[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections constitute an increasing problem to human health in response to build-up of resistance to present antibiotics and sluggish development of new pharmaceuticals. However, a means to address this problem is to pinpoint the drug delivery to-and into-the bacteria. This results in a high local concentration of the drug, circumventing the increasingly high doses otherwise necessary. Combined with other effectors, such as covalent attachment to carriers, rendering the drugs less degradable, and the combination with efflux inhibitors, old drugs can be revived. In this context, glyconanomaterials offer exceptional potential, since these materials can be tailored to accommodate different effectors. In this Concept article, we describe the different advantages of glyconanomaterials, and point to their potential in antibiotic "revitalization".
Chemistry - A European Journal 09/2015; 21(46). DOI:10.1002/chem.201502842 · 5.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An organogelator was produced and identified from a dynamic imine system, resolved and amplified by selective gelation. The formation of the organogel was monitored in situ by (1)H NMR, showing the existence of multiple reversible reactions operating simultaneously, and the redistribution of the involved species during gelation. The formed organogelator proved effective with a range of organic solvents, including DMSO, toluene, and longer, linear alcohols.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Covalently immobilized poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) monolayer films were fabricated by spin coating PVP on perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-functionalized surface followed by UV irradiation. The pH-responsive behavior of these PVP ultrathin films was evaluated by ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). By monitoring the responses of these films to pH in situ, the ionization constant of the monolayer thin films was obtained. The apparent pKa value of these covalently immobilized PVP monolayers, 13.4 by SPR, was 3 units higher than that of the free polymer in aqueous solution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urea structures, of which N,N-diethylurea (DEU) proved to be the most efficient, were discovered to catalyze amidation reactions between electron-deficient aryl azides and phenylacetaldehydes. Experimental data support 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between DEU-activated enols and electrophilic phenyl azides, especially perfluoroaryl azides, followed by rearrangement of the triazoline intermediate. The activation of the aldehyde under near-neutral conditions was of special importance in inhibiting dehydration/aromatization of the triazoline intermediate, thus promoting the rearrangement to form aryl amides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbohydrates constitute the most abundant organic matter in nature, serving as structural components and energy sources, and mediating a wide range of cellular activities. The emergence of nanomaterials with distinct optical, magnetic, and electronic properties has witnessed a rapid adoption of these materials for biomedical research and applications. Nanomaterials of various shapes and sizes having large specific surface areas can be used as multivalent scaffolds to present carbohydrate ligands. The resulting glyconanomaterials effectively amplify the glycan-mediated interactions, making it possible to use these materials for sensing, imaging, diagnosis, and therapy. In this review, we summarize the synthetic strategies for the preparation of various glyconanomaterials. Examples are given where these glyconanomaterials have been used in sensing and differentiation of proteins and cells, as well as in imaging glycan-medicated cellular responses.
Nano Research 10/2014; 7(10):1381-1403. DOI:10.1007/s12274-014-0507-y · 7.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The asymmetric synthesis of 1,3-oxathiolan-5-one derivatives through an enzyme-catalyzed, dynamic covalent kinetic resolution strategy is presented. Dynamic hemithioacetal formation combined with intramolecular, lipase-catalyzed lactonization resulted in good conversions with moderate to good enantiomeric excess (ee) for the final products. The process was evaluated for different lipase preparations, solvents, bases, and reaction temperatures, where lipase B from Candida antarctica (CAL-B) proved most efficient. The substrate scope was furthermore explored for a range of aldehyde structures, together with the potential access to nucleoside analog inhibitor core structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A carbohydrate-anion recognition system in nonpolar solvents is reported, in which complexes form at the B-faces of β-D-pyranosides with H1-, H3-, and H5-cis patterns similar to carbohydrate-π interactions. The complexation effect was evaluated for a range of carbohydrate structures; it resulted in either 1:1 carbohydrate-anion complexes, or 1:2 complex formation depending on the protection pattern of the carbohydrate. The interaction was also evaluated with different anions and solvents. In both cases it resulted in significant binding differences. The results indicate that complexation originates from van der Waals interactions or weak CH⋅⋅⋅A(-) hydrogen bonds between the binding partners and is related to electron-withdrawing groups of the carbohydrates as well as increased hydrogen-bond-accepting capability of the anions.
Chemistry - An Asian Journal 05/2014; 9(5). DOI:10.1002/asia.201301617 · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A domino addition-lactonization pathway has been applied to a dynamic covalent resolution protocol, leading to efficient oxathiazinanone formation as well as chiral discrimination. A new, double biocatalytic pathway has furthermore been proposed and evaluated where the initial product inhibition could be efficiently circumvented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A complex dynamic system based on a network of multiple reversible reactions has been established. The network was applied to a dynamic systemic resolution protocol based on kinetically controlled lipase-catalyzed transformations. This resulted in the formation of cyclized products, where two thiazolidinone compounds were efficiently produced from a range of potential transformations.
Chemistry - A European Journal 03/2014; 20(12). DOI:10.1002/chem.201304690 · 5.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A dynamic azomethine ylide system was established using Sc(OTf)3 and Ag/Taniaphos as catalysts. The system was subsequently kinetically resolved in a tandem 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition process where the silver complex acted as both a reaction catalyst and an external selector, resulting in the formation of an exclusive pyrrolidine product in good yield and enantiopurity.
Chemical Communications 02/2014; 50(29). DOI:10.1039/c4cc00944d · 6.83 Impact Factor