[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In higher plants, developmental phase changes are regulated by a complex gene network. Loss-of-function mutations in the EMBRYONIC FLOWER genes (EMF1 and EMF2) cause Arabidopsis to flower directly, bypassing vegetative shoot growth. This phenotype suggests that the EMF genes play a major role in repression of the reproductive program. Positional cloning of EMF2 revealed that it encodes a zinc finger protein similar to FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT SEED2 and VERNALIZATION2 of Arabidopsis. These genes are characterized as structural homologs of Suppressor of zeste 12 [Su(z)12], a novel Polycomb group gene currently identified in Drosophila. In situ hybridization studies have demonstrated that EMF2 RNA is found in developing embryos, in both the vegetative and the reproductive shoot meristems, and in lateral organ primordia. Transgenic suppression of EMF2 produced a spectrum of early-flowering phenotypes, including emf2 mutant-like phenotype. This result confirms the role of EMF2 in phase transitions by repressing reproductive development.
The Plant Cell 12/2001; 13(11):2471-81. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shoot architecture and flowering time in angiosperms depend on the balanced expression of a large number of flowering time and flower meristem identity genes. Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis EMBRYONIC FLOWER (EMF) genes cause Arabidopsis to eliminate rosette shoot growth and transform the apical meristem from indeterminate to determinate growth by producing a single terminal flower on all nodes. We have identified the EMF1 gene by positional cloning. The deduced polypeptide has no homology with any protein of known function except a putative protein in the rice genome with which EMF1 shares common motifs that include nuclear localization signals, P-loop, and LXXLL elements. Alteration of EMF1 expression in transgenic plants caused progressive changes in flowering time, shoot determinacy, and inflorescence architecture. EMF1 and its related sequence may belong to a new class of proteins that function as transcriptional regulators of phase transition during shoot development.
The Plant Cell 09/2001; 13(8):1865-75. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because cell growth and differentiation are regulated by complex interactions among different signaling pathways, a growth defect affects subsequent differentiation. We report on a growth-defective mutant of Arabidopsis, called eld1 (elongation defective 1). Cell elongation was impaired in every organ examined. Later characteristics of the eld1 phenotype include defective vascular tissue differentiation, the inability to grow in soil, ectopic deposition of suberin around twisted vascular bundles, the de-etiolation phenotype, and continuation of shoot development and flowering in the dark. The dwarf phenotype of eld1 could not be rescued by treatment with exogenous growth regulators. Because defective cell elongation is the earliest and most universal feature detected in eld1 mutants, control of or activity in cell elongation may be the primary function of the ELD1 gene. The impaired cell growth results in pleiotropic effects on cell proliferation and differentiation, and the retardation in hypocotyl elongation enables growth and development in darkness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of cell division in the root apical meristem after germination is essential for postembryonic root development. Arabidopsis plants homozygous for a mutation in the ROOT MERISTEMLESS1 (RML1) gene are unable to establish an active postembryonic meristem in the root apex. This mutation abolishes cell division in the root but not in the shoot. We report the molecular cloning of the RML1 gene, which encodes the first enzyme of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, and which is allelic to CADMIUM SENSITIVE2. The phenotype of the rml1 mutant, which was also evident in the roots of wild-type Arabidopsis and tobacco treated with an inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis, could be relieved by applying GSH to rml1 seedlings. By using a synchronized tobacco cell suspension culture, we showed that the G1-to-S phase transition requires an adequate level of GSH. These observations suggest the existence of a GSH-dependent developmental pathway essential for initiation and maintenance of cell division during postembryonic root development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Evolution in plants has favored both a simpler body plan with fewer cell types and the epigenetic flexibility to regenerate, via growth, dedifferentiation, and redifferentiation, to recover from environmental insults. It has become increasingly apparent that a plant cell uses external signals to differentiate and to maintain or to change the differentiated state. A cell-cell signaling and positional information strategy seems to be the predominant mechanism employed in plant development. 2. An axis can be initiated by physical/chemical forces such as light and ion current, requiring no new gene action. Random chemical fluctuations and physicochemical forces could explain the initiation of differences among cells of equal developmental potential. Amplification of chemical polarizing events may lead to biochemical differences, new gene expression, and finally shoot/root axis establishment. 3. Radial and axial patterning may be governed by a mechanism involving polar auxin transport. 4. Because the meristems and the three fundamental tissues formed during embryogenesis are renewed and extended throughout the life of the plant, with some exceptions, most genes expressed in the embryo are also expressed during postgermination development. 5. Embryogenic competence is acquired during reproductive development. While the zygote is determined for embryogenesis, the developing embryo and often the seedling remain embryogenic. Embryogenic potential declines during vegetative development. The embryogenic strength of a tissue is correlated with its developmental distance from the zygote.
Current Topics in Developmental Biology 02/2000; 50:61-88. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the role of auxin flows in plant vascular patterning, the development of vascular systems under conditions of inhibited auxin transport was analyzed. In Arabidopsis, nearly identical responses evoked by three auxin transport inhibitor substances revealed an enormous plasticity of the vascular pattern and suggest an involvement of auxin flows in determining the sites of vascular differentiation and in promoting vascular tissue continuity. Organs formed under conditions of reduced auxin transport contained increased numbers of vascular strands and cells within those strands were improperly aligned. In leaves, vascular tissues became progressively confined towards the leaf margin as the concentration of auxin transport inhibitor was increased, suggesting that the leaf vascular system depends on inductive signals from the margin of the leaf. Staged application of auxin transport inhibitor demonstrated that primary, secondary and tertiary veins became unresponsive to further modulations of auxin transport at successive stages of early leaf development. Correlation of these stages to anatomical features in early leaf primordia indicated that the pattern of primary and secondary strands becomes fixed at the onset of lamina expansion. Similar alterations in the leaf vascular responses of alyssum, snapdragon and tobacco plants suggest common functions of auxin flows in vascular patterning in dicots, while two types of vascular pattern alterations in Arabidopsis auxin transport mutants suggest that at least two distinct primary defects can result in impaired auxin flow. We discuss these observations with regard to the relative contributions of auxin transport, auxin sensitivity and the cellular organisation of the developing organ on the vascular pattern.
Development 08/1999; 126(13):2979-91. · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in EMBRYONIC FLOWER (EMF) genes EMF1 and EMF2 abolish rosette development, and the mutants produce either a much reduced inflorescence or a transformed flower. These mutant characteristics suggest a repressive effect of EMF activities on reproductive development. To investigate the role of EMF genes in regulating reproductive development, we studied the relationship between EMF genes and the genes regulating inflorescence and flower development. We found that APETALA1 and AGAMOUS promoters were activated in germinating emf seedlings, suggesting that these genes may normally be suppressed in wild-type seedlings in which EMF activities are high. The phenotype of double mutants combining emf1-2 and apetala1, apetala2, leafy1, apetala1 cauliflower, and terminal flower1 showed that emf1-2 is epistatic in all cases, suggesting that EMF genes act downstream from these genes in mediating the inflorescence-to-flower transition. Constitutive expression of LEAFY in weak emf1, but not emf2, mutants increased the severity of the emf phenotype, indicating an inhibition of EMF activity by LEAFY, as was deduced from double mutant analysis. These results suggest that a mechanism involving a reciprocal negative regulation between the EMF genes and the floral genes regulates Arabidopsis inflorescence development.
The Plant Cell 12/1997; 9(11):2011-24. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The plant growth regulator gibberellin (GA) has a profound effect on shoot development and promotes developmental transitions such as flowering. Little is known about any analogous effect GA might have on root development. In a screen for mutants, Arabidopsis plants carrying a mutation designated pickle (pkl) were isolated in which the primary root meristem retained characteristics of embryonic tissue. Expression of this aberrant differentiation state was suppressed by GA. Root tissue from plants carrying the pkl mutation spontaneously regenerated new embryos and plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the role of microtubules in the regulation of cell elongation, we characterized microtubule patterns in fass, a cell shape mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Examining microtubule patterns via immunocytochemistry, we found that fass cells were able to organize their microtubules into mitotic spindles and phragmoplasts. During interphase or preprophase, fass cells had cortical microtubules, verified by transmission electron microscopy, but these microtubules were not organized into the cortical array or preprophase band. Using chromatin condensation and tubulin localization on the nuclear envelope as preprophase stage markers, we found that although fass cells lacked the preprophase band and cortical array, their cell division cycle appeared normal. To pinpoint the defect in fass cells, we delineated the sequential events leading to cortical array formation in Arabidopsis cells and found that fass cells initiated and recolonized cortical microtubules in the same manner as wild-type cells, but failed to order them into the cortical array. Taken together, these results suggest fass cells are impaired in a component of the microtubule organizing center(s) required for the proper ordering of cortical microtubules at the plasma membrane.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DC8 is a late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) protein gene isolated from carrot (Daucus carota). Deletion analysis of the DC8 promoter was performed to determine the sequences required for ABA and seed-specific regulation of DC8 transcription. To investigate the mechanism of DC8 expression during seed development, chimeric gene constructs containing DC8 promoter fragments fused to a promoterless beta-glucuronidase gene (DC8:GUS) were introduced into carrot, tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Seed-specific DC8 expression patterns was conserved among the three plant species. However, differences among the species in the patterns of DC8 expression in the embryo and endosperm that correlated with differences in the rates of embryo and endosperm growth were found. Lack of correspondence between DC8 activation and embryo development among the seeds of the three species suggests that DC8 expression, which is associated with seed maturation, is not coupled to the embryo development program. The presence of DC8 activity in carrot callus and endosperm is consistent with the notion that DC8 expression is independent of embryo morphogenesis. A similar DC8 activity time-course during callus induction and seed development suggests that explantation and 2,4-D treatment initiates a course of events similar to that in the carrot ovule. After fertilization, two pathways one leading to embryo development and another to seed maturation are initiated, but they are not closely linked. As a result we find DC8, part of the maturation program, being activated at different embryonic stages in different plant species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the genetic mechanism regulating Arabidopsis shoot maturation and development, we characterized eight emf mutants that bypassed the vegetative phase of the life cycle. Genetic complementation studies identified two EMF loci; both mapped to chromosome five. Double mutant analysis showed that the early- and late-flowering mutants, co, fb, elf1, elf2, and elf3, could not rescue vegetative development in the emf mutants, confirming the need for both EMF gene activities for rosette development. A series of phenotypes involving successive loss of reproductive organs was also observed in emf single mutants, in emf1-1/emf1-2 transheterozygotes, and in emf1 emf2 double mutants, suggesting that the EMF genes not only specify the rosette (vegetative) but also are involved in inflorescence and flower (reproductive) development. Phenotypic analysis of double mutants between emf and tfl1, lfy, and ag indicated interactions between EMF and genes regulating inflorescence meristem development and floral organ identity. A model depicting the role of the EMF genes in regulating shoot maturation and their interaction with genes that affect phase transitions is presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New cells are produced from the meristematic tissues located at the shoot and root tip throughout the life of higher plants. To investigate the genetic mechanism regulating meristematic activity, we isolated and characterized four single-gene, recessive mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana called root meristemless (rml). Complementation tests identified two RML loci; RML1 maps to chromosome IV and RML2 maps to chromosome III. These mutants produce normal embryonic roots that either did not undergo or experienced limited cell division following germination, resulting in primary roots of less than 2.0 mm in length. Mutants can produce lateral and adventitious roots, which can grow to a length comparable to the embryonic root and arrest, indicating that the growth arrest is unrelated to the embryonic dormancy process. Neither the addition of growth regulators to the media nor the removal of shoots can rescue mutant roots from growth arrest, indicating that the mutant phenotype is not caused by a shortage of known growth regulators or by a transmissible shoot inhibitor. Normal cell division ability in mutant embryo, shoot, and callus cells indicates that the RML gene functions are not part of the general cell division processes; rather, they are involved specifically in activating the cell division cycle in the root apical cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DC8 encodes a hydrophylic 66 kilodalton protein located in the cytoplasm and cell walls of carrot (Daucus carota) embryo and endosperm. During somatic embryogenesis, the levels of DC8 mRNA and protein begin to increase 5 days after removal of auxin. To study the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of DC8 gene, fluridone, 1-methyl-3-phenyl,-5(3-trifluoro-methyl-phenyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone, was used to inhibit the endogenous ABA content of the embryos. Fluridone, 50 micrograms per milliliter, effectively inhibits the accumulation of ABA in globular-tage enbryos. Western and Northern analysis show that when fluridone is added to the culture medium DC8 protein and mRNA decrease to very low levels. ABA added to fluridone supplemented culture media restores the DC8 protein and mRNA to control levels. Globular-stage embryos contain 0.9 to 1.4 x 10(-7) molar ABA while 10(-6) molar exogenously supplied ABA is the optimal concentration for restoration of DC8 protein accumulation in fluridone-treated embryos. The mRNA level is increased after 15 minutes of ABA addition and reaches maximal levels by 60 minutes. Evidence is presented that, unlike other ABA-regulated genes, DC8 is not induced in nonembryonic tissues via desiccation nor addition of ABA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of seven clones, which are specific for the development of carrot somatic embryo cells, were constructed and screened from the cDNA expression library of phage lambda gt11. The purification of plaques, isolation of DNA from the phages, digestion of the clone's DNA with EcoRI restriction enzyme, identification of the inserts on the agarose gel by electrophoresis and subcloning of cDNA inserts from phage lambda gt11 vector into plasmid pIBI or pUC18 were performed respectively. The data of cross hybridization by Southern blot analysis indicated that clones 16,22,50 and 60 are new cDNA genes. In addition, the new cDNA genes tissue-specific expression on variety organs in the carrot plant, such as flower, petiole, leaf and root, as well as time-course expression in callus and embryo cells of different culture periods were determined through Northern blot analysis. The results suggested that the corresponding gene for clone 22 is a specific gene which is regulated by development and closely associated with carrot somatic embryogenesis.
Chinese journal of biotechnology 02/1990; 6(1):11-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DC8 encodes a hydrophylic 66 kilodalton protein located in the cytoplasm and cell walls of carrot (Daucus carota) embryo and endosperm. During somatic embryogenesis, the levels of DC8 mRNA and protein begin to increase 5 days after removal of auxin. To study the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the regulation of DC8 gene, fluridone, 1-methyl-3-phenyl,-5(3-trifluoro-methyl-phenyl)-4(1H)-pyridinone, was used to inhibit the endogenous ABA content of the embryos. Fluridone, 50 micrograms per milliliter, effectively inhibits the accumulation of ABA in globular-tage embryos. Western and Northern analysis show that when fluridone is added to the culture medium DC8 protein and mRNA decrease to very low levels. ABA added to fluridone supplemented culture media restores the DC8 protein and mRNA to control levels. Globular-stage embryos contain 0.9 to 1.4 Ã 10â»â· molar ABA while 10â»â¶ molar exogenously supplied ABA is the optimal concentration for restoration of DC8 protein accumulation in fluridone-treated embryos. The mRNA level is increased after 15 minutes of ABA addition and reaches maximal levels by 60 minutes. Evidence is presented that, unlike other ABA-regulated genes, DC8 is not induced in nonembryonic tissues via desiccation nor addition of ABA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To understand the morphogenetic and physiological processes occurring during plant embryogenesis, we isolated cDNA clones homologous to genes preferentially expressed during somatic embryogenesis. One of these cDNA clones detected an embryo-specific mRNA species with a corresponding protein of 66 kDa. The expression pattern of the mRNA is similar between somatic and zygotic embryos of carrots. To characterize the gene encoding this mRNA, we isolated the corresponding genomic clones. Molecular analysis of the DNA from several haploid and diploid carrots showed that the mRNA was encoded by a single copy gene, named DC 8. DNA sequence analysis showed that the gene consisted of three exons and coded for a hydrophilic protein with a central region composed of 17 repeats. At the NH2-terminus no typical signal sequence was found. Immunocytochemical analysis localized the protein primarily in the vacuoles and protein bodies of zygotic embryos; the cytoplasm showed some antibody staining. The protein was also found in cell walls of endosperm tissue. The amount of DC 8 protein was too low for it to be categorized as a seed storage protein; its role in embryogenesis remains to be determined.
MGG - Molecular and General Genetics 06/1989; 218(1):143-151.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LEA proteins are late embryogenesis abundant in the seeds of many higher plants and are probably universal in occurrence in plant seeds. LEA mRNAs and proteins can be induced to appear at other stages in the plant's life by desiccation stress and/or treatment with the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). A role in protecting plant structures during water loss is likely for these proteins, with ABA functioning in the stress transduction process. Presented here are conserved tracts of amino acid sequence among LEA proteins from several species that may represent domains functionally important in desiccation protection. Curiously, an 11 amino acid sequence motif is found tandemly repeated in a group of LEA proteins of vastly different sizes. Analysis of this motif suggests that it exists as an amphiphilic α helix which may serve as the basis for higher order structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nuclear protein, present in carrot meristems and rapidly proliferating cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota L.) has been identified by the use of a monoclonal antibody (MAb 21D7). By combining the techniques of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analysis and blotting separated proteins onto nitrocellulose sheets, it was shown that the antibody detected a single polypeptide of apparent molecular mass (M r) of 45000 and an isoelectric focusing point (pI) of 6.7. This protein was found by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence to be highly concentrated in the nucleoli of somatic and zygotic embryos of a wide range of plants. It was not detectable in logarthmically growing cells ofEscherichia coli, yeast, embryos ofDrosophila melanogaster or cultured C3H mouse cells. These data indicate that this protein is a highly conserved non-histone protein associated with nuclei of rapidly dividing plant cells.