twenty depressed elderly persons who were on clinical treatment were allocated to a control group or an exercise group. Subjects were assessed at baseline and after 6 months with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, also assessing the TMF and MFB.
Our cross-sectional study showed that a lower mean frequency (MF) in posterior areas is related to depression in the elderly. Moreover, in our longitudinal study, we observed that depressed elderly individuals showed a better response to treatment and an increase in MF after physical training.
The interaction between exercise and pharmacological treatment may increase the TMF in posterior areas of depressed elderly individuals after 6 months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between physical activity and mental health has been widely investigated, and several hypotheses have been formulated about it. Specifically, during the aging process, physical exercise might represent a potential adjunctive treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment, helping delay the onset of neurodegenerative processes. Even though exercise itself might act as a stressor, it has been demonstrated that it reduces the harmful effects of other stressors when performed at moderate intensities. Neurotransmitter release, neurotrophic factor and neurogenesis, and cerebral blood flow alteration are some of the concepts involved. In this review, the potential effects of exercise on the aging process and on mental health are discussed, concerning some of the recent findings on animal and human research. The overwhelming evidence present in the literature today suggests that exercise ensures successful brain functioning.