Carl C Schimanski

Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany

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Publications (62)174.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Significant prolongation of overall survival (OS) has been reached in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treatment within the last 5-10 years. Our study was conducted in order to evaluate and compare OS of different standard of care treatment options in a university-based outpatient clinic.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 09/2014; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important inhibitory mediator of esophageal function and its lack leads to typical features of achalasia. In contrast, the role of intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function is still controversial. Therefore, we examined the function and morphology of the LES in vivo in NO-deficient (nNOS(-/-) ), ICC-IM deficient (W/W(v) ) -, and wild-type (WT) mice. Esophageal manometry was performed with a micro-sized transducer catheter to quantify LES pressure, swallow evoked LES relaxation, and esophageal body motility. The LES morphology was examined by semiquantitative analysis of the immunoreactivity (reduction grade I-IV) of neuronal NOS (nNOS), ICC-IM, and VIP and their correlation with esophageal function. nNOS(-/-) in comparison to WT mice showed a significantly higher LES mean resting pressure with an impaired swallow induced relaxation, whereas W/W(v) mice had a hypotensive LES with decreased relaxation. W/W(v) and nNOS(-/-) mice demonstrated differing degrees of tubular esophageal dysfunction. The reduced immunoreactivity of nNOS correlated with an increased LES pressure and decreased LES relaxation, respectively. Cajal-cell reduction correlated with impaired LES relaxation, whereas VIP reduction revealed no correlation with esophageal function. The reduction of ICC-IM and nNOS can cause dysfunction of the LES and esophageal peristalsis, whereas VIP reduction seems to have no effect. ICC-IM- and nNOS- deficiency might be independent relevant causes of esophageal dysfunction similar to that seen in human achalasia.
    Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 04/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate correlations between dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and clinicopathologic data as well as immunostaining of the markers of angiogenesis epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and CXC-motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in patients with rectal cancer. Presurgical DCE-MRI was performed in 41 patients according to a standardized protocol. Two quantitative parameters (k21 , A) were derived from a pharmacokinetic two-compartment model, and one semiquantitative parameter (TTP) was assessed. Standardized surgery and histopathologic examinations were performed in all patients. Immunostaining for EGFR and CXCR4 was performed and evaluated with a standardized scoring system. DCE-MRI parameter A correlated significantly with the N category (P = 0.048) and k21 with the occurrence of synchronous and metachronous distant metastases (P = 0.029). A trend was shown toward a correlation between k21 and EGFR expression (P = 0.107). A significant correlation was found between DCE-MRI parameter TTP and the expression of EGFR (P = 0.044). DCE-MRI data did not correlate with CXCR4 expression. DCE-MRI is a noninvasive method which can characterize microcirculation in rectal cancer and correlates with EGFR expression. Given the relationship between the dynamic parameters and the clinicopathologic data, DCE-MRI data may constitute a prognostic indicator for lymph node and distant metastases in patients with rectal cancer.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 10/2013; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Combined inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta signalling and vascular endothelial growth factor promotes vascular normalisation in preclinical models and may lead to increased delivery of chemotherapy to tumour tissue. This phase I/II trial assessed the safety and efficacy of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) plus bevacizumab and imatinib in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Methods:Two dose levels (I/II) were defined: capecitabine 850/1000 mg m(-2) twice daily on days 1-14; oxaliplatin 100/130 mg m(-2) on day 1; bevacizumab 7.5 mg kg(-1) on day 1; imatinib 300 mg day(-1) on days 1-21 every 21 days. The primary study endpoint was safety. The phase II secondary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS).Results:Dose level I was chosen for phase II testing because, even though further dose escalation was permitted by the protocol, gastrointestinal toxicities were considered to be clinically significant. A total of 49 patients were evaluated. The 6-month PFS rate was 76%, median PFS was 10.6 months and median overall survival was 23.2 months. Haematological toxicities were generally mild. Sensory neuropathy and diarrhoea were the most common grade 3 toxicities.Conclusion:The combination of XELOX with bevacizumab and imatinib is tolerable and has promising efficacy.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 20 August 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.409 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment with cetuximab is accompanied by the development of an acneiform follicular skin exanthema in more than 80 % of patients. Severe exanthema (grade III/IV) develops in about 9-19 % of patients with the necessity of cetuximab dose reduction or cessation. The study presented was a retrospective analysis of 50 gastrointestinal cancer patients treated with cetuximab in combination with either FOLFIRI or FOLFOX. One cohort of 15 patients received an in-house reactive skin protocol upon development of an exanthema. A second cohort of 15 patients received a skin prophylaxis starting with the first dose of cetuximab before clinical signs of toxicity. A third historic group of 20 patients had received no skin prophylaxis or reactive treatment. 19/20 patients of the historic group developed a skin exanthema. Grade III/IV exanthema was observed six times. Forty percent discontinued cetuximab therapy. The average time to exanthema onset was 14.7 days. Applying the reactive skin protocol after the first occurrence of an exanthema, the exanthema was downgraded as follows: No patients developed grade IV° exanthema, and two patients developed a grade II/III exanthema. In the majority of cases, the reactive skin protocol controlled the exanthema (grade 0-I°). No dose reductions in cetuximab were necessary. Applying the prophylactic skin protocol starting at the beginning of cetuximab application was not superior to the reactive skin protocol. Cetuximab-induced skin exanthema can be coped with a reactive protocol equally effective as compared to a prophylactic skin treatment. A prospective study with higher patient numbers is planned.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 08/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This phase I/II-trial assessed the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) with docetaxel and oxaliplatin in patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the oesophagogastric junction. METHODS: Patients received neoadjuvant radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) together with weekly docetaxel (20 mg/m2 at dose level (DL) 1 and 2, 25 mg/m2 at DL 3) and oxaliplatin (40 mg/m2 at DL 1, 50 mg/m2 at DL 2 and 3) over 5 weeks. The primary endpoint was the DLT and the MTD of the RCT regimen. Secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: A total of 24 patients were included. Four patients were treated at DL 1, 13 patients at DL 2 and 7 patients at DL 3. The MTD of the RCT was considered DL 2 with docetaxel 20 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 50 mg/m2. Objective response (CR/PR) was observed in 32% (7/22) of patients. Eighteen patients (75%) underwent surgery after RCT. The median PFS for all patients (n = 24) was 6.5 months. The median overall survival for all patients (n = 24) was 16.3 months. Patients treated at DL 2 had a median overall survival of 29.5 months. CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant RCT with docetaxel 20 mg/m2 and oxaliplatin 50 mg/m2 was effective and showed a good toxicity profile. Future studies should consider the addition of targeted therapies to current neoadjuvant therapy regimens to further improve the outcome of patients with advanced cancer of the oesophagogastric junction.Registered trial at clinical trials.gov: NCT00374985.
    BMC Cancer 02/2013; 13(1):75. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We initiated this preclinical study in order to analyze the impact of sorafenib single treatment versus combination treatment in human colorectal cancer. METHODS: The effect of increasing sorafenib doses on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and activation of signal cascades was analyzed in vitro. The effect of sorafenib single treatment versus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) single treatment and combination therapy on in vivo proliferation and target cytokine receptor/ligand expression was analyzed in a human colon cancer xenograft mouse model using HT29 tumor cells. RESULTS: In vitro, SW480 and HT29 cell lines were sensitive to sorafenib, as compared to Caco2 and SW620 cell lines, independent of the mutation status of K-ras, Raf, PTEN, or PI3K. The effect on migration was marginal, but distinct differences in caspases activation were seen. Combination strategies were beneficial in some settings (sorafenib + 5-FU; irinotecan) and disadvantageous in others (sorafenib + oxaliplatin), depending on the chemotherapeutic drug and cell line chosen. Sensitive cell lines revealed a downregulation of AKT and had a weak expression level of GADD45β. In resistant cell lines, pp53 and GADD45β levels decreased upon sorafenib exposure. In vivo, the combination treatment of sorafenib and 5-FU was equally effective as the respective monotherapy concerning tumor proliferation. Interestingly, treatment with either sorafenib or 5-FU resulted in a significant decrease of VEGFR1 and PDGFRβ expression intensity. CONCLUSIONS: In colorectal cancer, a sensitivity towards sorafenib exists, which seems similarly effective as a 5-FU monotherapy. A combination therapy, in contrast, does not show any additional effect.
    International Journal of Colorectal Disease 09/2012; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Verschiedene Evidenrichtungen weisen auf genetische Faktoren hin, die bei der Ätiopathogenese der Achalasie involviert sind. Allerdings wurden bislang noch keine Gene identifiziert, die zum Risiko der Entwicklung einer idiopathischen Achalasie beitragen. Methodik: Wir präsentieren eine genomweite Assoziationsstudie (GWAS), die ein Fall-Kontroll-Kollektiv (>600 Patienten mit Achalasie, >2000 Kontrollen) beinhaltet. Alle Teilnehmer sind zentral-europäischer Herkunft und die Genotypisierung wurde mithilfe von Illumina ImmunoChips (>100000 SNP (=Single Nucleotid Polypeptides)-Marker) durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: 24 SNP-Marker waren mit der Achalasie assoziiert und überschritten die Schwelle für genomweite Signifikanz (P<5×10-08). Unter Anwendung einer schrittweisen Regressionsanalyse, die alle 24 assoziierten Marker beinhaltete, identifizierten wir 8 unabhängige genetische Loci, die zum Risiko einer idiopathischen Achalasie beitragen. Zudem konnten geschlechts-spezifische Analysen nachweisen, dass einer unserer besten assoziierten Befunde (P=7,53×10-15) ein stärkeres Signal bei Frauen (P=2,83×10-15) als bei Männern (P=1,94×10-3) hervorbrachte. Diskussion: Unsere genetischen Untersuchungen bestätigen, dass Autoimmunprozesse bei der Krankheitsentwicklung der idiopathischen Achalasie eine entscheidende Rolle spielen. Zusätzlich rechtfertigen unsere Daten die Erwartungen, dass genomweite Assoziationsstudien mit mehr gleichverteilten SNP-Markern zu einer weiteren Identifikation von Risikogenen der Achalasie führen werden. I Gockel, W Kneist, H Lang: Klinik für Allgemein- und Abdominalchirurgie, Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz J Becker: Institut für Humangenetik der Universtität Bonn MM Wouters, GE Boeckxstaens: University of Leuven, Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), Leuven, Belgium M Müller: Deutsche Klinik für Diagnostik, Fachbereich Gastroenteorlogie, Wiesbaden R Kiesslich, CC Schimanski: I. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz MM Nöthen, J Schumacher: Universitätsklinik Bonn, Institut für Humangenetik, Bonn M Knapp: Universitätsklinik Bonn, Institut für Medizinische Biometrie, Informatik und Epidemiologie, Bonn V77: Abstract Kongressbeitrag der 66. Jahrestagung der DGVS / 6. Herbsttagung der DGAV, 19.-22. September 2013, Hamburg
    Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 08/2012; 50(8):819. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anastomotic leakage after esophageal surgery is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Postoperative leakage of esophagogastric anastomosis has been reported in 2-30% of surgical patient, resulting in an increased need for reoperation and a high risk of subsequent esophageal stricture formation and fistula. So far, experimental investigations on major factors influencing the healing of esophageal anastomoses, e.g. neovascularization and collagen deposition, have been hindered by the lack of a functional rodent model. We developed a novel technique of gastric tube formation followed by end-to-end esophagogastric anastomosis in a rat model. Standardized anastomoses were carried out in 18 Brown-Norway rats and normal esophagogastric healing was studied by measuring anastomotic breaking strength 5 days after surgery. Five animals showed an insufficiency of the esophagogastric anastomosis as determined by anastomotic leakage testing. Normal anastomotic healing was found in 10 animals. The anastomotic breaking strength was 1.93 ± 0.45 N. The rat model for performing esophagogastric anastomoses after gastric tube formation may serve as a functional and useful model in future research studies on microvascular and molecular processes of anastomotic healing.
    European Surgical Research 06/2012; 48(4):194-9. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of anticancer drugs in palliative settings is often limited by their severe toxic effects. In gastrointestinal carcinomas the 5-fluorouracil-based palliative regimen FOLFOX-4 is often preferred to the equally effective, but more convenient oral capecitabine-based regimen XELOX. This preference is mainly based on the fact that the highly effective oral agent capecitabine induces hand-foot syndrome (HFS). In this study, we investigated whether the continuous administration of skin prophylaxis (10% urea, panthenol, bisabolol, vitamin A, C and E) is capable of protecting against capecitabine-induced HFS and allowing a more convenient oral therapeutic option. In this retrospective analysis, the toxicity profiles, according to NCI CTCAE 3.0 criteria, of 54 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who received either XELOX (34 patients) or FOLFOX-4 (20 patients) were compared using Fisher tests. The treatment protocols that were compared, herein, did not differ significantly in the majority of the analyzed items, with the exception of increased nausea (XELOX-70), fatigue (XELOX-130) and tumor pain (XELOX-70 and XELOX-130). No significant differences were observed among the various groups with regard to emesis, diarrhea, mucositis, exanthema, alopecia, loss of weight and the incidence of infections. In particular, no significant differences in toxicity levels occurred in terms of dose, and HFS was limited if skin prophylaxis was performed continuously. XELOX-based palliative regimens provide an equally effective and comparably toxic therapeutic alternative to FOLFOX-4 if HFS prophylaxis is performed continuously. Since the oral administration of capecitabine is a more convenient method of application, it provides patients with a quality of life-preserving therapeutic alternative.
    Oncology letters 06/2012; 3(6):1191-1194. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New targeted agents like antibodies or small molecules against tyrosine and lipid kinases clearly expand the standard therapy options in oncology. However, tumour resistance is still a challenge, often induced by mutations in growth-related signalling cascades. Twenty and ten percentage of all patients with colorectal and gastric cancers, respectively, carry phosphatidyl-3-kinase (PI3K) mutations and do not respond to receptor-blocking therapies. Recently, selective kinase inhibitors have been generated, which block the PI3K signalling pathway in tumour cells. So far, their therapeutic role for the treatment of mutated versus wild-type human gastrointestinal cancers has not been clarified in detail. To define the inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of the two PI3K inhibitors BEZ235 and BKM120 in three human colon cancer (HT-29, HCT-116 and DLD-1) and three gastric cancer (NCI-n87, AGS and MKN-45), cell lines with different PIK3CA gene mutation status were used. Firstly, viability, apoptosis and caspase assays were performed during incubation with either the inhibitors alone or combined with different cytotoxic agents. Secondly, the molecular consequences for the cell cycle and signalling pathways were analysed by defining the protein levels by FACS and Western blot analysis. Both the PI3K inhibitors BEZ235 and BKM120 induced a clear concentration-dependent reduction in cell viability and an increase in apoptotic cell death, with the mutated cells being more sensitive to treatment. However, single-agent BEZ235 caused a G1 arrest in tumour cells, whilst BKM120 induced a G2 shift in a half of the gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. There was a clear downregulation in the protein levels of the PI3K-AKT pathway at the concentrations of 100 nM for both agents and for BEZ235 the additional inhibition of the mTOR pathway. Furthermore, BEZ235 caused synergistic induction of apoptosis when combined with irinotecan in colon cancer cell lines. Human gastric cancer cells were less sensitive to both BEZ235 and BKM120. BEZ235 and BKM120 induced pro-apoptotic effects in all cell lines and especially with an increased response in the PI3KCA mutated cells. Our data support the clinical development of these PI3K inhibitors for patients with wild-type or mutated colon cancers.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 04/2012; 69(6):1601-15. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 15-20% of all patients initially diagnosed with colorectal cancer develop metastatic disease and surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment available. Current 5-year survival following R0-resection of liver metastases is 28-39%, but recurrence eventually occurs in up to 70%. To date, adjuvant chemotherapy has not improved clinical outcomes significantly. The primary objective of the ongoing LICC trial (L-BLP25 In Colorectal Cancer) is to determine whether L-BLP25, an active cancer immunotherapy, extends recurrence-free survival (RFS) time over placebo in colorectal cancer patients following R0/R1 resection of hepatic metastases. L-BLP25 targets MUC1 glycoprotein, which is highly expressed in hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. In a phase IIB trial, L-BLP25 has shown acceptable tolerability and a trend towards longer survival in patients with stage IIIB locoregional NSCLC. This is a multinational, phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a sample size of 159 patients from 20 centers in 3 countries. Patients with stage IV colorectal adenocarcinoma limited to liver metastases are included. Following curative-intent complete resection of the primary tumor and of all synchronous/metachronous metastases, eligible patients are randomized 2:1 to receive either L-BLP25 or placebo. Those allocated to L-BLP25 receive a single dose of 300 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide (CP) 3 days before first L-BLP25 dose, then primary treatment with s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg once weekly for 8 weeks, followed by s.c. L-BLP25 930 μg maintenance doses at 6-week (years 1&2) and 12-week (year 3) intervals unless recurrence occurs. In the control arm, CP is replaced by saline solution and L-BLP25 by placebo. Primary endpoint is the comparison of recurrence-free survival (RFS) time between groups. Secondary endpoints are overall survival (OS) time, safety, tolerability, RFS/OS in MUC-1 positive cancers. Exploratory immune response analyses are planned. The primary endpoint will be assessed in Q3 2016. Follow-up will end Q3 2017. Interim analyses are not planned. The design and implementation of such a vaccination study in colorectal cancer is feasible. The study will provide recurrence-free and overall survival rates of groups in an unbiased fashion. EudraCT Number 2011-000218-20.
    BMC Cancer 04/2012; 12:144. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 35-year-old Kenian lady with advanced immunodeficiency due to HIV infection started on an antiretroviral therapy. Five months later, a severe colitis was diagnosed, however, no causal pathogen could be found. In order to avoid imminent perforation, a hemicolectomy became necessary, and immediately the symptoms and inflammation markers normalized rapidly. M. tuberculosis could be proven in culture in a draining abdominal lymph node. We assume that the severe inflammation was caused by an immune restoration inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Essentials in diagnosis, pathogenesis and therapy of IRIS are discussed.
    Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 04/2012; 50(4):382-5. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to compare survival of the various treatment modality groups of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in relation to SEMS (self-expanding metal stents) in a retrospective case-control study. We have made the hypothesis that the administration of combined chemoradiotherapy improves survival in inoperable esophageal cancer patients. All patients were confirmed histologically as having surgically non- resectable esophageal carcinoma. Included were patients with squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma as well as Siewert type I--but not type II - esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma. The decision to proceed with palliative treatments was taken within the context of a multidisciplinary team meeting and full expert review based on patient's wish, co-morbid disease, clinical metastases, distant metastases, M1 nodal metastases, T4-tumor airway, aorta, main stem bronchi, cardiac invasion, and peritoneal disease. Patients not fit enough to tolerate a radical course of definitive chemo- and/or radiation therapy were referred for self-expanding metal stent insertion. Our approach to deal with potential confounders was to match subjects according to their clinical characteristics (contraindications for surgery) and tumor stage according to diagnostic work-up in four groups: SEMS group (A), Chemotherapy group (B), Radiotherapy group (C), and Chemoradiotherapy group (D). Esophagectomy was contraindicated in 155 (35.5%) out of 437 patients presenting with esophageal cancer to the Department of General and Abdominal Surgery of the University Hospital of Mainz, Germany, between November 1997 and November 2007. There were 133 males and 22 females with a median age of 64.3 (43-88) years. Out of 155 patients, 123 were assigned to four groups: SEMS group (A) n = 26, Chemotherapy group (B) n = 12, Radiotherapy group (C) n = 23 and Chemoradiotherapy group (D) n = 62. Mean patient survival for the 4 groups was as follows: Group A: 6.92 ± 8.4 months; Group B: 7.75 ± 6.6 months; Group C: 8.56 ± 9.5 months, and Group D: 13.53 ± 14.7 months. Significant differences in overall survival were associated with tumor histology (P = 0.027), tumor localization (P = 0.019), and type of therapy (P = 0.005), respectively, in univariate analysis. Treatment modality (P = 0.043) was the only independent predictor of survival in multivariate analysis. The difference in overall survival between Group A and Group D was highly significant (P < 0.01) and in favor of Group D. As concerns Group D versus Group B and Group D versus Group C there was a trend towards a difference in overall survival in favor of Group D (P = 0.069 and P = 0.059, respectively). The prognosis of inoperable esophageal cancer seems to be highly dependent on the suitability of the induction of patient-specific therapeutic measures and is significantly better, when chemoradiotherapy is applied.
    BMC Cancer 02/2012; 12:70. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinoma is increasing in incidence but the molecular mechanisms regulating its growth remain elusive. Coexpression of the monocytic growth factor colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 and its receptor CSF-1R on renal tubular epithelial cells (TEC) will promote proliferation and antiapoptosis during regeneration of renal tubules. Here, we show that a CSF-1-dependent autocrine pathway is also responsible for the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). CSF-1 and CSF-1R were coexpressed in RCCs and TECs proximally adjacent to RCCs. CSF-1 engagement of CSF-1R promoted RCC survival and proliferation and reduced apoptosis, in support of the likelihood that CSF-1R effector signals mediate RCC growth. In vivo CSF-1R blockade using a CSF-1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor decreased RCC proliferation and macrophage infiltration in a manner associated with a dramatic reduction in tumor mass. Further mechanistic investigations linked CSF-1 and epidermal growth factor signaling in RCCs. Taken together, our results suggest that budding RCC stimulates the proximal adjacent microenvironment in the kidney to release mediators of CSF-1, CSF-1R, and epidermal growth factor expression in RCCs. Furthermore, our findings imply that targeting CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling may be therapeutically effective in RCCs.
    Cancer Research 11/2011; 72(1):187-200. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The etiology of primary esophageal achalasia is largely unknown. There is increasing evidence that genetic alterations might play an important but underestimated role. Current knowledge of the genetic base of Hirschsprung's disease in contrast is far more detailed. The two enteric neuropathies have several clinical features in common. This association may also exist on a cellular and molecular level. The aim of this review is to enlighten those etiopathogenetic concepts of Hirschsprung's disease that seem to be useful in uncovering the pathological processes causing achalasia. Three aspects are looked at: (i) the genetic base of Hirschsprung's disease, particularly its major susceptibility gene rearranged during transfection and its potential reference to achalasia; (ii) the altered motor functions in both conditions with loss of inhibitory innervation and interstitial cell pathology; and (iii) the involvement of these motility disorders in genetic syndromes.
    Diseases of the Esophagus 11/2011; 25(6):566-72. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For several tumor entities, a significant correlation between the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1) and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), metastasis and tumor proliferation, as well as prognosis, has been described. In this study, a series of 105 renal cell carcinoma patients were analyzed in terms of expression of SDF1α and SDF1β and infiltration by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and the data correlated with TNM category, grading and survival. While the splice variant SDF1α had no impact on tumor grading, T-cell invasion or overall survival, expression of SDF1β showed a significant correlation with tumor grading and also suggested a correlation with metastasis, as well as CD8+ T-cell invasion. These results indicate a potential T-cell-mediated antitumor response induced by SDF1β up-regulation. Therefore targeting the SDF1β-CXCR4 signaling pathway may be a promising means for new therapeutic strategies in advanced tumor stages.
    Anticancer research 09/2011; 31(9):2797-803. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed this study in order to evaluate the impact of the chemokine CXCL12 and its single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801157 on clinicopathological parameters and survival in patients undergoing surgery for esophagogastric cancer. The expression pattern of CXCL12 and its polymorphisms were analyzed by RT-PCR and PCR-RFLP in 69 consecutive fresh-frozen samples of human esophagogastric junction and gastric adenocarcinomas and statistically analyzed. Expression of the CXCL12 (SNP rs1801157) polymorphisms GA/AA significantly correlated with distant metastasis (P=0.026), but not with prognosis. However, CXCL12 expression was not significantly associated with the tumor infiltration depth, lymphatic metastasis and grading. As CXCL12 polymorphisms mediate tumor cell dissemination in esophagogastric cancer, they could represent a marker indicating advanced disease. Antagonists targeting the CXCL12/ CXCR4 axis may be a novel therapeutic option in this entity.
    International Journal of Oncology 08/2011; 39(2):515-20. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic local procedures are increasingly applied in patients with superficial esophageal cancer as an alternative to radical oncologic resection. The objective of this article is to determine the risk of nodal metastases in submucosal (sm) esophageal cancer, comparing the two predominating histologic tumor types, squamous cell cancer (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC). A query of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library (1980-2009) using predetermined search terms revealed 675 abstracts, of which 485 full-text articles were reviewed. A total of 105 articles met the selection criteria. A review of article references and consultation with experts revealed additional articles for inclusion. Studies that enrolled patients with submucosal esophageal cancer and provided adequate extractable data were included. The pooled outcomes of 7645 patients with esophageal cancer involving the sm level of infiltration were included in the analysis. Overall, the percentage of lymph node metastasis in submucosal cancer was 37%. Lymph node (N), lymphatic (L) and vascular (V) invasion in sm1 esophageal cancers was 27, 46 and 22%, respectively. Within sm2 lesions, N, L and V invasion were involved in 38, 63 and 38% of patients, respectively. Finally, N, L and V involvement in patients with sm3 lesions was 54, 69 and 47%, respectively. The rates of lymph node metastasis for sm1 and sm2 were higher in SCC compared with ADC, whereas the lymph node metastasis for sm3 was comparable, with >50% involvement in both histologic subtypes. SCC revealed an overall more aggressive behavior compared with ADC (N+: 45 vs 26%; L+: 57 vs 37%; V+: 40 vs 18%). While endoscopic therapy may be adequate in selected patients with 'low-risk' sm1 ADC, submucosal SCC necessitates esophageal resection and systematic lymphadenectomy because of its aggressive nature and tendency for early metastasis.
    Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology 06/2011; 5(3):371-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular metastases are precursors of postoperative recurrence, detected by molecular-biological tools. Chemokines and their receptors contribute to dissemination and local immune recognition. A strong expression of the chemokine receptor CCR5 is associated with non-metastatic colorectal cancer and increased CD8+ T-cell infiltration. The aim of this study was to analyze whether CCR5 expression correlates with the presence of hepatic molecular metastases (MM). Ninety-three patients undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer were assessed. The K-ras mutation status was defined by PCR-RFLP, and the CCR5 expression status was analyzed by CCR5-specific reverse transcription (RT-PCR) analysis. Liver biopsy samples had been intra-operatively taken to screen for MM. MM were detected by K-ras-specific PCR-RFLP and nested CK20/GCC RT-PCR. Prevalence of MM was correlated with CCR5 expression status. Human colorectal cancer harboured K-ras mutations in 53% (codon 12: 47%; codon 13: 6%) of cases. Among K-ras mutants, MM were detected in 27-53% of patients, dependent on the technique applied (K-ras-specific PCR-RFLP assay vs. nested CK20/GCC RT-PCR approach (P = 0.004)). CCR5 expression of K-ras mutants ranged from absent (23/49: 47%), weak (17/49: 35%), intermediate (4/49: 8%) to strong (5/49: 10%). MM were found in 30% of CCR5 negative and in 23% of CCR5 positive cancer patients by the K-ras-specific PCR-RFLP assay. The nested CK20/GCC RT-PCR assay detected MM in 87% of CCR5 negative and in 27% of CCR5 positive colorectal cancer patients (P = 0.00002). Thus, CCR5 expression of the primary cancer might be a valuable biomarker indicating the absence of hepatic molecular metastases.
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 04/2011; 137(7):1139-45. · 2.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

719 Citations
174.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      • I. Department of Medicine
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 2011
    • Patients First Medical Clinic LLC: Health Clinic Anchorage
      Anchorage, Alaska, United States
  • 2010
    • Universitätsmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 1999–2001
    • German Cancer Research Center
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany