Richard M Schwartz

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Maryland, United States

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Publications (3)12.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: [This corrects the article on p. e33969 in vol. 7.].
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5). · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Step trial raised the possibility that uncircumcised men with pre-existing Ad5 neutralizing antibodies carried an increased risk of HIV infection after vaccination. Thus, understanding Ad seropositivity in humans is important to the development of an AIDS vaccine. Here, we analyze the impact of different Ad5-specific neutralizing antibodies on immune function and clinical outcome. Ad seropositivity in the Step trial volunteers was analyzed using chimeric rAd5/35 vectors to characterize their specificity for Ad5 fiber and non-fiber external (capsid) proteins. Immune responses and HIV seropositivity were correlated with the specificity of Ad5-neutralizing antibodies. Neutralizing antibodies induced by the vaccine in Ad5 seronegative subjects were directed preferentially to Ad5 capsid proteins, although some fiber-neutralizing antibodies could be detected. Pre-vaccination Ad5 serostatus did not affect the capsid-directed response after three vaccinations. In contrast, anti-fiber antibody titers were significantly higher in volunteers who were Ad5 seropositive prior to vaccination. Those Ad5 seropositive subjects who generated anti-capsid responses showed a marked reduction in vaccine-induced CD8 responses. Unexpectedly, anti-vector immunity differed qualitatively in Ad5 seropositive participants who became HIV-1 infected compared to uninfected case controls; Ad5 seropositive participants who later acquired HIV had lower neutralizing antibodies to capsid. Moreover, Ad35 seropositivity was decreased in HIV-infected subjects compared with uninfected case controls, while seroprevalence for other serotypes including Ad14, Ad28 and Ad41 was similar in both groups. Together, these findings suggest that the case subjects were less immunologically responsive prior to infection. Subjects infected during the Step trial had qualitative differences in immunity that increased their risk of HIV-1 infection independent of vaccination.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e33969. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective vaccines for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will likely need to stimulate protective immunity in the intestinal mucosa, where HIV-1 infection causes severe CD4(+) T-cell depletion. While replication-competent recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vectors can stimulate adenovirus-specific mucosal immunity after replication, oral delivery of replication-defective rAd vectors encoding specific immunogens has proven challenging. In this study, we have systematically identified barriers to effective gut delivery of rAd vectors and identified sites and strategies to induce potent cellular and humoral immunity. Vector-mediated gene transfer by rAd5 was susceptible to low-pH buffer, gastric and pancreatic proteases, and extracellular mucins. Using ex vivo organ explants, we found that transduction with rAd5 was highest in the ileum and colon among all intestinal segments. Transgene expression was 100-fold higher after direct surgical introduction into the ileum than after oral gavage, with rAd5 showing greater potency than the rAd35 or the rAd41 vector. A single immunization of rAd5 encoding HIV-1 gp140B to the ileum stimulated potent CD8(+) T-cell responses in the intestinal and systemic compartments, and these responses were further enhanced by intramuscular rAd5 boosting. These studies suggest that induction of primary immune responses by rAd5 gut immunization and subsequent systemic boosting elicits potent antigen-specific gut mucosal responses.
    Journal of Virology 06/2009; 83(14):7166-75. · 5.08 Impact Factor