Ayman El-Kattan

University of Houston, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (41)137.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Kidney plays a critical role in the elimination of xenobiotics. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) via inhibition of renal organic anion (OAT) and organic cation (OCT) transporters have been observed in the clinic. This study examined the quantitative predictability of renal transporter-mediated clinical DDIs based on basic and mechanistic models. In vitro transport and clinical pharmacokinetics parameters were used to quantitatively predict DDIs of victim drugs when co-administrated with OAT or OCT inhibitors, probenecid and cimetidine, respectively. The predicted changes in renal clearance (CLr) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) were comparable to that observed in clinical studies. With probenecid, basic modeling predicted 61% cases within 25% and 94% cases within 50% of the observed CLr changes in clinic. With cimetidine, basic modeling predicted 61% cases within 25% and 92% cases within 50% of the observed CLr changes in clinic. Additionally, mechanistic model predicted 54% cases within 25% and 92% cases within 50% of the observed AUC changes with probenecid. Notably, the magnitude of AUC changes attributable to the renal DDIs is generally less than two-fold, unlike the DDIs associated with inhibition of CYPs and/or hepatic uptake transporters. The models were further used to evaluate the renal DDIs of Pfizer clinical candidates/drugs, and the overall predictability demonstrates their utility in the drug discovery and development settings.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 09/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Targeting drugs to the gastrointestinal tract has been and continues to be an active area of research. Gut-targeting is an effective means of increasing the local concentration of active substance at the desired site of action while minimizing concentrations elsewhere in the body that could lead to unwanted side-effects. Several approaches to intestinal targeting exist. Physicochemical property manipulation can drive molecules to large, polar, low absorption space or alternatively to lipophilic, high clearance space in order to minimize systemic exposure. Design of compounds that are substrates for transporters within the gastrointestinal tract, either uptake or efflux, or at the hepato-biliary interface, may help to increase intestinal concentration. Prodrug strategies have been shown to be effective particularly for colon targeting, and several different technology formulation approaches are currently being researched. This review provides examples of various approaches to intestinal targeting, and discusses challenges and areas in need of future scientific advances.
    Current topics in medicinal chemistry 04/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate a novel drug solubilization platform (so-called solid nanodispersion) prepared by a simple co-grinding and solvent-free process. Using structurally diverse model compounds from the Pfizer drug library, including ingliforib, furosemide and celecoxib, we successfully prepared stable solid nanodispersions (SNDs) without the use of solvent or heat. Stable colloidal particles (< 350 nm) containing drug, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K12 and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 1:2.75:0.25 ratio were produced after two hours of co-grinding. The composition and particle size of SNDs were optimized by varying the grinding media size, powder-to-grinding media ratio, milling speed and milling time. The resulting formulations contained crystalline drug and were stable at room temperature for over one month. Greater than 80% of the drug was released from the SND in less than 30 minutes, with sustained supersaturation over 4 hours. Using furosemide (BCS Class IV compound) as a model compound, we conducted transport studies with Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with human MDR1 gene (MDCK/MDR1), followed by pharmacokinetics studies in rats. Results showed that the SND formulation enhanced the absorptive flux of furosemide by more than 3-fold. In the pharmacokinetics studies, the SND formulation increased Cmax and AUC of furosemide by 36.6 and 43.2 fold respectively, relative to Methocel formulation. Interestingly, physical mixture containing furosemide, PVP K12 and SDS produced a similar level of oral exposure as the SNDs, albeit with a longer Tmax than the SND formulation. The results suggest that PVP K12 and SDS were able to increase the furosemide free fraction available for oral absorption. Low solubility, poor permeability, and high first-pass effect of furosemide may also have produced the effect that small improvements in solubilization resulted in significant potentiation of the oral exposure of the physical mixture. However the use of a physical mixture of drug, polymer and surfactant, to increase drug bioavailability cannot be generalized to all drugs. There are only a few reported cases of such phenomenon. While SNDs may not be the only option to solubilize compounds in every case, SNDs are expected to be applicable to a broader chemical space of pharmaceutical compounds compared to a physical mixture. Ultimately, formulation scientists have to exercise judgment in choosing the appropriate formulation strategy for the compound of interest. SNDs represent a significant improvement over current enabling technologies such as nanocrystal and spray-dried dispersion technologies, in that SNDs are simple, do not require solvent or heat, are applicable to a structurally diverse chemical space, and are amenable to the development of solid dosage forms.
    Journal of Controlled Release 04/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Repaglinide is mainly metabolized by cytochrome-P-450 (CYP)2C8 and CYP3A4, and is also a substrate to hepatic uptake transporter, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1. The purpose of this study is to predict the "dosing-time" dependent pharmacokinetic interactions of repaglinide with rifampicin, using mechanistic models. In vitro hepatic transport of repaglinide, characterized using sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes, and intrinsic metabolic parameters were used to build a dynamic whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. The PBPK model adequately described repaglinide plasma concentration-time profiles; and successfully predicted area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios of repaglinide (within ±25% error), dosed (staggered 0-24h) after rifampicin treatment, when primarily considering induction of CYP3A4 and reversible inhibition of OATP1B1 by rifampicin. Further, a static mechanistic "extended net-effect" model incorporating transport and metabolic disposition parameters of repaglinide and interaction potency of rifampicin was devised. Predictions based on the static model are similar to that observed in the clinic (average error ~19%), as well as similar to the PBPK model predictions. Both the models suggested that the combined effect of increased gut extraction and decreased hepatic uptake caused minimal repaglinide systemic exposure change when repaglinide is dosed simultaneously or 1h after the rifampicin dose. On the other hand, isolated induction effect as a result of temporal separation of the two drugs translated to ~5-fold reduction in repaglinide systemic exposure. In conclusion, both dynamic and static mechanistic models are instrumental in delineating the quantitative contribution of transport and metabolism in the dosing-time dependent repaglinide-rifampicin interactions.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 02/2013; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Membrane transporters have been recognized to play a key role in determining the absorption, distribution and elimination processes of drugs. The organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1 and OATP1B3 isoforms are selectively expressed in the human liver and are known to cause significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs), as observed with an increasing number of drugs. It is evident that DDIs involving hepatic transporters are capable of altering systemic, as well as tissue-specific, exposure of drug substrates resulting in marked differences in drug safety and/or efficacy. It is therefore essential to quantitatively predict such interactions early in the drug development to mitigate clinical risks. Areas covered: The role of hepatic uptake transporters in drug disposition and clinical DDIs has been reviewed with an emphasis on the current state of the models applicable for quantitative predictions. The readers will also gain insight into the in vitro experimental tools available to characterize transport kinetics, while appreciating the knowledge gaps in the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE), which warrant further investigation. Expert opinion: Static and dynamic models can be convincingly applied to quantitatively predict drug interactions, early in drug discovery, to mitigate clinical risks as well as to avoid unnecessary clinical studies. Compared to basic models, which focus on individual processes, mechanistic models provide the ability to assess DDI potential for compounds with systemic disposition determined by both transporters and metabolic enzymes. However, complexities in the experimental tools and an apparent disconnect in the IVIVE of transport kinetics have limited the physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling strategies. Emerging data on the expression of transporter proteins and tissue drug concentrations are expected to help bridge these gaps. In addition, detailed characterization of substrate kinetics can facilitate building comprehensive mechanistic models.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism &amp Toxicology 01/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Quantitative prediction of complex drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is challenging. Repaglinide is mainly metabolized by cytochrome-P-450 (CYP)2C8 and CYP3A4, and is also a substrate of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1. The purpose is to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict the pharmacokinetics and DDIs of repaglinide. METHODS: In vitro hepatic transport of repaglinide, gemfibrozil and gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide was characterized using sandwich-culture human hepatocytes. A PBPK model, implemented in Simcyp (Sheffield, UK), was developed utilizing in vitro transport and metabolic clearance data. RESULTS: In vitro studies suggested significant active hepatic uptake of repaglinide. Mechanistic model adequately described repaglinide pharmacokinetics, and successfully predicted DDIs with several OATP1B1 and CYP3A4 inhibitors (<10% error). Furthermore, repaglinide-gemfibrozil interaction at therapeutic dose was closely predicted using in vitro fraction metabolism for CYP2C8 (0.71), when primarily considering reversible inhibition of OATP1B1 and mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2C8 by gemfibrozil and gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that hepatic uptake is rate-determining in the systemic clearance of repaglinide. The model quantitatively predicted several repaglinide DDIs, including the complex interactions with gemfibrozil. Both OATP1B1 and CYP2C8 inhibition contribute significantly to repaglinide-gemfibrozil interaction, and need to be considered for quantitative rationalization of DDIs with either drug.
    Pharmaceutical Research 01/2013; · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the substrate specificities of OATP1B1, 1B3, and 2B1 are broad and overlapping, the contribution of each isoform to the overall hepatic uptake is of concern when assessing transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) or genetic polymorphism impact in the clinic. Herein, we quantitatively measured OATP proteins in cryopreserved hepatocytes, sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH), and the liver, and examined the relationship with functional uptake of OATP substrates in effort to identify the OATP isoform(s) contributing to the hepatic uptake of pitavastatin. The modulation of OATP expression in SCHH was found to be lot-dependent. However, OATP protein measurements averaged from 5 lots of SCHH were comparable to that of suspended hepatocytes. All three OATP transporters in suspended hepatocytes and SCHH were significantly lower than those in the liver. In SCHH, the uptake of CCK-8 and pravastatin was found to be associated with the expression of OATP1B3 and OATP1B1, respectively. In suspended hepatocytes, OATP1B1 appeared to show a positive trend with respect to the uptake of pitavastatin, which suggests a selective contribution of OATP1B1 to pitavastatin transport and thus an OATP quantitative protein expression-activity relationship. While the passive diffusion of rosuvastatin in SCHH was consistent across hepatocyte lots, the passive diffusion of pitavastatin varied over a broad range (>4-fold) in suspended hepatocytes and was inversely correlated with transporter-mediated uptake, presumably due to cell membrane alterations imparted by cryopreservation. Collectively, SCHH maintains OATP protein expression and membrane integrity and, if feasible when considering research goals, would be considered a superior tool for the characterization of in vitro transport parameters without the complication of membrane leakage.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 10/2012; · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Bo Feng, Ayman F El-Kattan, Zaher A Radi
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    ABSTRACT: This unit describes in detail the in vitro methods for measuring the interaction of new chemical entities (NCEs) with human renal transporters (hOAT1, hOAT2, and hOCT2) as both a substrate and inhibitor. Renal transporter substrate assays help in the identification of renal secretion mechanisms and assessment of the potential renal drug-drug interactions (DDIs) for NCE as a target, as well as to predict its renal clearance in humans. Human renal transporter (hOAT1, hOAT2, and hOCT2) inhibition assays characterize the inhibition potency of NCE and predict the potential for renal DDIs as a perpetrator with xenobiotics and drugs that are mainly renally cleared. In addition, such inhibition assays enable a better assessment of the potential for renal transporter-mediated nephrotoxicity and pathology. Therefore, renal transporter substrate and inhibition assays are pivotal in drug discovery and development for renally cleared drugs and those that are co-administered with marketed compounds mainly eliminated via the kidney.
    Current protocols in toxicology 08/2012; Chapter 23:Unit 23.3.1-15.
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary excretion (BE) is a major elimination pathway, and its prediction is particularly important for optimization of systemic and/or target-site exposure of new molecular entities. The objective is to characterize the physicochemical space associated with hepatobiliary transport and rat BE and to develop in silico models. BE of 123 in-house compounds was obtained using the bile-duct cannulated rat model. Human and rat hepatic uptake transporters (hOATP1B1, hOATP1B3, hOATP2B1, and rOatp1b2) substrates (n = 183) were identified using transfected cells. Furthermore, the datasets were extended by adding BE of 163 compounds and 97 organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrates from the literature. Approximately 60% of compounds showing percentage of BE (%BE) ≥ 10 are anions, with mean BE of anions (36%) more than 3-fold higher than that of nonacids (11%). Compounds with %BE ≥ 10 are found to have high molecular mass, large polar surface area, more rotatable bonds, and high H-bond count, whereas the lipophilicity and passive membrane permeability are lower compared with compounds with %BE < 10. According to statistical analysis and principal component analysis, hOATPs and rOatp1b2 substrates showed physicochemical characteristics that were similar to those of the %BE ≥ 10 dataset. We further build categorical in silico models to predict rat BE, and the models (gradient boosting machine and scoring function) developed showed 80% predictability in identifying the rat BE bins (%BE ≥ 10 or < 10). In conclusion, the significant overlap of the property space of OATP substrates and rat BE suggests a predominant role of sinusoidal uptake transporters in biliary elimination. Categorical in silico models to predict rat BE were developed, and successful predictions were achieved.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 05/2012; 40(8):1527-37. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Drug transporter proteins are expressed on the cell membrane, regulating substrate exposure in systemic circulation and/or peripheral tissues. Genetic polymorphism of drug transporter genes encoding these proteins could alter the functional activity and/or protein expression, having effects on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME), efficacy and adverse effects. AREAS COVERED: The authors provide the reader with an overview of the pharmacogenetics (PGx) of 12 membrane transporters. The clinical literature is summarized as to the quantitative significance on pharmacokinetics (PK) and implications on pharmacodynamics (PD) and adverse effects, due to transporter influence on intracellular drug concentrations. EXPERT OPINION: Unlike polymorphisms for cytochrome P450s (CYPs) resulting in large magnitude of PK variation, genetic mutations for membrane transporters are typically less than threefold alteration in systemic PK for drugs with a few exceptions. However, substantially greater changes in intracellular drug levels may result. We are aware of 1880 exome variants in 12 of the best-studied transporters to date, and nearly 40% of these change the amino acid. However, the functional consequences of most of these variants remain to be determined, and have only been empirically evaluated for a handful. To the extent that genetic polymorphisms impact ADME, it is a variable that will contribute to ethnic differences due to substantial frequency differences for the known variants.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism &amp Toxicology 04/2012; 8(6):723-43. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) is a scientific framework that provides a basis for predicting the oral absorption of drugs. These concepts have been extended in the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) to explain the potential mechanism of drug clearance and understand the effects of uptake and efflux transporters on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. The objective of present work is to establish criteria for provisional biopharmaceutics classification using pH-dependent passive permeability and aqueous solubility data generated from high throughput screening methodologies in drug discovery settings. The apparent permeability across monolayers of clonal cell line of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, selected for low endogenous efflux transporter expression, was measured for a set of 105 drugs, with known BCS and BDDCS class. The permeability at apical pH 6.5 for acidic drugs and at pH 7.4 for nonacidic drugs showed a good correlation with the fraction absorbed in human (Fa). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was utilized to define the permeability class boundary. At permeability ≥ 5 × 10(-6) cm/s, the accuracy of predicting Fa of ≥ 0.90 was 87%. Also, this cutoff showed more than 80% sensitivity and specificity in predicting the literature permeability classes (BCS), and the metabolism classes (BDDCS). The equilibrium solubility of a subset of 49 drugs was measured in pH 1.2 medium, pH 6.5 phosphate buffer, and in FaSSIF medium (pH 6.5). Although dose was not considered, good concordance of the measured solubility with BCS and BDDCS solubility class was achieved, when solubility at pH 1.2 was used for acidic compounds and FaSSIF solubility was used for basic, neutral, and zwitterionic compounds. Using a cutoff of 200 μg/mL, the data set suggested a 93% sensitivity and 86% specificity in predicting both the BCS and BDDCS solubility classes. In conclusion, this study identified pH-dependent permeability and solubility criteria that can be used to assign provisional biopharmaceutics class at early stage of the drug discovery process. Additionally, such a classification system will enable discovery scientists to assess the potential limiting factors to oral absorption, as well as help predict the drug disposition mechanisms and potential drug-drug interactions.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 04/2012; 9(5):1199-212. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the feasibility of using sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHHs) as a model to characterize transport kinetics for in vivo pharmacokinetic prediction, the expression of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) proteins in SCHHs, along with biliary efflux transporters, was confirmed quantitatively by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Rifamycin SV (Rif SV), which was shown to completely block the function of OATP transporters, was selected as an inhibitor to assess the initial rates of active uptake. The optimized SCHH model was applied in a retrospective investigation of compounds with known clinically significant OATP-mediated uptake and was applied further to explore drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Greater than 50% inhibition of active uptake by Rif SV was found to be associated with clinically significant OATP-mediated DDIs. We propose that the in vitro active uptake value therefore could serve as a cutoff for class 3 and 4 compounds of the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System, which could be integrated into the International Transporter Consortium decision tree recommendations to trigger clinical evaluations for potential DDI risks. Furthermore, the kinetics of in vitro hepatobiliary transport obtained from SCHHs, along with protein expression scaling factors, offer an opportunity to predict complex in vivo processes using mathematical models, such as physiologically based pharmacokinetics models.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 03/2012; 40(6):1085-92. · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Ayman El-Kattan, Manthena Varma
    02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0099-7
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    ABSTRACT: With efforts to reduce cytochrome P450-mediated clearance (CL) during the early stages of drug discovery, transporter-mediated CL mechanisms are becoming more prevalent. However, the prediction of plasma concentration-time profiles for such compounds using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling is far less established in comparison with that for compounds with passively mediated pharmacokinetics (PK). In this study, we have assessed the predictability of human PK for seven organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrates (pravastatin, cerivastatin, bosentan, fluvastatin, rosuvastatin, valsartan, and repaglinide) for which clinical intravenous data were available. In vitro data generated from the sandwich culture human hepatocyte system were simultaneously fit to estimate parameters describing both uptake and biliary efflux. Use of scaled active uptake, passive distribution, and biliary efflux parameters as inputs into a PBPK model resulted in the overprediction of exposure for all seven drugs investigated, with the exception of pravastatin. Therefore, fitting of in vivo data for each individual drug in the dataset was performed to establish empirical scaling factors to accurately capture their plasma concentration-time profiles. Overall, active uptake and biliary efflux were under- and overpredicted, leading to average empirical scaling factors of 58 and 0.061, respectively; passive diffusion required no scaling factor. This study illustrates the mechanistic and model-driven application of in vitro uptake and efflux data for human PK prediction for OATP substrates. A particular advantage is the ability to capture the multiphasic plasma concentration-time profiles for such compounds using only preclinical data. A prediction strategy for novel OATP substrates is discussed.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 02/2012; 40(5):1007-17. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH) have been widely used for in vitro assessments of biliary clearance. However, the modulation of metabolism enzymes has not been fully evaluated in this system. The present study was therefore undertaken to determine the activity of cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A and to evaluate the impact of 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) on hepatic uptake and biliary excretion in SCHH. The SCHH maintained integrity and viability as determined by lactate dehydrogenase release and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assays conducted over the culture period. Although all assessed P450 activity decreased in day 2 SCHH, the extent of the decrease and the subsequent rebound in activity varied across the different isoforms. Day 5 CYP1A2 activity was approximately 2.5-fold higher than day 1 activity, whereas the CYP3A and CYP2C9 activities were 90 and 60% of the day 1 levels, respectively. In contrast, the initial CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 activity losses did not rebound over the 5-day culture period. Furthermore, ABT was not found to have an effect, whether directly or indirectly as a P450 inactivator, with respect to the hepatic transport of rosuvastatin, atrovastatin, and midazolam in SCHH. Taken together, these results suggest that the SCHH model is a reliable tool to characterize hepatic uptake and biliary excretion. Due to the differential modulation of P450 activity, SCHH may not be considered a suitable tool for metabolic stability assessments with compounds predominantly cleared by certain P450 enzymes.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 02/2012; 40(2):407-11. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optimising drug properties can be an important strategy to limit penetration into the CNS and offers advantages in reducing the risk of undesirable neurological effects When considering the design of these drugs it is important to consider the relative influx and efflux rates at the relevant biological membranes The highest degree of restriction at the brain is probably achievable by utilising active transport to exclude compounds from the brain Affinity for the efflux transporters Pgp and BCRP has been achieved in two in-house chemistry programmes by increasing polar surface area, which resulted in highly orally bioavailable low CNS penetrant compounds in preclinical species.
    Xenobiotica 01/2012; 42(1):11-27. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glucokinase is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis, and small molecule allosteric activators of this enzyme represent a promising opportunity for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Systemically acting glucokinase activators (liver and pancreas) have been reported to be efficacious but in many cases present hypoglycaemia risk due to activation of the enzyme at low glucose levels in the pancreas, leading to inappropriately excessive insulin secretion. It was therefore postulated that a liver selective activator may offer effective glycemic control with reduced hypoglycemia risk. Herein, we report structure-activity studies on a carboxylic acid containing series of glucokinase activators with preferential activity in hepatocytes versus pancreatic β-cells. These activators were designed to have low passive permeability thereby minimizing distribution into extrahepatic tissues; concurrently, they were also optimized as substrates for active liver uptake via members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family. These studies lead to the identification of 19 as a potent glucokinase activator with a greater than 50-fold liver-to-pancreas ratio of tissue distribution in rodent and non-rodent species. In preclinical diabetic animals, 19 was found to robustly lower fasting and postprandial glucose with no hypoglycemia, leading to its selection as a clinical development candidate for treating type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2011; 55(3):1318-33. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Permeability is an important property of drug candidates. The Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line (MDCK) permeability assay is widely used and the primary concern of using MDCK cells is the presence of endogenous transporters of nonhuman origin. The canine P-glycoprotein (Pgp) can interfere with permeability and transporter studies, leading to less reliable data. A new cell line, MDCKII-LE (low efflux), has been developed by selecting a subpopulation of low-efflux cells from MDCKII-WT using an iterative fluorescence-activated cell sorting technique with calcein-AM as a Pgp and efflux substrate. MDCKII-LE cells are a subpopulation of MDCKII cells with over 200-fold lower canine Pgp mRNA level and fivefold lower protein level than MDCKII-WT. MDCKII-LE cells showed less functional efflux activity than MDCKII-WT based on efflux ratios. Notably, MDCKII-MDR1 showed about 1.5-fold decreased expression of endogenous canine Pgp, suggesting that using the net flux ratio might not completely cancel out the background endogenous transporter activities. MDCKII-LE cells offer clear advantages over the MDCKII-WT by providing less efflux transporter background signals and minimizing interference from canine Pgp. The MDCKII-LE apparent permeability values well differentiates compounds from high to medium/low human intestinal absorption and can be used for Biopharmaceutical Classification System. The MDCKII-LE permeability assay (4-in-1 cassette dosing) is high throughput with good precision, reproducibility, robustness, and cost-effective.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 07/2011; 100(11):4974-85. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • 07/2011: pages 253 - 265; , ISBN: 9781118067598
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    ABSTRACT: The human organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1, SLCO2B1) is ubiquitously expressed and may play an important role in the disposition of xenobiotics. The present study aimed to examine the role of OATP2B1 in the intestinal absorption and tissue uptake of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins). We first investigated the functional affinity of statins to the transporter as a function of extracellular pH, using OATP2B1-transfeced HEK293 cells. The results indicate that OATP2B1-mediated transport is significant for rosuvastatin, fluvastatin and atorvastatin, at neutral pH. However, OATP2B1 showed broader substrate specificity as well as enhanced transporter activity at acidic pH. Furthermore, uptake at acidic pH was diminished in the presence of proton ionophore, suggesting proton gradient as the driving force for OATP2B1 activity. Notably, passive transport rates are predominant or comparable to active transport rates for statins, except for rosuvastatin and fluvastatin. Second, we studied the effect of OATP modulators on statin uptake. At pH 6.0, OATP2B1-mediated transport of atorvastatin and cerivastatin was not inhibitable, while rosuvastatin transport was inhibited by E-3-S, rifamycin SV and cyclosporine with IC(50) values of 19.7 ± 3.3 μM, 0.53 ± 0.2 μM and 2.2 ± 0.4 μM, respectively. Rifamycin SV inhibited OATP2B1-mediated transport of E-3-S and rosuvastatin with similar IC(50) values at pH 6.0 and 7.4, suggesting that the inhibitor affinity is not pH-dependent. Finally, we noted that OATP2B1-mediated transport of E-3-S, but not rosuvastatin, is pH sensitive in intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. However, uptake of E-3-S and rosuvastatin by Caco-2 cells was diminished in the presence of proton ionophore. The present results indicate that OATP2B1 may be involved in the tissue uptake of rosuvastatin and fluvastatin, while OATP2B1 may play a significant role in the intestinal absorption of several statins due to their transporter affinity at acidic pH.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 06/2011; 8(4):1303-13. · 4.57 Impact Factor