[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defining mechanisms by which differentiated, contractile smooth muscle cells become proliferative and secretory in response to mechanical and environmental stress is crucial for determining the contribution of airway smooth muscle (ASM) to inflammatory responses that result in airway disease. Regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) has emerged as an important post-transcriptional mechanism regulating gene expression that may modulate ASM phenotype, but little is known about the expression and functions of miRNA in smooth muscle. In the present study we used microarrays to determine whether miRNAs in human ASM cells are altered by a proinflammatory stimulus. In ASM cells exposed to IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma, we found 11 miRNAs to be significantly down-regulated. We verified decreased expression of miR-25, miR-140*, mir-188, and miR-320 by quantitative PCR. Analysis of miR-25 expression indicates that it has a broad role in regulating ASM phenotype by modulating expression of inflammatory mediators such as RANTES, eotaxin, and TNF-alpha; genes involved in extracellular matrix turnover; and contractile proteins, most notably myosin heavy chain. miRNA binding algorithms predict that miR-25 targets Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a potent inhibitor of smooth muscle-specific gene expression and mediator of inflammation. Our study demonstrates that inhibition of miR-25 in cytokine-stimulated ASM cells up-regulates KLF4 expression via a post-transcriptional mechanism. This provides novel evidence that miR-25 targets KLF4 in ASM cells and proposes that miR-25 may be an important mediator of ASM phenotype.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 07/2009; 42(4):506-13. DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2009-0123OC · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) is induced by IL-4 in vitro in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones and CTLs from immunized wild-type (WT) PLRP2(+/+) are more cytotoxic than PLRP2(-/-) CTLs, suggesting to previous investigators that the lipase PLRP2 might support CTL functions. Here, we further evaluate PLRP2 in CTLs. We found that PLRP2 was optimally induced in splenocytes by 3.5 x 10(-8) M IL-4 by day 6 after activation and was restricted to CD8(+) T cells. PLRP2 mRNA was detected inconsistently (and at low levels) after activation in the presence of IL-2. Cytotoxicity in 4 h (51)Cr assays of WT CTLs was approximately 3-fold the activity of PLRP2(-/-) CTLs cultured with IL-4 and, with IL-2, was unexpectedly approximately 2 fold the activity of PLRP2(-/-) CTLs. Thus, PLRP2 gene ablation affected short-term (perforin-dependent) cytotoxicity, even under the IL-2 conditions. Other variables failed to account for the reduced cytotoxicity. Granzyme B levels, activation markers, and CD8(+) T cell frequencies were similar for WT vs. PLRP2(-/-) CTLs (with either cytokine). Addition of rPLRP2 to IL-4 induced PLRP2(-/-) CTLs (or to cytotoxic granule extracts) failed to increase lysis, suggesting that the missing mediator is more than released PLRP2. Cytotoxicity of WT and PLRP2(-/-) CTLs was similar in 2-day tumor survival assays with IL-4, which can be mediated by perforin-independent mechanisms. We conclude that extracellular PLRP2 lipase is unable to directly augment the cytotoxicity that was lost by PLRP2 ablation and that after reevaluation, the question of what is PLRP2's role in CD8 T cells is still unanswered.