[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Henipavirus genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid that recruits the polymerase complex via the
phosphoprotein (P). In a previous study, we reported that in henipaviruses, the N-terminal domain of the phosphoprotein and
the C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein (NTAIL) are both intrinsically disordered. Here we show that Henipavirus NTAIL domains are also disordered in the context of full-length nucleoproteins. We also report the cloning, purification, and characterization
of the C-terminal X domains (PXD) of Henipavirus phosphoproteins. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that NTAIL and PXD form a 1:1 stoichiometric complex that is stable under NaCl concentrations as high as 1 m and has a KD in the μm range. Using far-UV circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance, we show that PXD triggers an increase in the α-helical content of NTAIL. Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we show that PXD has no impact on the chemical environment of a Trp residue introduced at position 527 of the Henipavirus NTAIL domain, thus arguing for the lack of stable contacts between the C termini of NTAIL and PXD. Finally, we present a tentative structural model of the NTAIL-PXD interaction in which a short, order-prone region of NTAIL (α-MoRE; amino acids 473–493) adopts an α-helical conformation and is embedded between helices α2 and α3 of PXD, leading to a relatively small interface dominated by hydrophobic contacts. The present results provide the first detailed
experimental characterization of the N-P interaction in henipaviruses and designate the NTAIL-PXD interaction as a valuable target for rational antiviral approaches.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2011; 286(15):13583-13602. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Henipavirus genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid that recruits the polymerase complex via the phosphoprotein (P). In a previous study, we reported that in henipaviruses, the N-terminal domain of the phosphoprotein and the C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein (N(TAIL)) are both intrinsically disordered. Here we show that Henipavirus N(TAIL) domains are also disordered in the context of full-length nucleoproteins. We also report the cloning, purification, and characterization of the C-terminal X domains (P(XD)) of Henipavirus phosphoproteins. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that N(TAIL) and P(XD) form a 1:1 stoichiometric complex that is stable under NaCl concentrations as high as 1 M and has a K(D) in the μM range. Using far-UV circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance, we show that P(XD) triggers an increase in the α-helical content of N(TAIL). Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we show that P(XD) has no impact on the chemical environment of a Trp residue introduced at position 527 of the Henipavirus N(TAIL) domain, thus arguing for the lack of stable contacts between the C termini of N(TAIL) and P(XD). Finally, we present a tentative structural model of the N(TAIL)-P(XD) interaction in which a short, order-prone region of N(TAIL) (α-MoRE; amino acids 473-493) adopts an α-helical conformation and is embedded between helices α2 and α3 of P(XD), leading to a relatively small interface dominated by hydrophobic contacts. The present results provide the first detailed experimental characterization of the N-P interaction in henipaviruses and designate the N(TAIL)-P(XD) interaction as a valuable target for rational antiviral approaches.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(15):13583-602. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maurocalcine has been the first demonstrated animal toxin acting as a cell-penetrating peptide. Although it possesses competitive advantages, its use as a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) requires that analogues be developed that lack its characteristic pharmacological activity on ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels without affecting its cell-penetrating and vector efficiencies. Here, we present the synthesis, three-dimensional (1)H NMR structure, and activity of D-maurocalcine. We demonstrate that it possesses all of the desired features for an excellent CPP: preserved structure, lack of pharmacological action, conserved vector properties, and absence of cell toxicity. This is the first report of a folded/oxidized animal toxin in its D-diastereomer conformation for use as a CPP. The protease resistance of this new peptide analogue, combined with its efficient cell penetration at concentrations devoid of cell toxicity, suggests that D-maurocalcine should be an excellent vector for in vivo applications.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(44):34168-80. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this report, the solution structure of the nucleocapsid-binding domain of the measles virus phosphoprotein (XD, aa 459-507) is described. A dynamic description of the interaction between XD and the disordered C-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid protein, (N(TAIL), aa 401-525), is also presented. XD is an all alpha protein consisting of a three-helix bundle with an up-down-up arrangement of the helices. The solution structure of XD is very similar to the crystal structures of both the free and bound form of XD. One exception is the presence of a highly dynamic loop encompassing XD residues 489-491, which is involved in the embedding of the alpha-helical XD-binding region of N(TAIL). Secondary chemical shift values for full-length N(TAIL) were used to define the precise boundaries of a transient helical segment that coincides with the XD-binding domain, thus shedding light on the pre-recognition state of N(TAIL). Titration experiments with unlabeled XD showed that the transient alpha-helical conformation of N(TAIL) is stabilized upon binding. Lineshape analysis of NMR resonances revealed that residues 483-506 of N(TAIL) are in intermediate exchange with XD, while the 475-482 and 507-525 regions are in fast exchange. The N(TAIL) resonance behavior in the titration experiments is consistent with a complex binding model with more than two states.
Journal of Molecular Recognition 01/2010; 23(5):435-47. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Henipaviruses are newly emerged viruses within the Paramyxoviridae family. Their negative-strand RNA genome is packaged by the nucleoprotein (N) within alpha-helical nucleocapsid that recruits the polymerase complex made of the L protein and the phosphoprotein (P). To date structural data on Henipaviruses are scarce, and their N and P proteins have never been characterized so far. Using both computational and experimental approaches we herein show that Henipaviruses N and P proteins possess large intrinsically disordered regions. By combining several disorder prediction methods, we show that the N-terminal domain of P (PNT) and the C-terminal domain of N (NTAIL) are both mostly disordered, although they contain short order-prone segments. We then report the cloning, the bacterial expression, purification and characterization of Henipavirus PNT and NTAIL domains. By combining gel filtration, dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance, we show that both NTAIL and PNT belong to the premolten globule sub-family within the class of intrinsically disordered proteins. This study is the first reported experimental characterization of Henipavirus P and N proteins. The evidence that their respective N-terminal and C-terminal domains are highly disordered under native conditions is expected to be invaluable for future structural studies by helping to delineate N and P protein domains amenable to crystallization. In addition, following previous hints establishing a relationship between structural disorder and protein interactivity, the present results suggest that Henipavirus PNT and NTAIL domains could be involved in manifold protein-protein interactions.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(7):e11684. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterial type II protein secretion (T2S) and type IV piliation (T4P) systems share several common features. In particular, it is well established that the T2S system requires the function of a pilus-like structure, called pseudopilus, which is built upon assembly of pilin-like subunits, called pseudopilins. Pilins and pseudopilins have a hydrophobic N-terminal region, which precedes an extended hydrophilic C-terminal region. In the case of pilins, it was shown that oligomerisation and formation of helical fibers, takes place through interaction between the hydrophobic domains. XcpT, is the most abundant protein of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa T2S, and was proposed to be the main component in the pseudopilus. In this study we present the high-resolution NMR structure of the hydrophilic domain of XcpT (XcpTp). XcpTp is lacking the C-terminal disulfide bridged "D" domain found in type IV pilins and likely involved in receptor binding. This is in agreement with the idea that the XcpT-containing pseudopilus is required for protein secretion and not for bacterial attachment. Interestingly, by solving the 3D structure of XcpTp we revealed that the previously called alphabeta-loop pilin region is in fact highly conserved among major type II pseudopilins and constitutes a specific consensus motif for identifying major pseudopilins, which belong to this family.
Journal of Structural Biology 09/2009; 169(1):75-80. · 3.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genome of measles virus consists of a non-segmented single-stranded RNA molecule of negative polarity, which is encapsidated by the viral nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid. The N protein possesses an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (aa 401-525, N(TAIL)) that is exposed at the surface of the viral nucleopcapsid. Thanks to its flexible nature, N(TAIL) interacts with several viral and cellular partners. Among these latter, the Interferon Regulator Factor 3 (IRF-3) has been reported to interact with N, with the interaction having been mapped to the regulatory domain of IRF-3 and to N(TAIL). This interaction was described to lead to the phosphorylation-dependent activation of IRF-3, and to the ensuing activation of the pro-immune cytokine RANTES gene.
After confirming the reciprocal ability of IRF-3 and N to be co-immunoprecipitated in 293T cells, we thoroughly investigated the N(TAIL)-IRF-3 interaction using a recombinant, monomeric form of the regulatory domain of IRF-3. Using a large panel of spectroscopic approaches, including circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we failed to detect any direct interaction between IRF-3 and either full-length N or NTAIL under conditions where these latter interact with the C-terminal X domain of the viral phosphoprotein. Furthermore, such interaction was neither detected in E. coli nor in a yeast two hybrid assay.
Altogether, these data support the requirement for a specific cellular environment, such as that provided by 293T human cells, for the N(TAIL)-IRF-3 interaction to occur. This dependence from a specific cellular context likely reflects the requirement for a human or mammalian cellular co-factor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soluble venom and purified fractions of the theraposid spider Brachypelma albiceps were screened for insecticidal peptides based on toxicity to crickets. Two insecticidal peptides, named Ba1 and Ba2, were obtained after the soluble venom was separated by high performance liquid chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. The two insecticidal peptides contain 39 amino acid residues and three disulfide bonds, and based on their amino acid sequence, they are highly identical to the insecticidal peptides from the theraposid spiders Aphonopelma sp. from the USA and Haplopelma huwenum from China indicating a relationship among these genera. Although Ba1 and Ba2 were not able to modify currents in insect and vertebrate cloned voltage-gated sodium ion channels, they have noteworthy insecticidal activities compared to classical arachnid insecticidal toxins indicating that they might target unknown receptors in insect species. The most abundant insecticidal peptide Ba2 was submitted to NMR spectroscopy to determine its 3-D structure; a remarkable characteristic of Ba2 is a cluster of basic residues, which might be important for receptor recognition.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2009; 1794(8):1190-6. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we investigate the interaction between the C-terminal domains of the measles virus phosphoprotein (XD) and nucleoprotein (N(TAIL)) by using nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift perturbation experiments. Using both N(TAIL) constructs and peptides, we show that contrary to the conserved Box2 region (N(489-506)), the C-terminal region of N(TAIL) (N(513-525)) does not directly interact with XD, and yet affects binding to XD. We tentatively propose a model where the C-terminus of N(TAIL) would stabilize the N(TAIL)-XD complex either via a functional coupling with N(489-506) or by reducing the entropic penalty associated to the binding-coupled-to-folding process.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psalmopeotoxin I (PcFK1) is a 33-residue peptide isolated from the venom of the tarantula Psalmopoeus cambridgei. This peptide specifically inhibits the intra-erythrocyte stage of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. It contains six cysteine residues forming three disulfide bridges and belongs to the superfamily of natural peptides containing the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) fold. We produced the wild-type and mutated forms of the recombinant peptide to examine the mechanism of action of PcFK1. The purified toxins were consistently produced as two isobaric peptides (r-PcFK1-1 and r-PcFK1-2) with different retention properties but identical anti-plasmodial -biological activity. Comparison of (15)N-NMR heteronuclear single quantum correlation spectra revealed that although rPcFK1-1 was highly structured, rPcFK1-2 does not have a stable three-dimensional structure. We used high-energy collision-induced fragmentation of the peptides with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of- flight mass spectrometer to further investigate the structure of the native peptides in its natural form and produced in E. coli. The fragmentation spectra of the native peptides were very complex due to the occurrence in the spectrum of ions resulting from (1) cross-linking of fragments through a disulfide bridge and (2) asymmetric fragmentations of the disulfide bridges and (3) multiple neutral losses. The tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation pattern of r-PcFK1-1 was similar to that of the natural peptide isolated from crude venom, but r-PcFK1-2 had a clearly distinct fragmentation pattern, more closely resembling the fragmentation spectra of reduced and alkylated peptides. Observed ions could be attributed to specific fragments by comparing spectra between the wild-type and selected variants with point mutations (Y11W, R20T, Y26W, K28V). The disulfide connections in r-PcFK1-2 differed from those of the native peptide and showed a rare disulfide bridge between vicinal cysteine residues. The r-PcFK1_(R20T) variant showed a very limited fragmentation pattern when analyzed in positive mode but displayed much more fragmentation in negative mode pointing out the importance of the R20 residue in the fragmentation of PcFK1. Using the reductive matrix 1,5-diaminonaphtalene promoted strongly in source decay fragmentation of the peptides in MS mode. Our findings illustrated the critical role of the electronic environment around the central Cys(18)-Cys(19) doublet in PcFK1 in internal fragmentation of the peptide.
European Journal of Mass Spectrometry 02/2009; 15(4):517-29. · 1.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arthropods are one of the most diverse animal groups on the Earth. Spiders belong to this phylum and they are ancient animals with a history going back some three hundred million years. They are abundant, widespread, and natural controllers of insect populations. They use their venom to capture prey or to fight against predators. This venom is constituted of various peptides and enzymes with different activities. Among these proteins, toxic peptides are responsible for the macroscopic effect of the venom. Most of the toxins are known to interact with ion channels (mainly potassium channels, sodium channels, and calcium channels). These transmembrane molecules are ubiquitous in the cells. They underlie a broad range of the most basic biological processes, from excitation and signaling to secretion and absorption. Like enzymes they are diverse and ubiquitous macromolecular catalysts with high substrate specificity and subject to strong regulation. Animal toxins and, more specifically, spider toxins are effectors of these channels. Depending on the peptide, they have ability to block the channel by plugging into its pore of conduction, or by modifying the opening and closing capacity of the channels, binding on a few specific sites along the structure of the channel. Most of these peptides fold according to the overall same pattern, the inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) scaffold. Basically, it consists of a ring formed by a part of the backbone of the peptide and two disulfide bridges, penetrated by a third disulfide bridge. An additional disulfide bridge might be found in some toxins. Another fold has been found in a few toxins and has been described as the DDH scaffold. This motif lacks the knot and comprises an antiparallel β -hairpin stabilized by two conserved disulfide bridges. This paper will try to summarize the structural characteristics of the spider toxins for which the fold has been described in the literature.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maurocalcine is a 33-mer peptide initially isolated from the venom of a Tunisian scorpion. It has proved itself valuable as a pharmacological activator of the ryanodine receptor and has helped the understanding of the molecular basis underlying excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscles. Because of its positively charged nature, it is also an innovative vector for the cell penetration of various compounds. We report a novel maurocalcine analog with improved properties: (i) the complete loss of pharmacological activity, (ii) preservation of the potent ability to carry cargo molecules into cells, and (iii) coupling chemistries not affected by the presence of internal cysteine residues of maurocalcine. We did this by replacing the six internal cysteine residues of maurocalcine by isosteric 2-aminobutyric acid residues and by adding an additional N-terminal biotinylated lysine (for a proof of concept analog) or an N-terminal cysteine residue (for a chemically competent coupling analogue). Additional replacement of a glutamate residue by alanyl at position 12 further improves the potency of these analogues. Coupling to several cargo molecules or nanoparticles are presented to illustrate the cell penetration potency and usefulness of these pharmacologically inactive analogs.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2008; 283(40):27048-56. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agitoxin 2 (AgTx2) is a 38-residue scorpion toxin, cross-linked by three disulfide bridges, which acts on voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels. Maurotoxin (MTX) is a 34-residue scorpion toxin with an uncommon four-disulfide bridge reticulation, acting on both Ca(2+)-activated and Kv channels. A 39-mer chimeric peptide, named AgTx2-MTX, was designed from the sequence of the two toxins and chemically synthesized. It encompasses residues 1-5 of AgTx2, followed by the complete sequence of MTX. As established by enzyme cleavage, the new AgTx2-MTX molecule displays half-cystine pairings of the type C1-C5, C2-C6, C3-C7, and C4-C8, which is different from that of MTX. The 3D structure of AgTx2-MTX solved by (1)H-NMR, revealed both alpha-helical and beta-sheet structures, consistent with a common alpha/beta scaffold of scorpion toxins. Pharmacological assays of AgTx2-MTX revealed that this new molecule is more potent than both original toxins in blocking rat Kv1.2 channel. Docking simulations, performed with the 3D structure of AgTx2-MTX, confirmed this result and demonstrated the participation of the N-terminal domain of AgTx2 in its increased affinity for Kv1.2 through additional molecular contacts. Altogether, the data indicated that replacement of the N-terminal domain of MTX by the one of AgTx2 in the AgTx2-MTX chimera results in a reorganization of the disulfide bridge arrangement and an increase of affinity to the Kv1.2 channel.
Protein Science 02/2008; 17(1):107-18. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maurocalcine (MCa) is a 33-amino acid residue peptide that was initially identified in the Tunisian scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus. This peptide triggers interest for three main reasons. First, it helps unravelling the mechanistic basis of Ca(2+) mobilization from the sarcoplasmic reticulum because of its sequence homology with a calcium channel domain involved in excitation-contraction coupling. Second, it shows potent pharmacological properties because of its ability to activate the ryanodine receptor. Finally, it is of technological value because of its ability to carry cell-impermeable compounds across the plasma membrane. Herein, we characterized the molecular determinants that underlie the pharmacological and cell-penetrating properties of maurocalcine. We identify several key amino acid residues of the peptide that will help the design of cell-penetrating analogues devoid of pharmacological activity and cell toxicity. Close examination of the determinants underlying cell penetration of maurocalcine reveals that basic amino acid residues are required for an interaction with negatively charged lipids of the plasma membrane. Maurocalcine analogues that penetrate better have also stronger interaction with negatively charged lipids. Conversely, less effective analogues present a diminished ability to interact with these lipids. These findings will also help the design of still more potent cell penetrating analogues of maurocalcine.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2007; 1768(10):2528-40. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psalmopeotoxin I (PcFK1) is a 33-amino-acid residue peptide isolated from the venom of the tarantula Psalmopoeus cambridgei. It has been recently shown to possess strong antiplasmodial activity against the intra-erythrocyte stage of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Although the molecular target for PcFK1 is not yet determined, this peptide does not lyse erythrocytes, is not cytotoxic to nucleated mammalian cells, and does not inhibit neuromuscular function. We investigated the structural properties of PcFK1 to help understand the unique mechanism of action of this peptide and to enhance its utility as a lead compound for rational development of new antimalarial drugs. In this paper, we have determined the three-dimensional solution structure by (1)H two-dimensional NMR means of recombinant PcFK1, which is shown to belong to the ICK structural superfamily with structural determinants common to several neurotoxins acting as ion channels effectors.
Protein Science 04/2006; 15(3):628-34. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OSK1, a toxin from the venom of the Asian scorpion Orthochirus scrobiculosus, is a 38-residue peptide cross-linked by three disulfide bridges. A structural analog of OSK1, [Lys(16),Asp(20)]-OSK1, was found previously to be one of the most potent blockers of the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv1.3 hitherto characterized. Here, we demonstrate that progressive trimming of the N-terminal domain of [Lys(16),Asp(20)]-OSK1 results in marked changes in its pharmacological profile, in terms of both K(+) channel affinity and selectivity. Whereas the affinity to Kv1.1 and Kv1.3 did not change significantly, the affinity to Kv1.2 and K(Ca)3.1 was drastically reduced with the truncations. It is surprising that a striking gain in potency was observed for Kv3.2. In contrast, a truncation of the C-terminal domain, expected to partially disrupt the toxin beta-sheet structure, resulted in a significant decrease or a complete loss of activity on all channel types tested. These data highlight the value of structure-function studies on the extended N-terminal domain of [Lys(16),Asp(20)]-OSK1 to identify new analogs with unique pharmacological properties.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The membrane disruption mechanism of pandinin 1 (pin1), an antimicrobial peptide isolated from the venom of the African scorpion, was studied using 31P, 13C, 1H solid-state and multidimensional solution-state NMR spectroscopy. A high-resolution NMR solution structure of pin1 showed that the two distinct alpha-helical regions move around the central hinge region, which contains Pro19. 31P NMR spectra of lipid membrane in the presence of pin1, at various temperatures, showed that pin1 induces various lipid phase behaviors depending on the acyl chain length and charge of phospholipids. Notably, it was found that pin1 induced formation of the cubic phase in shorter lipid membranes above Tm. Further, the 13C NMR spectra of pin1 labeled at Leu28 under magic angle spinning (MAS) indicated that the motion of pin1 bound to the lipid bilayer was very slow, with a correlation time of the order of 10(-3) s. 31P NMR spectra of dispersions of four saturated phosphatidyl-cholines in the presence of three types of pin1 derivatives, [W4A, W6A, W15A]-pin1, pin1(1-18), and pin1(20-44), at various temperatures demonstrated that all three pin1 derivatives have a reduced ability to trigger the cubic phase. 13C chemical shift values for pin1(1-18) labeled at Val3, Ala10, or Ala11 under static or slow MAS conditions indicate that pin1(1-18) rapidly rotates around the average helical axis, and the helical rods are inclined at approximately 30 degrees to the lipid long axis. 13C chemical shift values for pin1(20-44) labeled at Gly25, Leu28, or Ala31 under static conditions indicate that pin1(20-44) may be isotropically tumbling. 1H MAS chemical shift measurements suggest that pin1 is located at the membrane-water interface approximately parallel to the bilayer surface. Solid-state NMR results correlated well with the observed biological activity of pin1 in red blood cells and bacteria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measles virus is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus within the Mononegavirales order,which includes several human pathogens, including rabies, Ebola, Nipah, and Hendra viruses. The measles virus nucleoprotein consists of a structured N-terminal domain, and of an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain, N(TAIL) (aa 401-525), which undergoes induced folding in the presence of the C-terminal domain (XD, aa 459-507) of the viral phosphoprotein. With in N(TAIL), an alpha-helical molecular recognition element (alpha-MoRE, aa 488-499) involved in binding to P and in induced folding was identified and then observed in the crystal structure of XD. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, we have derived a low-resolution structural model of the complex between XD and N(TAIL), which shows that most of N(TAIL) remains disordered in the complex despite P-induced folding within the alpha-MoRE. The model consists of an extended shape accommodating the multiple conformations adopted by the disordered N-terminal region of N(TAIL), and of a bulky globular region, corresponding to XD and to the C terminus of N(TAIL) (aa 486-525). Using surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, and heteronuclear magnetic resonance, we show that N(TAIL) has an additional site (aa 517-525) involved in binding to XD but not in the unstructured-to-structured transition. This work provides evidence that intrinsically disordered domains can establish complex interactions with their partners, and can contact them through multiple sites that do not all necessarily gain regular secondary structure.
Protein Science 09/2005; 14(8):1975-92. · 2.74 Impact Factor