[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17) producing Th17 cells are significantly elevated in blood and bone marrow (BM) in multiple myeloma (MM) and IL-17A promotes MM cell growth via the expression of IL-17 receptor. In this study, we evaluated anti-human IL-17A human monoclonal antibody (mAb), AIN457 in MM. We observe significant inhibition of MM cell growth by AIN457 both in the presence and absence of BM stromal cells (BMSC). While IL-17A induces IL-6 production, AIN457 significantly down-regulated IL-6 production and MM cell-adhesion in MM-BMSC co-culture. AIN-457 also significantly inhibited osteoclast cell-differentiation. More importantly, in the SCIDhu model of human myeloma administration of AIN-457 weekly for 4 weeks after the first detection of tumor in mice led to a significant inhibition of tumor growth and reduced bone damage compared to isotype control mice. To understand the mechanism of action of anti-IL-17A mAb, we report here, that MM cells express IL-17A. We also observed that IL-17A knock-down inhibited MM cell growth and their ability to induce IL-6 production in co-cultures with BMSC. These pre-clinical observations suggest efficacy of AIN 457 in myeloma and provide the rationale for its clinical evaluation for anti-myeloma effects and for improvement of bone disease.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 21 August 2015. doi:10.1038/leu.2015.228.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/leu.2015.228 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination (HR), a mechanism to accurately repair DNA in normal cells, is deregulated in cancer. Elevated/deregulated HR is implicated in genomic instability and telomere maintenance, which are critical lifelines of cancer cells. We have previously shown that HR activity is elevated and significantly contributes to genomic instability in Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BAC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate therapeutic potential of HR inhibition, alone and in combination with telomerase inhibition, in BAC. We demonstrate that telomerase inhibition in BAC cells increases HR activity, RAD51 expression, and association of RAD51 to telomeres. Suppression of HR leads to shorter telomeres as well as markedly reduced genomic instability in BAC cells over time. Combination of HR suppression (whether transgenic or chemical) with telomerase inhibition, causes a significant increase in telomere attrition and apoptotic death in all BAC cell lines tested, relative to either treatment alone. A subset of treated cells also stain positive for β-galactosidase, indicating senescence. The combined treatment is also associated with decline in S-phase and a strong G2/M arrest, indicating massive telomere attrition. In a subcutaneous tumor model, the combined treatment resulted in the smallest tumors, which were even smaller (P=0.001) than those that resulted from either treatment alone. Even the tumors removed from these mice had significantly reduced telomeres and evidence of apoptosis. We therefore conclude that although telomeres are elongated by telomerase, elevated RAD51/HR assist in their maintenance/stabilization in BAC cells. Telomerase inhibitor prevents telomere elongation but induces RAD51/HR, which contributes to telomere maintenance/stabilization and prevention of apoptosis, reducing the efficacy of treatment. Combining HR inhibition with telomerase renders telomeres more vulnerable to degradation and significantly increases/expedites their attrition, leading to apoptosis. We therefore demonstrate that a therapy targeting HR and telomerase has the potential to prevent both tumor growth and genomic evolution in BAC.Oncogene advance online publication, 22 April 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.103.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT) signaling in cancer is implicated in various survival pathways including regulation of recombinase (RAD51). In this study, we evaluated PI3K and RAD51 as targets in Barrett's adenocarcinoma (BAC) cells both in vitro and in vivo. BAC cell lines (OE19, OE33, and FLO-1) were cultured in the presence of PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) and the impact on growth and expression of AKT, phosphorylated-AKT (P-AKT), and RAD51 was determined. Wortmannin induced growth arrest and apoptosis in two BAC cell lines (OE33 and OE19), which had relatively higher expression of AKT. FLO-1 cells, with lower AKT expression, were less sensitive to treatment and investigated further. In FLO-1 cells, wortmannin suppressed ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR)-checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1)-mediated checkpoint and multiple DNA repair genes, whereas RAD51 and CHK2 were not affected. Western blotting confirmed that RAD51 was suppressed by wortmannin in OE33 and OE19 cells, but not in FLO-1 cells. Suppression of RAD51 in FLO-1 cells down-regulated the expression of CHK2 and CHK1, and reduced the proliferative potential. Finally, the suppression of RAD51 in FLO-1 cells, significantly increased the anticancer activity of wortmannin in these cells, both in vitro and in vivo. We show that PI3K signaling and hsRAD51, through distinct roles in DNA damage response and repair pathways, provide survival advantage to BAC cells. In cells with inherent low expression of AKT, RAD51 is unaffected by PI3K suppression and provides an additional survival pathway. Simultaneous suppression of PI3K and RAD51, especially in cells with lower AKT expression, can significantly reduce their proliferative potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) controls number of cellular processes by regulating the expression of critical cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis-related genes containing proximal GC/GT-rich promoter elements. We here provide experimental and clinical evidence that Sp1 plays an important regulatory role in multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth and survival.
We have investigated the functional Sp1 activity in MM cells using a plasmid with Firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by Sp1-responsive promoter. We have also used both siRNA- and short hairpin RNA-mediated Sp1 knockdown to investigate the growth and survival effects of Sp1 on MM cells and further investigated the anti-MM activity of terameprocol (TMP), a small molecule that specifically competes with Sp1-DNA binding in vitro and in vivo.
We have confirmed high Sp1 activity in MM cells that is further induced by adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). Sp1 knockdown decreases MM cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Sp1-DNA binding inhibition by TMP inhibits MM cell growth both in vitro and in vivo, inducing caspase-9-dependent apoptosis and overcoming the protective effects of BMSCs.
Our results show Sp1 as an important transcription factor in myeloma that can be therapeutically targeted for clinical application by TMP.
Clinical Cancer Research 08/2011; 17(20):6500-9. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-1036 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LBH589 is a novel pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that has potent antitumor activity in multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies. However, its impact on the immune system has not been defined. We here evaluated the effects of LBH589 on human myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) at clinically relevant concentrations. Exposure to LBH589 affected the surface molecule expression on immature and mature DCs, which was associated with DC maturation (CD83↓), antigen presentation (human leukocyte antigen-ABC↓) and T-cell co-stimulation (CD40↓ and CD86↑). LBH589 decreased both protein and polysaccharide antigen uptake capacities by DCs. Importantly, LBH589 impaired DC function to stimulate antigen-specific immune responses, resulting in the significant reduction of invariant natural killer T-cell (CD1d-restricted) and T-cell (major histocompatibility complex-restricted) activation in innate and adaptive immunity. LBH589 also significantly repressed the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-23 and tumor necrosis factor-α by Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and TLR4-induced DC activation, indicating an important role of HDAC activity in immune regulation and inflammation. RelB, a component of the nuclear factor-κ B signaling pathway, was the key component regulated by HDAC inhibition in DCs. Together, our preclinical study demonstrates that LBH589 significantly impairs the phenotype and function of DCs, indicating a need for monitoring the immune status in patients receiving HDAC inhibitor therapy. It also provides a rationale to evaluate LBH589 activity for the treatment of inflammation.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 01/2011; 25(1):161-8. DOI:10.1038/leu.2010.244 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of Barrett esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEAC) has been increasing at an alarming rate in western countries. In this study, we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of sulforaphane (SFN), an antioxidant derived from broccoli, in BEAC.
BEAC cells were treated with SFN, alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic, paclitaxel, or telomerase-inhibiting agents (MST-312, GRN163L), and live cell number determined at various time points. The effect on drug resistance/chemosensitivity was evaluated by rhodamine efflux assay. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V labeling and Western blot analysis of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Effects on genes implicated in cell cycle and apoptosis were determined by Western blot analyses. To evaluate the efficacy in vivo, BEAC cells were injected subcutaneously in severe combined immunodeficient mice, and after the appearance of palpable tumors, mice were treated with SFN.
SFN induced both time- and dose-dependent decline in cell survival, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. The treatment with SFN also suppressed the expression of multidrug resistance protein, reduced drug efflux, and increased anticancer activity of other antiproliferative agents including paclitaxel. A significant reduction in tumor volume was also observed by SFN in a subcutaneous tumor model of BEAC. Anticancer activity could be attributed to the induction of caspase 8 and p21 and down-regulation of hsp90, a molecular chaperon required for activity of several proliferation-associated proteins.
These data indicate that a natural product with antioxidant properties from broccoli has great potential to be used in chemoprevention and treatment of BEAC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated cytokines in bone marrow (BM) micro-environment (interleukin-6 [IL-6], transforming growth factor-beta [TGF-beta], and IL-1beta) may play an important role in observed immune dysfunction in multiple myeloma (MM). As IL-6 and TGF-beta are important for the generation of T-helper 17 (T(H)17) cells, we evaluated and observed a significantly elevated baseline and induced frequency of T(h)17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and BM mononuclear cells (BMMCs) from MM patients compared with healthy donors. We observed significant increase in levels of serum IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23 in blood and BM in MM compared with healthy donors. We also observed that myeloma PBMCs after T(H)17 polarization significantly induced IL-1alpha, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-23 production compared with healthy donor PBMCs. We next observed that IL-17 promotes myeloma cell growth and colony formation via IL-17 receptor, adhesion to bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as well as increased growth in vivo in murine xenograft model of human MM. Additionally, we have observed that combination of IL-17 and IL-22 significantly inhibited the production of T(H)1-mediated cytokines, including interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), by healthy donor PBMCs. In conclusion, IL-17-producing T(h)17 cells play an important role in MM pathobiology and may be an important therapeutic target for anti-MM activity and to improve immune function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the in vitro and in vivo anti-multiple myeloma activity of monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1339, a high-affinity fully humanized anti-interleukin 6 mAb (immunoglobulin G1), alone and in combination with conventional and novel anti-multiple myeloma agents, as well as its effect on bone turnover.
We examined the growth inhibitory effect of 1339 against multiple myeloma cell lines in the absence and in the presence of bone marrow stromal cells, alone or in combination with dexamethasone, bortezomib, perifosine, and Revlimid. Using the severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-hu murine model of multiple myeloma, we also examined the effect of 1339 on multiple myeloma cell growth and multiple myeloma bone disease.
mAb 1339 significantly inhibited growth of multiple myeloma cell in the presence of bone marrow stromal cell in vitro, associated with inhibition of phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and Akt. In addition, mAb 1339 enhanced cytotoxicity induced by dexamethasone, as well as bortezomib, lenalidomide, and perifosine, in a synergistic fashion. Importantly mAb 1339 significantly enhanced growth inhibitory effects of dexamethasone in vivo in SCID-hu mouse model of multiple myeloma. mAb 1339 treatment also resulted in inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in vitro and bone remodeling in SCID-hu model.
Our data confirm in vitro and in vivo anti-multiple myeloma activity of, as well as inhibition of bone turnover by, fully humanized mAb 1339, as a single agent and in combination with conventional and novel agents, providing a rationale for its clinical evaluation in multiple myeloma.
Clinical Cancer Research 12/2009; 15(23):7144-52. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1483 · 8.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decreased activity of osteoblasts (OBs) contributes to osteolytic lesions in multiple myeloma (MM). The production of the soluble Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) by MM cells inhibits OB activity, and its serum level correlates with focal bone lesions in MM. Therefore, we have evaluated bone anabolic effects of a DKK1 neutralizing antibody (BHQ880) in MM. In vitro BHQ880 increased OB differentiation, neutralized the negative effect of MM cells on osteoblastogenesis, and reduced IL-6 secretion. In a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-hu murine model of human MM, BHQ880 treatment led to a significant increase in OB number, serum human osteocalcin level, and trabecular bone. Although BHQ880 had no direct effect on MM cell growth, it significantly inhibited growth of MM cells in the presence of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro. This effect was associated with inhibition of BMSC/MM cell adhesion and production of IL-6. In addition, BHQ880 up-regulated beta-catenin level while down-regulating nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity in BMSC. Interestingly, we also observed in vivo inhibition of MM cell growth by BHQ880 treatment in the SCID-hu murine model. These results confirm DKK1 as an important therapeutic target in myeloma and provide the rationale for clinical evaluation of BHQ880 to improve bone disease and to inhibit MM growth.