Steven P Jones

UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (12)5.5 Total impact

  • Christine Casey, Daljit S Gill, Steven P Jones
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if there is a difference in skeletal maturation between tooth agenesis and control patients and (2) whether skeletal maturation is affected by the severity of tooth agenesis. The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) index can be used to assess skeletal maturation. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting: Eastman Dental Hospital, London, UK. Methods and materials: A total of 360 cephalograms of patients aged 9-17 years (164 males and 196 females) allocated to four subgroups (mild, moderate and severe tooth agenesis patients, and controls) were assessed retrospectively. There were 90 patients in each of the four subgroups. The skeletal maturation of each subject was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively using the CVM index. All patients in the study were either currently receiving treatment or had been discharged from the hospital. Results: There was no statistically significant relationship between skeletal maturation and the presence of tooth agenesis. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant relationship between the skeletal maturity of patients and different severities of tooth agenesis. Conclusions: The data obtained from this group of patients and using this measurement tool alone does not supply sufficient reason to reject the null hypothesis. However, it suggests that it is possible that no difference exists between the groups.
    Journal of Orthodontics 12/2013; 40(4):286-98.
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to compare the radiographic development of permanent teeth in a group of children affected by dental agenesis with an unaffected control group and to determine the effects of confounding factors including the severity of the dental agenesis, age, sex, ethnicity, and the number of stages used to estimate dental age. A single-center retrospective cross-sectional study of dental panoramic tomographs was undertaken between July 2007 and April 2008 in a postgraduate teaching school. A total of 139 patients (aged 9-18 years) were recruited from the orthodontic clinic on the basis of predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria to either a dental agenesis group or a control group. Dental panoramic tomograms were assessed, and the stages of development of the permanent teeth in the left maxillary and left mandibular regions were scored by using the 12 stages of Haavikko and the 8 stages of Demirjian and Goldstein. For each tooth scored, the mean dental age and standard error were determined by using the dental age assessment method, and an estimated dental age for each subject was derived by using the weighted average method. A statistically significant delay in dental age was found in the patients with dental agenesis compared with the control group. The dental age assessment method of Haavikko showed a delay of 1.20 years (SD, 1.74), and the method of Demirjian and Goldstein showed a delay of 1.64 years (SD, 1.75). It was also observed that older patients with dental agenesis had greater delays in tooth formation (P <0.001). With the Haavikko method, for every year of chronologic age, the delay in dental age increased by 0.53 year; with the Demirjian and Goldstein method, the delay increased by 0.48 year. A significant association was seen between the severity of dental agenesis and the delay in dental age (P <0.01). With both methods, for each additional developmentally absent tooth, the dental age was delayed by 0.13 year (lower confidence interval, -0.22; upper confidence interval, 0.35). There was no evidence that sex or ethnicity has an effect on the delay in dental age in patients with dental agenesis. The development of permanent teeth in children with dental agenesis is delayed when compared with a matched control group. The severity of dental agenesis affected the magnitude of the delay (P <0.01). This delay has implications in orthodontic treatment planning and in the estimation of age for legal, immigration, archaeological, and forensic purposes.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 03/2012; 141(3):307-14. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Difficulties are experienced with the collection and storage of freshly harvested human saliva to use as a lubricant for the laboratory testing of the frictional resistance of orthodontic brackets. In order to overcome these difficulties, researchers have suggested the use of saliva substitutes due to their ease of storage and consistency of properties throughout testing. Others have criticized the use of artificial saliva and prefer the dry state. The present study aimed to compare the effects of human saliva and an artificial saliva (Saliva Orthana) with the dry state for the static frictional resistance testing of orthodontic brackets. The static frictional resistance and the lubrication effect of human saliva, Saliva Orthana and the dry state were investigated using upper central incisor stainless steel brackets and 0.019 x 0.025 inch stainless steel wires in an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Static frictional resistance was measured 100 times for each lubrication state. The 'wettability' of each lubricant was determined by measuring the contact angle against a stainless steel surface using the CAM 200 Optical Contact Angle Meter. Distilled water acted as a control. The viscosity of each lubricant and their Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid behaviour under stress was measured using a Brookfield Digital Rheometer Model DV-III+. The differences in static frictional resistance between the three lubricants when examined as a group did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.059). The difference between human saliva and Saliva Orthana was considered to be of weak statistical significance and clinical relevance (Means: 0.917 N; 0.819 N: p = 0.053). Human saliva and the dry state revealed very similar mean frictional values (Means: 0.917 N; 0.875 N: p = 0.932). The contact angle tests indicated a statistically significant difference between the lubricants with Saliva Orthana having the smallest angle and therefore the highest 'wettability'. Human saliva had the highest initial viscosity and behaved as a non-Newtonian fluid, contrasting with Saliva Orthana and distilled water, both of which behaved as Newtonian fluids. The current results indicate that artificial saliva is not an ideal alternative to human saliva for friction testing in the laboratory The results therefore support the proposal that, when human saliva is not available, it may be preferable to test orthodontic frictional resistance in the dry state.
    Australian orthodontic journal 11/2011; 27(2):132-8. · 0.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare forces versus failure and shear bond strengths, and to explore their association with the base dimensions of four currently available bondable molar tubes. Tubes were bonded to hydroxyapatite discs using a conventional light-cured adhesive and were tested to shear failure with the Instron Universal testing machine. Results were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and regression and survival analyses. No statistical difference was observed between the four groups globally in terms of force to failure (P  =  .059) and bond strength (P  =  .179). However, regression analysis showed that each 1 mm(2) increase in base surface area required an additional force of 3.11 N to debond the tube. Survival analysis showed that the tube with the greatest base dimensions had the best survival with increasing force to failure. Although a relationship was demonstrated between force to failure and base surface area, it was not a simple one. No statistically significant relationship was found between bond strength and base surface area.
    The Angle Orthodontist 10/2011; 82(3):536-40. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    June M L Lee, George Georgiou, Steven P Jones
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the initial and fatigue shear bond strengths of a chromatic adhesive with a light-cured adhesive in an ex vivo laboratory study. Hydroxyapatite discs were used as the bonding substrate. They were produced by cold uni-axial compression at 20 tons, sintered at 1300 degrees C and embedded in epoxy resin before grinding and polishing. One hundred and fifty upper left central incisor brackets were bonded to the discs with Transbond PLUS Color Change (3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA) while another 150 similar brackets were bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA). Seventy-five brackets from each group were subjected to cyclic loading (5000 cycles at 2 Hz) at 50 per cent of the mean bond strength in a Dartec Series HC 10 Testing Machine. Initial (unfatigued) and fatigued bond strengths were determined by applying a shear force at the bracket-substrate interface using a custom-made metal jig in an Instron Universal Testing Machine. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc correction and two-way ANOVA were used to analyse the differences between the initial and fatigue mean shear bond strengths of the adhesives. The survival and bond reliability of both adhesives were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The initial mean shear bond strength for Transbond PLUS Color Change (16.72 MPa) was higher than Transbond XT (15.11 MPa), but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.109). The fatigue mean shear bond strength for Transbond XT (15.87 MPa) was similar to that of Transbond PLUS Color Change (15.33 MPa), and the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.999). There were no significant differences when the effects of the material (p = 0.264) or fatiguing (p = 0.512) were considered separately, but in combination, the effect on bond strength was statistically significant (p = 0.026). The survival analysis showed that both adhesives demonstrated similar survival patterns in the unfatigued and fatigued states. Analysis of the material type and fatiguing showed no effect on the survival pattern for both adhesives (p = 0.098). There were no statistically significant differences between the mean initial (unfatigued) and fatigue bond strengths of Transbond XT and Transbond PLUS Color Change under laboratory conditions. A survival analysis for both resins with and without fatigue loading exhibited similar behaviour with respect to their survival patterns. Although this may imply that under clinical conditions the two adhesives could behave similarly, the clinical extrapolation of these results should be interpreted with caution.
    Australian orthodontic journal 11/2010; 26(2):119-26. · 0.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the skeletal relationships in patients with hypodontia and analyze the effects of severity and pattern. Pretreatment lateral cephalograms from 277 patients with hypodontia, categorized by the number of missing teeth as mild (1-2), moderate (3-5), or severe (> or =6), were digitized recording angular measurements and ratios and compared with published norms matched for age and gender. Pattern was determined as mandibular, maxillary, bimaxillary, bilateral, anterior, posterior, and anteroposterior. Linear regression models assessed relationships between number of missing teeth and cephalometric parameters, controlling for the pattern of hypodontia. For every additional missing tooth, SNA, SNB, and ANB decreased 0.3 degrees , 0.1 degrees , and 0.2 degrees , respectively; this was clinically significant for >4, >10, and >5 missing teeth, respectively. Mandibular to cranial base ratio decreased 0.3% for every additional missing tooth; this was clinically significant for >10 missing teeth. The MMPA decreased 0.3 degrees for every additional missing tooth; this was clinically significant for >7 missing teeth. Percentage LAFH decreased 0.2% for every additional missing tooth; this was significant for >7 missing teeth. Jarabak ratio increased 0.2% for each additional missing tooth; this was clinically significant for >10 missing teeth. Anterior hypodontia significantly decreased most cephalometric parameters. Patients with hypodontia demonstrated a tendency toward a Class III relationship, caused by decreased maxillary and mandibular angular prognathism and MnCB ratio, though the effect was greater on the maxilla than the mandible. Clinical significance was only associated with severe hypodontia. Vertically, there was a tendency toward decreased MMPA and %LAFH; this was clinically relevant only with severe hypodontia. Anterior hypodontia had a significant effect on skeletal relationship.
    The Angle Orthodontist 07/2010; 80(4):511-8. · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Steven P Jones, Saida Ben Bihi
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    ABSTRACT: This ex-vivo study compared the static frictional resistance of a low-friction ligation system against a conventional elastomeric module, and studied the effect of storage in a simulated oral environment on the static frictional resistance of both ligation systems. Eighty stainless steel brackets were tested by sliding along straight lengths of 0.018 inch round and 0.019 x 0.025 inch rectangular stainless steel wires ligated with either conventional elastomerics or the Slide system (Leone, Florence, Italy). During the tests the brackets and wires were lubricated with artificial saliva. A specially constructed jig assembly was used to hold the bracket and archwire securely. The jig was clamped in an Instron universal load testing machine. Crosshead speed was controlled via a microcomputer connected to the Instron machine. The static frictional forces at 0 degree bracket/wire angulation were measured for both systems, fresh from the pack and after storage in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Slide ligatures produced significantly lower static frictional resistance than conventional elastomeric modules in the fresh condition and after 24 hours of storage in a simulated oral environment (p < 0.001). Storage for 24 hours in artificial saliva had no effect on the static frictional resistance of conventional elastomeric modules and the Slide system (p = 0.525). The claim by the manufacturer that the Slide system produces lower frictional resistance than conventional elastomeric modules is upheld.
    Australian orthodontic journal 11/2009; 25(2):136-41. · 0.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether fluoridated apatites have a shear bond strength which more closely equates to that of natural enamel than pure hydroxyapatite, making them potentially useful as biomimetic alternatives to natural enamel for ex vivo laboratory bonding studies. Discs of pure hydroxyapatite, pure fluorapatite and a 1:1 mixture of hydroxyapatite-fluorapatite were produced by cold uni-axial pressing. The discs were sintered at 1300 degrees C, embedded in epoxy resin, ground and polished. X-ray diffraction technique was used to analyse the purity of the apatites. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the etch patterns of the apatite specimens. Ninely-six upper left central incisor brackets were bonded to each of the three groups of discs. Shear bond strengths were determined by debonding the brackets using a loaded metal jig in an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The sites of bond failure were recorded using the Adhesive Remnant Index. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni post-hoc comparisons were used to determine statistical differences between the mean shear bond strengths of the three specimen groups. The mean shear bond strength of pure hydroxyapatite (20.44 MPa; SD: 8.03; 95% CI: 18.81, 22.07) was significantly higher than those of fluorapatite (13.13 MPa; SD: 6.76; 95% CI: 11.76, 14.50) and hydroxyapatitefluorapatite (13.62 MPa; SD: 7.03; 95% CI: 12.19, 15.04) (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in shear bond strengths between fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite-fluorapatite (p > 0.99), and both were below the normal range ascribed to enamel (15-20 MPa). More than 90 per cent of the fluorapatite and the hydroxyapatite-fluorapatite specimens demonstrated bond failure at the substrate-adhesive interface, while only one-third of the hydroxyapatite specimens exhibited bond failure at that interface. Pure fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite-fluorapatite specimens offer no advantage over pure hydroxyapatite as a suitable artificial substrate for ex vivo bond strength testing.
    Australian orthodontic journal 05/2009; 25(1):12-8. · 0.27 Impact Factor
  • Joanna E Haskova, Graham Palmer, Steven P Jones
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of static frictional resistance on varying the ligation technique in a Delta Force bracket system (Ortho Organizers Ltd, Hampton, UK) and using increasing degrees of bracket/archwire angulation to simulate binding. An ex vivo laboratory investigation using the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Ltd, High Wycombe, UK) to generate sliding forces on an archwire through the Delta Force bracket. The system was lubricated with Saliva Orthana artificial saliva (Nycomed Ltd, Buckinghamshire, UK). Biomaterials Laboratory, Eastman Dental Institute, London, UK. Ninety Delta Force brackets were tested against 0.018-inch stainless steel wire. Three modes of ligation were tested with three different angulations: 0, 5 and 10 degrees to simulate increasing levels of binding. The average static frictional resistance went from 0.20 N, at 0 degrees angulation and minimum ligation, to 2.37 N with 10 degrees angulation and maximum ligation. Results revealed that the ligation pattern was found to be highly statistically significant (P<0.001) in influencing frictional force. The binding angle showed a trend of increasing frictional force with increasing bracket/archwire angulation. Repeatability testing showed no evidence of bias (P=0.171). These results suggest that the Delta Force variable ligation system does in fact enable friction to be varied, which may have implications in clinical application.
    Journal of orthodontics 06/2008; 35(2):112-8; discussion 110.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the feasibility of using artificial hydroxyapatite as a future biomimetic laboratory substitute for human enamel in orthodontic bond strength testing by comparing the shear bond strengths and nature of failure of brackets bonded to samples of hydroxyapatite and enamel. One hundred and fifty hydroxyapatite discs were prepared by compression at 20 tons and fired in a furnace at 1300 degrees C. One hundred and five enamel samples were prepared from the buccal and palatal/lingual surfaces of healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to each sample and these were subjected to shear bond strength testing using a custom-made jig mounted in an Instron Universal Testing Machine. The force value at bond failure was obtained, together with the nature of failure which was assessed using the Adhesive Remnant Index. The mean shear bond strength for the enamel samples was 16.62 MPa (95 per cent CI: 15.26, 17.98) and for the hydroxyapatite samples 20.83 MPa (95 per cent CI: 19.68, 21.98). The difference between the two samples was statistically significant (p < 0.001). When the nature of failure was assessed with the ARI Index, 83 per cent of the enamel samples scored 2 or 3, while 49 per cent of the hydroxyapatite samples scored 0 or 1. Hydroxyapatite was an effective biomimetic substrate for bond strength testing with a mean shear bond strength value (20.83 MPa) at the upper end of the normal range attributed to enamel (15-20 MPa). Although the difference between the shear bond strengths for hydroxyapatite and enamel was statistically significant, hydroxyapatite could be used as an alternative to enamel for comparative laboratory studies until a closer alternative is found. This would eliminate the need for extracted teeth to be collected. However, it should be used with caution for quantitative studies where true bond strengths are to be investigated.
    Australian orthodontic journal 05/2008; 24(1):15-20. · 0.27 Impact Factor
  • Steven P Jones, K Gyaami Amoah
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the static frictional resistance of ceramic brackets with a conventional slot (Allure), a glazed slot (Mystique) and a metal slot insert (Clarity). Twenty five brackets of each type, with slot size 0.022 x 0.028 inch and Roth prescription were tested by sliding against straight lengths of 0.019 x 0.025 inch rectangular stainless steel wire. During the tests the brackets and wire were lubricated with artificial saliva. Static frictional forces at three different simulated binding angulations (0, 5 and 10 degrees) were measured for each type of bracket. At each of the angulations tested, the Clarity brackets produced the lowest static frictional resistance. At 0 degree angulation (below the critical angle for binding) the Allure brackets produced the greatest friction. The difference in friction between the Clarity and Mystique brackets was not statistically significant. As the angulations were increased to 5 degrees the Allure brackets again produced the greatest frictional resistance, although this was not significantly higher than the Mystique brackets. The Mystique brackets produced the greatest frictional resistance at 10 degrees, but again there was no statistical difference from the Allure brackets. A glazed slot ceramic bracket demonstrates low frictional resistance at non-binding angulations and compares favourably with a metal slot ceramic bracket. Increasing angulations through 5 to 10 degrees of simulated binding results in high levels of static frictional resistance such that the bracket behaves more like a conventional polycrystalline ceramic bracket.
    Australian orthodontic journal 06/2007; 23(1):36-40. · 0.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been tremendous progress in orthodontics since Edward Angle first popularised the fixed orthodontic appliance at the turn of the century. Recent years have seen an increased demand for orthodontic treatment from both adolescents and adults and, in addition, patient and clinician expectations of treatment outcomes continue to rise. A desire for more aesthetic materials has resulted in both smaller and 'tooth-coloured' appliances. Improvements in technology, often outside orthodontics, have also led to the development of new materials. The best example of this was the development of nickel titanium alloy by the NASA space programme, which was subsequently adapted for use in nickel titanium archwires. Other technological advances adopted for use in orthodontics include magnets, computerised imaging systems and distraction osteogenesis. This review paper looks at some of the innovations in the fields of materials as well as in techniques and appliance systems.
    Primary Dental Journal 02/2002; 9(1):5-8.