Yong Hoon Lee

Chonbuk National University, Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea

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Publications (80)81.01 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas cichorii is a devastating pathogen which infects a wide range of ornamental as well as agricultural crops worldwide. Characterization of virulence genes helps to understand pathogens' infection processes, which may lead to development of resistant crops. For functional validation of novel genes, we re-constructed pUCP18 vector with λ phage red operon and sacB gene (pUCP18_RedS), which simplified conventional marker exchange system. The effector gene hopA1 of P. cichorii JBC1 was marker exchanged with PCR product of kanamycin gene flanked by hopA1 flanking region using pUCP18_RedS. The virulence and internal growth of hopA1 defective mutant (ΔhopA1) in tomato seedlings was significantly reduced compared to wild type (WT) and hopA1 complemented strain (ΔhopA1::phopA1). The analysis on role of hopA1 in host range revealed that P. cichorii was hopA1-dependent to infect cabbage, tomato, soybean, hot pepper, and cucumber, but not melon and eggplant. Despite the similarity in growth pattern, the biofilm formation and swarming motility of ΔhopA1 was significantly reduced compared to WT and ΔhopA1::phopA1. The results of this study indicate that hopA1 plays a significant role not only in virulence and host specificity, but also motility and biofilm formation of P. cichorii which may influence the infection processes.
    Research in Microbiology 08/2014; · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a very serious disease in rice growing regions of the world. In spite of economic importance, there are no effective ways of protecting rice plant from this disease. Bacteriophages infecting Xoo affect the population dynamics of the pathogen and consequently the occurrence of the disease. In this study, we investigated the diversity, host range, and infectivity of Xoo phages, and their use as a bicontrol agent on BLB was tested. Among the 34 phages that were isolated from floodwater in paddy fields, 29 belonged to Myoviridae family, which suggests that the dominant phage in the ecosystem was Myoviridae. The isolated phages were classified into two groups based on plaque size produced on the lawn of Xoo. In general, there was a negative relationship between plaque size and host range, and interestingly the phages having a narrow host range had low efficiency of infectivity. The deduced protein sequence analysis of htf genes indicated that the gene was not a determinant of host specificity. Although the difference in host range and infectivity depending on morphotype needs to be addressed, the results revealed deeper understanding of the interaction between the phages and Xoo strains in floodwater and damp soil environment. The phage mixtures reduced the occurrence of BLB when they were treated with skim milk. The results indicate that the Xoo phages could be used as an alternative control method to increase the control efficacy and reduce the use of agrochemicals.
    Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 03/2014; · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRs) play important roles in the development and progression of human cancers. MiR-146a down-regulates epidermal growth factor receptor and the nuclear factor-κB regulatory kinase interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 genes that play important roles in lung carcinogenesis. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between rs2910164C>G, a functional polymorphism in the pre-miR-146a, and lung cancer risk. The rs2910164C>G genotypes were determined in 1,094 patients with lung cancer and 1,100 healthy controls who were frequency matched for age and gender. The rs2910164 CG or GG genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk for lung cancer compared to that of the CC genotype (adjusted odds ratio=0.80, 95% confidence interval=0.66-0.96, P=0.02). When subjects were stratified according to smoking exposure (never, light and heavy smokers), the effect of the rs2910164C>G genotype on lung cancer risk was significant only in never smokers (adjusted odds ratio=0.66, 95% confidence interval=0.45-0.96, P=0.03, under a dominant model for the C allele) and decreased as smoking exposure level increased (Ptrend<0.001). In line with this result, the level of miR-146a expression in the tumor tissues was significantly higher in the GG genotype than in CC or CG genotypes only in never-smokers (P=0.02). These findings suggest that the rs2910164C>G in pre-miR-146a may contribute to genetic susceptibility to lung cancer, and that miR-146a might be involved in lung cancer development. HIGHLIGHT:
    Gene 10/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: To explore the effects of light quality on the physiology and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum acutatum, we analyzed the morphological traits, melanin production, and virulence of the pathogen under different light wavelengths. METHODS AND RESULTS: The influence of light wavelength on the mycelial growth and conidial germination of C. acutatum was investigated using red, green, blue, and white light sources. Red and green light reduced the mycelial growth in comparison with blue and white light, and dark conditions. The least percentage of conidial germination was observed under blue light, while the germination rate among white, red, and green light, as well as in the dark, was insignificant. In comparison with its influence on mycelial growth and conidial germination, light wavelength significantly affected the pathogen's virulence toward hot pepper fruits. The highest disease severity was observed under blue light, which was at least a two-fold increase compared to the disease severity under other light conditions. To elucidate the effect of light on the disparity in virulence, scytalone was assayed by HPLC, and scd1 gene expression was examined with real-time PCR. The highest and lowest scytalone production was observed in the cultures incubated under blue (10.9 mAU) and green light (1.5 mAU), respectively. Higher scd1 gene expression (~ 40 fold increase) was observed in cultures incubated under blue and white light in comparison with those incubated in the dark. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that light affects the growth, colonial morphology, and virulence of C. acutatum. The pathogen needs light for its active melanin production and also to attain higher virulence. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This is the first report on the effect of light quality on the virulence of C. acutatum. The findings of this study will broaden our knowledge of the influence of light on physiological responses of fungal pathogens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 05/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Sang-Mi Yu, Yong Hoon Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Light is one of the most important environmental signals regulating physiological processes of many microorganisms. However, very few studies have been reported on the qualitative or quantitative effects of light on control of postharvest spoilage using antagonistic bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effects of white, red, green, and blue light at photon flux densities of 40, 240, and 360 μmol m−2 s−1 on Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JBC36 (JBC36), which has been reported as a promising candidate for biocontrol of green and blue mold on mandarin fruit. With the exception of blue light at 240 and 360 μmol m−2 s−1, light generally stimulated growth of JBC36 compared to the controls grown in the dark. Red light increased swarming motility irrespective of intensity and significantly enhanced biofilm formation at 240 μmol m−2 s−1. Production of antifungal metabolites and antifungal activity on Penicillium digitatum was also affected by light quality. Interestingly, antifungal activity was significantly increased when JBC36 and P. digitatum was co-incubated under red and green light at an intensity of 240 μmol m−2 s−1. We also demonstrated that the quality of light resulted in changes in colonization of JBC36 on mandarin fruit and control of green mold. In particular, red light increased the population level on mandarin fruit and biocontrol efficacy against green mold. These results represent the first report on the effect of light quality on an antagonistic bacterium for the control of postharvest spoilage. We believe that an improved understanding of the JBC36 response to light quality may help in the development of strategies to increase biocontrol efficacy of postharvest spoilage.
    Biological Control 03/2013; 64(3):203–210. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JBC36 (JBC36) is a potent biocontrol agent and was proved to control green and blue molds of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). Moreover, light qualities affected its biocontrol efficacy; green and red light significantly increased the antifungal activity of the antagonist in our previous study. The disparity in antagonism on Penicillium digitatum under different light qualities prompted us to investigate further to identify the factors responsible for the noted variation. Purification and quantification of antifungal lipopeptides by HPLC revealed that a three-fold higher quantity of fengycin and a two-fold higher quantity of iturin were produced in cultures incubated with red and green light sources in comparison with white light illumination. Gene expression analysis by real-time PCR also revealed nearly fourfold higher fenA transcripts in cultures subjected to green and red light in comparison with white light illumination. The lowest gene expression was observed with blue light illumination. This study clearly proved that light affects the synthesis of antifungal lipopeptides in JBC36. A light-based lipopeptide production strategy may lead to better exploitation of the microbes for overproduction of the antifungal secondary metabolites and crop disease management.
    European Journal of Plant Pathology 01/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multicentric Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare atypical lymphoproliferative disorder, which is characterized by various systemic manifestations. Some patients with multicentric CD may have concomitant lung parenchymal lesions, for which lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is known to be the most common pathologic finding. Follicular bronchiolitis and LIP are considered to be on the same spectrum of the disease. We describe a case of multicentric CD with pulmonary involvement, which was pathologically proven as follicular bronchiolitis.
    Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 01/2013; 74(1):23-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Reported herein is an adult case of Fisher syndrome (FS) that occurred as a complication during the course of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A 38-yr-old man who had been treated with antibiotics for serologically proven M. pneumoniae pneumonia presented with a sudden onset of diplopia, ataxic gait, and areflexia. A thorough evaluation including brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination, a nerve conduction study, and detection of serum anti-ganglioside GQ1b antibody titers led to the diagnosis of FS. Antibiotic treatment of the underlying M. pneumoniae pneumonia was maintained without additional immunomodulatory agents. A complete and spontaneous resolution of neurologic abnormalities was observed within 1 month, accompanied by resolution of lung lesions.
    Journal of Korean medical science 01/2013; 28(1):152-5. · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • Sang-Mi Yu, Byung-Taek Oh, Yong Hoon Lee
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    ABSTRACT: In order to control postharvest rots of satsuma mandarin (mandarin) fruits, a new strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JBC36 (JBC36) was isolated from rhizosphere of a mandarin orchard and tested for its suppression on decay due to green and blue molds caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and its mode of action was investigated. Additionally, carnauba wax-based and paraffin oil-based coating formulations were developed to increase the control efficacy of the antagonist. The strain JBC36 at 10 CFU mL inhibited incidence of green and blue molds on wounded mandarin fruits with control efficacies of 88 and 80.2%, respectively. Mycelial growth and spore germination of P. digitatum and P. italicum were strongly inhibited in the presence of JBC36 or antagonistic metabolites. In order to determine antifungal activity, three kinds of antibiotics were isolated by RP-HPLC and identified as lipopeptide families, iturin A, fengycin, and surfactin by RP-HPLC and TLC analysis. Fengycin was further identified as C16 fengycin A by LC/ESI-MS and MS/MS analysis. Volatile organic compounds from the antagonist also reduced the mycelial growth of P. digitatum and P. italicum. Carnauba wax-based and paraffin oil-based coating formulations containing 10 CFU mL of JBC36 efficiently decreased the incidence of green mold with control efficacy of 91 and 80.9%, respectively. Overall, the antagonistic rhizobacterium JBC36 is a promising biocontrol agent for use in preventing postharvest spoilage of mandarin fruits by green and blue molds.
    Biocontrol Science and Technology 01/2012; · 0.71 Impact Factor
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    Sungho Choi, Eui-Rim Jeong, Yong Hoon Lee
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    ABSTRACT: A new predistortion technique for dynamic spec- trum allocation systems such as cognitive radio (CR) is proposed. The system model considered in this paper occupies a small band at a time, but the center frequency can be changed in the wide range of frequency. In this scenario, the front-end filter may not eliminate the harmonics of the power amplifier (PA) output. The proposed PD reduces the spectral regrowth of the fundamental signal at the carrier frequency (ωo) and removes the harmonics (2ωo, 3ωo, ··· ) at the same time. The proposed PD structure is composed of multiple predistorters (PDs) centered at integer multiples of ωo. The PD at ωo is for removing spectral regrowth of the fundamental signal, and the others are for harmonic reduction. In the proposed PD structure, parameters of PDs are found jointly. Simulation results show that the spectral regrowth can be reduced by 20dB, and the 2nd and 3rd harmonics can be reduced down to -70dB from the power of the fundamental signal. Index Terms—Cognitive radio (CR), dynamic spectrum allo- cation, harmonics, power amplifier (PA), predistortion
    Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, ICASSP 2011, May 22-27, 2011, Prague Congress Center, Prague, Czech Republic; 01/2011
  • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 01/2011; 70:125-131.
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    Wooseok Nam, Sae-Young Chung, Yong Hoon Lee
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we consider a class of single-source multicast relay networks. We assume that all outgoing channels of a node in the network to its neighbors are orthogonal while the incoming signals from its neighbors can interfere with each other. We first focus on Gaussian relay networks with interference and find an achievable rate using a lattice coding scheme. We show that the achievable rate of our scheme is within a constant bit gap from the information theoretic cut-set bound, where the constant depends only on the network topology, but not on the transmit power, noise variance, and channel gains. This is similar to a recent result by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, who showed an approximate capacity characterization for general Gaussian relay networks. However, our achievability uses a structured code instead of a random one. Using the idea used in the Gaussian case, we also consider a linear finite-field symmetric network with interference and characterize its capacity using a linear coding scheme.
    IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 01/2011; 57:7733-7745. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study describes the red pigment synthesized by the filamentous fungi Isaria farinosa under submerged culture conditions. The pigment production was optimal under the following conditions: pH 5, agitation speed 150 rpm, temperature 27 °C, incubation time 192 h, light source total darkness, sucrose and glucose as carbon source, yeast extract, meat peptone and monosodium glutamate at a fixed concentration of 3% as nitrogen source. The addition of 10 mM CaCl2 to the culture medium increased the biomass and pigment production. Structural elucidation of the pigment using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the red pigment contains an anthraquinone-related compound. In addition, the isolated pigment was water soluble, and was stable when exposed to salt solution (96.1% of stability after treatment with sodium chloride), acid (72.1% with citric acid), heat (86.2% at 60 °C), and sunlight (99.4%). These results are promising to further exploit the fungal culture of Isaria farinosa for producing the red pigment and, subsequently, to considerably increase its yield. The study has commercial importance in the production of Isaria farinosa pigment for industrial application after considerable toxicological examination. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
    Journal of Basic Microbiology 08/2010; 50(6):581 - 590. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The competence of the living creatures to sense and respond to light is well known. The effect of darkness and different color light quality on biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment yield of five potent pigment producers Monascus purpureus, Isaria farinosa, Emericella nidulans, Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium purpurogenum, with different color shades such as red, pink, reddish brown and yellow, were investigated. Incubation in total darkness increased the biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment production in all the fungi. Extracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 36.75 + or - 2.1 OD and minimum in white unscreened light 5.90 + or - 1.1 OD. Similarly, intracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 18.27 + or - 0.9 OD/g and minimum in yellow light 8.03 + or - 0.6 OD/g of substrate. The maximum biomass production was also noticed in darkness 2.51 g/L and minimum in yellow light 0.5 g/L of dry weight. In contrast, growth of fungi in green and yellow wavelengths resulted in low biomass and pigment yield. It was found that darkness, (red 780-622 nm, blue 492-455 nm) and white light influenced pigment and biomass yield.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 04/2010; 109(4):346-50. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase cleaves the ethylene precursor ACC into alpha-ketobutyrate and ammonia. The decreased level of ethylene allows the plant to be more resistant to a wide environmental stress including plant pathogens. In the present study, we characterized the ACC deaminase activity of a Pseudomonas entomophila strain PS-PJH isolated from the red pepper rhizosphere region of red pepper grown at Jinan, Korea. The isolate produced 23.8 +/- 0.4 micromol of alpha-ketobutyrate/mg of protein/h during ACC deamination under in vitro conditions. Polymerase chain reaction for acdS gene showed that the isolated P. entomophila strain PS-PJH carry sequences similar to the known acdS genes. Results of the multiple sequence alignment revealed >99% identity (nucleotide and amino acid) with acdS gene of Pseudomonas putida strains AM15 and UW4. The isolated bacteria promoted 43.3 and 34.1% of growth in Raphanus sativus and Lactuca sativa plants, respectively. Based on the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region sequences, the isolate was identified as P. entomophila. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to report the acdS gene in P. entomophila.
    Journal of Basic Microbiology 04/2010; 50(2):200-5. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Japanese raisin (Hovenia dulcis) tree with typical phytoplasma-like symptoms was observed for the first time in South Korea. The disease, named Japanese raisin witches’-broom, is progressively destructive and is graft-transmissible. The association of disease was confirmed by electron microscopy and molecular studies. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed the phytoplasma was closely related to the elm yellows (EY) group, ribosomal subgroup 16Sr V-B. The 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, fragment of rp operon and secY gene sequences exhibited 96-99% similarity with members of EY phytoplasma. Based on the sequence analyses and phylogenetic studies, it was confirmed that phytoplasma infecting Japanese raisin tree in Korea belongs to the EY group.
    Journal of Phytopathology 01/2010; · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha level, body temperature, and pulmonary lesion score was determined in 3-week-old pigs inoculated intranasally with swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype H1N2. The expression of TNF-alpha was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lung tissues by immunohistochemistry. In BAL fluid, TNF-alpha concentration was maximal at 1 days post-inoculation (dpi), declined markedly by 3 dpi (P<0.05) and steady thereafter. Mean rectal temperatures were above 40 degrees C for the infected groups at 1 dpi and declined markedly by 3 dpi. The body temperatures were correlated with the levels of TNF-alpha in BAL fluids from pigs experimentally infected with SIV (r(s)=0.9754, P<0.05). The pulmonary lesion scores were correlated with the means of positive cells by immunohistochemistry for TNF- alpha (r(s)=0.9949, P<0.001). The results suggest that the expression of TNF-alpha protein plays an important role in induction of pulmonary lesion and clinical sign such as fever in SIV infection.
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 05/2009; 71(5):611-6. · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrastructural aspects of citrus canker development were investigated in nonwounded leaves of citrus species by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A susceptible species Mexican lime and a resistant species Yuzu were spray-inoculated with a virulent strain of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri. Initial symptoms occurred on Mexican lime approximately 9 days after inoculation, whereas they appeared on Yuzu mostly 11 days after inoculation. In Mexican lime leaves, the bacterial invasion was usually accompanied by host cell wall dissolution and cellular disruption. Fibrillar materials from degenerated cell walls were usually found in intercellular spaces. Damaged host cells with necrotic cytoplasm showed the localized separation of plasma membrane from the cell wall. Bacterial multiplication and electron-transparent capsule-like structures around bacteria were commonly observed. Meanwhile, cell wall protuberances were prominent outside host cell walls in response to bacterial invasion in Yuzu leaves. Occlusion of intercellular spaces was also formed by the fusion of two or more individual cell wall protuberances originated from two adjacent host cells. Papillae-like materials accumulated locally within host cells in close proximity to bacteria. Some bacteria were found to be undergoing degeneration in xylem vessels. Also, the shrunken, inactive bacteria were surrounded by electron-translucent fibrillar materials in intercellular spaces, implying bacterial immobilization. These cellular responses are thought to be the consequences of defense responses of Yuzu leaves to invading bacteria. In both citrus species, X. citri pv. citri contained polyphosphate bodies showing electron-dense and elliptical structures in cytoplasm.
    Microscopy Research and Technique 04/2009; 72(7):507-16. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    Won-Yong Shin, Sae-Young Chung, Yong Hoon Lee
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    ABSTRACT: We study the benefits of opportunistic routing in wireless networks by examining how the power and delay scale as the number of source-destination (S-D) pairs increases, where S-D pairs are randomly located over the network. The scaling behavior of conventional multi-hop transmission that does not employ opportunistic routing is also examined. The results indicate that the opportunistic routing can exhibit better power- delay trade-off than the conventional routing while providing up to a logarithmic boost in the scaling law. The gain comes from the fact that the system with opportunistic routing can tolerate more interference due to increased received signal power from utilizing the multi-user diversity gain. Furthermore, we derive an upper bound on the total throughput using the cut-set theorem. It is shown that the achievable rates of the conventional and opportunistic routing schemes become close to the upper bound when the number of S-D pairs is large enough. f(x) g(x) = 0. iii) f(x) = ›(g(x)) if g(x) = O(f(x)). iv) f(x) = !(g(x)) if g(x) = o(f(x)). v) f(x) = £(g(x)) if f(x) = O(g(x)) and g(x) = O(f(x)) (2). wireless networks. In (14), it was shown how fading affects the throughput through the opportunistic routing (15) when there exists a single active S-D pair in a wireless network. In this paper, we analyze the benefit of fading by utilizing opportunistic routing with multi-hop transmissions when there are multiple randomly located S-D pairs. For comparison, we also examine the performance of multi-hop transmission without opportunistic routing. It is observed that there exists a trade-off between the total transmission power per S-D pair and the average number of hops per S-D pair, i.e., delay. It is true that the power can be reduced at the expense of increased delay for both scenarios, but better trade-off can be exhibited with opportunistic routing. As shown in (1), (3), (8)-(10), the throughput per S-D pair scales far less than £(1) when the multi-hop strategy is used if there are n S-D pairs. A natural question is how scaling behaves when not all nodes in the network are sources. We are interested in the maximum number of supportable S-D pairs to maintain a constant throughput per S-D pair. We will analyze power-delay trade-off as the number of S-D pairs increases up to the maximum. In addition, we derive an upper bound on the total through- put using the cut-set theorem. It is shown that the achievable rate of the conventional and opportunistic routing schemes becomes close to the upper bound for the case when the number of S-D pairs is large enough, i.e., when it scales faster than logn. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II describes the system model. In Section III, our routing protocols with and without opportunistic routing are described. In Section IV, the power-delay trade-off is analyzed. Section V presents the cut-set upper bound.
    CoRR. 01/2009; abs/0907.2455.
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    ABSTRACT: An XYθ stage for large area UV Nano-Imprinting Lithography (UV-NIL), which consists of linear actuators, translational/revolute joints, etc., has been modeled as flexible bodies. Multi-layer alignment control for the translation and angle offset cancellation has been performed in a virtual simulation environment using both ADAMS/Control and Matlab/SIMULINK. Furthermore, the vertical motions of three and four axis stages during the control action have been analyzed and compared to each other. The performed analysis can provide useful information for a high precision NIL stage development in the future.
    Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 01/2009; 23(4):1094-1097. · 1.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

452 Citations
81.01 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2014
    • Chonbuk National University
      • Department of Biotechnology
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Kookmin University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Institute of Agricultural Sciences
      Vārānasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 1993–2008
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      • • School of EECS
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007
    • Institute for Infocomm Research
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 2006
    • Lehigh University
      Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2002
    • Seoul National University
      • School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1999
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1997
    • Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
      Usan-ri, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Agency for Defense Development
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1994
    • Seoul Semiconductor Co.
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1991
    • University of Michigan-Dearborn
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
      Dearborn, MI, United States
  • 1989
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • Department of Electrical Engineering
      Buffalo, NY, United States