J M Gooya

National Cancer Institute (USA), Bethesda, MD, United States

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Publications (20)153.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Development of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their immediate progeny is maintained by the interaction with cells in the microenvironment. We found that hematopoiesis was dysregulated in Id1(-/-) mice. Although the frequency of HSCs in Id1(-/-) bone marrow was increased, their total numbers remained unchanged as the result of decreased bone marrow cellularity. In addition, the ability of Id1(-/-) HSCs to self-renew was normal, suggesting Id1 does not affect HSC function. Id1(-/-) progenitors showed increased cycling in vivo but not in vitro, suggesting cell nonautonomous mechanisms for the increased cycling. Id1(-/-) HSCs developed normally when transplanted into Id1(+/+) mice, whereas the development of Id1(+/+) HSCs was impaired in Id1(-/-) recipients undergoing transplantation and reproduced the hematologic features of Id1(-/-) mice, indicating that the Id1(-/-) microenvironment cannot support normal hematopoietic development. Id1(-/-) stromal cells showed altered production of cytokines in vitro, and cytokine levels were deregulated in vivo, which could account for the Id1(-/-) hematopoietic phenotypes. Thus, Id1 is required for regulating the hematopoietic progenitor cell niche but is dispensable for maintaining HSCs.
    Blood 06/2009; 114(6):1186-95. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Id1 is frequently overexpressed in many cancer cells, but the functional significance of these findings is not known. To determine if Id1 could contribute to the development of hematopoietic malignancy, we reconstituted mice with hematopoietic cells overexpressing Id1. We showed for the first time that deregulated expression of Id1 leads to a myeloproliferative disease in mice, and immortalizes myeloid progenitors in vitro. In human cells, we demonstrate that Id genes are expressed in human acute myelogenous leukemia cells, and that knock down of Id1 expression inhibits leukemic cell line growth, suggesting that Id1 is required for leukemic cell proliferation. These findings established a causal relationship between Id1 overexpression and hematologic malignancy. Thus, deregulated expression of Id1 may contribute to the initiation of myeloid malignancy, and Id1 may represent a potential therapeutic target for early stage intervention in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancy.
    Oncogene 07/2008; 27(42):5612-23. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic malignancies are frequently associated with DNA hypomethylation but the molecular mechanisms involved in tumor formation remain poorly understood. Here we report that mice lacking Lsh develop leukemia associated with DNA hypomethylation and oncogene activation. Lsh is a member of the SNF2 chromatin remodeling family and is required for de novo methylation of genomic DNA. Mice that received Lsh deficient hematopoietic progenitors showed severe impairment of hematopoiesis, suggesting that Lsh is necessary for normal hematopoiesis. A subset of mice developed erythroleukemia, a tumor that does not spontaneously occur in mice. Tumor tissues were CpG hypomethylated and showed a modest elevation of the transcription factor PU.1, an oncogene that is crucial for Friend virus induced erythroleukemia. Analysis of Lsh(-/-) hematopoietic progenitors revealed widespread DNA hypomethylation at repetitive sequences and hypomethylation at specific retroviral elements within the PU.1 gene. Wild type cells showed Lsh and Dnmt3b binding at the retroviral elements located within the PU.1 gene. On the other hand, Lsh deficient cells had no detectable Dnmt3b association suggesting that Lsh is necessary for recruitment of Dnmt3b to its target. Furthermore, Lsh(-/-) hematopoietic precursors showed impaired suppression of retroviral elements in the PU.1 gene, an increase of PU.1 transcripts and protein levels. Thus DNA hypomethylation caused by Lsh depletion is linked to transcriptional upregulation of retroviral elements and oncogenes such as PU.1 which in turn may promote the development of erythroleukemia in mice.
    Epigenetics: official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 01/2008; 3(3):134-42. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell cycle regulation is essential for proper homeostasis of hematopoietic cells. Cdk2 is a major regulator of S phase entry, is activated by mitogenic cytokines, and has been suggested to be involved in antigen-induced apoptosis of T lymphocytes. The role of Cdk2 in hematopoietic cells and apoptosis in vivo has not yet been addressed. To determine whether Cdk2 plays a role in these cells, we performed multiple analyses of bone marrow cells, thymocytes, and splenocytes from Cdk2 knockout mice. We found that Cdk2 is not required in vivo to induce apoptosis in lymphocytes, a result that differs from previous pharmacological in vitro studies. Furthermore, thymocyte maturation was not affected by the lack of Cdk2. We then analyzed the hematopoietic stem cell compartment and found similar proportions of stem cells and progenitors in Cdk2(-)(/)(-) and wild-type animals. Knockouts of Cdk2 inhibitors (p21, p27) affect stem cell renewal, but a competitive graft experiment indicated that renewal and multilineage differentiation are normal in the absence of Cdk2. Finally, we stimulated T lymphocytes or macrophages to induce proliferation and observed normal reactivation of Cdk2(-)(/)(-) quiescent cells. Our results indicate that Cdk2 is not required for proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells in vivo, although in vitro analyses consider Cdk2 to be a major player in proliferation and apoptosis in these cells and a potential target for therapy.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 08/2007; 27(14):5079-89. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C/EBPalpha is an essential transcription factor required for myeloid differentiation. While C/EBPalpha can act as a cell fate switch to promote granulocyte differentiation in bipotential granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), its role in regulating cell fate decisions in more primitive progenitors is not known. We found increased numbers of erythroid progenitors and erythroid cells in C/EBPalpha(-/-) fetal liver (FL). Also, enforced expression of C/EBPalpha in hematopoietic stem cells resulted in a loss of erythroid progenitors and an increase in myeloid cells by inhibition of erythroid development and inducing myeloid differentiation. Conditional expression of C/EBPalpha in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells induced myeloid-specific genes, while inhibiting erythroid-specific gene expression including erythropoietin receptor (EpoR), which suggests a novel mechanism to determine hematopoietic cell fate. Thus, C/EBPalpha functions in hematopoietic cell fate decisions by the dual actions of inhibiting erythroid and inducing myeloid gene expression in multipotential progenitors.
    Blood 06/2006; 107(11):4308-16. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hemopoiesis depends on the expression and regulation of transcription factors, which control the maturation of specific cell lineages. We found that the helix-loop-helix transcription factor inhibitor of DNA-binding protein 1 (Id1) is not expressed in hemopoietic stem cells (HSC), but is increased in more committed myeloid progenitors. Id1 levels decrease during neutrophil differentiation, but remain high in differentiated macrophages. Id1 is expressed at low levels or is absent in developing lymphoid or erythroid cells. Id1 expression can be induced by IL-3 in HSC during myeloid differentiation, but not by growth factors that promote erythroid and B cell development. HSC were transduced with retroviral vectors that express Id1 and were transplanted in vivo to evaluate their developmental potential. Overexpression of Id1 in HSC promotes myeloid but impairs B and erythroid cell development. Enforced expression of Id1 in committed myeloid progenitor cells inhibits granulocyte but not macrophage differentiation. Therefore, Id1 may be part of the mechanism regulating myeloid vs lymphoid/erythroid cell fates, and macrophage vs neutrophil maturation.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2005; 174(11):7014-21. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CCAAT enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) inhibits proliferation in multiple cell types; therefore, we evaluated whether C/EBPalpha-deficient hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) have an increased proliferative potential in vitro and in vivo. In this study we demonstrate that C/EBPalpha(-/-) fetal liver (FL) progenitors are hyperproliferative, show decreased differentiation potential, and show increased self-renewal capacity in response to hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs). There are fewer committed bipotential progenitors in C/EBPalpha(-/-) FL, whereas multipotential progenitors are unaffected. HGF-dependent progenitor cell lines can be derived by directly culturing C/EBPalpha(-/-) FL cells in vitro Hyperproliferative spleen colonies and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are observed in mice reconstituted with C/EBPalpha(-/-) FL cells, indicating progenitor hyperproliferation in vitro and in vivo. C/EBPalpha(-/-) FL lacked macrophage progenitors in vitro and had impaired ability to generate macrophages in vivo. These findings show that C/EBPalpha deficiency results in hyperproliferation of HPCs and a block in the ability of multipotential progenitors to differentiate into bipotential granulocyte/macrophage progenitors and their progeny.
    Blood 10/2004; 104(6):1639-47. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: p205 belongs to a family of interferon-inducible proteins called the IFI-200 family, which have been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. While p205 is induced in hematopoietic stem cells during myeloid cell differentiation, its function is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of p205 in regulating proliferation in hematopoietic progenitor cells and in nonhematopoietic cell lines. We found that p205 localizes to the nucleus in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell lines. Transient expression of p205 in murine IL-3-dependent BaF3 and 32D-C123 progenitor cell lines inhibited IL-3-induced growth and proliferation. The closely related IFI-200 family members, p204 and p202, similarly inhibited IL-3-dependent progenitor cell proliferation. p205 also inhibited the proliferation and growth of normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. In nonhematopoietic cell lines, p205 and p204 expression inhibited NIH3T3 cell colony formation in vitro, and microinjection of p205 expression vectors into NIH3T3 fibroblasts inhibited serum-induced proliferation. We have determined the functional domains of p205 necessary for activity, which were identified as the N-terminal domain in apoptosis and interferon response (DAPIN)/PYRIN domain, and the C-terminal retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-binding motif. In addition, we have demonstrated that a putative ataxia telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) kinase phosphorylation site specifically regulates the activity of p205. Taken together, these data suggest that p205 is a potent cell growth regulator whose activity is mediated by its protein-binding domains. We propose that during myelomonocytic cell differentiation, induction of p205 expression contributes to cell growth arrest, thus allowing progenitor cells to differentiate.
    Stem Cells 02/2004; 22(5):832-48. · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to detect changes in RNA expression in single cells would greatly enhance understanding of the molecular basis of biological responses to positive and negative growth regulators. To this end, we compared expression of RNA encoding the receptors for interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-6, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and stem cell factor (SCF) in populations of primitive hematopoietic progenitors (lineage marker negative, Lin(-), and Lin(-) c-Kit(+)) by RT-PCR and in situ RT-PCR. Both Lin(-) and Lin(-) c-Kit(+) progenitors expressed all receptors by RT-PCR. However, RT-PCR could not distinguish between the possibility that all cells expressed growth factor receptor RNA, or the possibility that only a proportion of cells expressed RNA. Therefore, we used in situ RT-PCR to examine growth factor receptor mRNA expression in individual cells. In contrast to RT-PCR, we observed that only 40-80% of Lin(-) cells and 75-100% of Lin(-) c-Kit(+) cells were positive for expression of the growth factor receptor subunits, demonstrating that not all cells were receptor positive. We found that in situ RT-PCR could also be used to measure induction or repression of receptor RNA expression in these cell populations. Specifically, the percentage of cells expressing IL-6alpha receptor RNA decreased from 88% positive in freshly harvested cells to 9% in Lin(-) c-Kit(+) cells cultured in IL-3 for 18 h. Thus, in situ RT-PCR can be used to detect and quantify the number of individual cells that express growth factor receptor mRNA, and may also be useful to measure changes in expression of other endogenous genes or genes introduced by transfection and gene therapy vectors.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2001; 257(1-2):123-36. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In an effort to characterize molecular events contributing to lineage commitment and terminal differentiation of stem/progenitor cells, we have used differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) and cell lines blocked at two distinct stages of differentiation. The cell lines used were EML, which is representative of normal multipotential primitive progenitors (Sca-1(+), CD34(+), c-Kit+, Thy-1(+)) able to differentiate into erythroid, myeloid, and B-lymphoid cells in vitro, and MPRO, which is a more committed progenitor cell line, with characteristics of promyelocytes able to differentiate into granulocytes. One clone isolated by this approach was expressed in MPRO but not in EML cells and contained sequence identical to the 3' untranslated region of D3, a gene cloned from activated peritoneal macrophages of unknown function. We have observed a novel pattern of D3 gene expression and found that D3 is induced in EML cells under conditions that promote myeloid cell differentiation (interleukin-3 [IL-3], stem cell factor [SCF], and all-trans-retinoic acid [atRA]) starting at 2 days, corresponding to the appearance of promyelocytes. D3 RNA expression reached a maximum after 5 days, corresponding to the appearance of neutrophilic granulocytes and macrophages, and decreased by day 6 with increased numbers of differentiated neutrophils and macrophages in vitro. Induction of D3 RNA in EML was dependent on IL-3 and was not induced in response to SCF or atRA alone or SCF in combination with 15 other hematopoietic growth factors (HGF) tested. Similarly, D3 was not expressed in the normal bone marrow cell (BMC) counterpart of EML cells, Linlo c-Kit+ Sca-1(+) progenitor cells. D3 RNA expression was induced in these cells when cultured for 7 days in IL-3 plus SCF. A comparison of the expression of D3 RNA in cell lines and normal BMC populations demonstrated that D3 is induced during macrophage and granulocyte differentiation and suggests a potential physiological role for D3 in normal myeloid differentiation.
    Blood 02/1999; 93(2):527-36. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of human hematopoietic cells to engraft SCID mice provides a useful model in which to study the efficiency of retroviral gene transfer and expression in primitive stem cells. In this regard, it is necessary to determine whether SCID mice can be engrafted by cycling human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Human cord blood cells from 12 different donors were cultured in vitro for 6 days with interleukin-3 and stem cell factor. Phenotypic analysis indicated that hematopoietic cells were induced to cycle and the number of progenitors was expanded, thus making them targets for retroviral gene transfer. The cells were then transferred to SCID mice. Human hematopoietic progenitor cell engraftment was assessed up to 7 weeks later by growth of human progenitor cells in soft agar. After in vitro culture under conditions used for retroviral gene transfer, human cord blood hematopoietic cells engrafted the bone marrow and spleen of SCID mice. Interestingly, cultured cord blood cells engrafted after intraperitoneal but not after intravenous injection. Furthermore, engraftment of cord blood cells was observed in mice receiving no irradiation before transfer of the human cells, suggesting that competition for space in the marrow is not a limiting factor when these cells have been cultured. Administration of human cytokines after transfer of human cord blood cells to SCID mice was also not required for engraftment. Thus, engraftment of SCID mice with human hematopoietic cells cultured under conditions suitable for gene transfer may provide an in vivo assay for gene transfer to early human hematopoietic progenitor cells.
    Experimental Hematology 07/1998; 26(6):507-14. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Raf-1 is a serine/threonine kinase that has been identified as a component of growth factor-activated signal transduction pathways, and is required for growth factor-induced proliferation of leukemic cell lines and colony formation of hematopoietic progenitors stimulated with single colony-stimulating factors, which promote the growth of committed hematopoietic progenitor cells. However, it is known that the most primitive progenitors in the bone marrow require stimulation with multiple cytokines to promote cell growth. We have determined that c-raf antisense oligonucleotides inhibit the growth of murine lineage-negative progenitors stimulated with two-, three- and four-factor combinations of growth factors, including GM-CSF + interleukin (IL)- 1, IL-3 + steel factor (SLF), IL-3 + IL-11 + SLF and IL-3 + IL-11 + SLF + G-CSF. In addition, c-raf antisense oligonucleotides inhibit the synergistic response of the MO7e human progenitor cell line induced to proliferate with IL-3 + SLF (99%) or GM-CSF + SLF (99%). In contrast, c-raf antisense oligonucleotides only partially inhibited day 14 colony formation of CD34+ human progenitors stimulated with IL-3 + SLF (50%) or GM-CSF + SLF (55%) but completely inhibited day 7 colony formation. However, pulsing CD34+ cells with additional oligonucleotides on day 7 of the colony assay further inhibited day 14 colony formation (70%-80%). Furthermore, a comparison of the effect of c-raf antisense oligonucleotides on the synergistic response of normal human fetal liver cells in [3H]thymidine incorporation assays and colony assays showed strong inhibition in short-term proliferation assays and partial inhibition in 14-day colony assays. Taken together, these results demonstrate that partial inhibition of colony formation of primitive human progenitors stimulated with multiple growth factors is a result of the length (14 days) of the human colony assay and does not represent a differential requirement of primitive progenitors for Raf-1. Thus Raf-1 is required for the proliferation and differentiation of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells stimulated with synergistic combinations of cytokines.
    Stem Cells 02/1997; 15(1):63-72. · 7.70 Impact Factor
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    J R Keller, J M Gooya, F W Ruscetti
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    ABSTRACT: Because leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has little or no effect on murine hematopoietic progenitor cell growth yet enhances hematopoiesis in vivo, we sought to determine whether the effects of LIF were directly or indirectly mediated, or a combination of both. Although LIF alone or in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interleukin-3 (IL-3) has no effect on colony formation of unfractionated bone marrow cells (BMCs), it enhances M-CSF-induced colony formation. In comparison, LIF synergizes with IL-3, GM-CSF, M-CSF, and Steel Factor (SLF) to promote the colony formation of partially purified lineage-negative (Lin-) BM progenitors without altering their differentiation. These effects were directly mediated since identical results were observed in single-cell assays. Comparing the effect of LIF with other members of this subclass of hematopoietins (IL-6, oncostatin M [OSM], and ciliary neurotrophic factor [CNTF]), we found that while LIF and IL-6 equally synergize with M-CSF and SLF to promote the colony formation of Lin- BMCs, OSM, and CNTF have no effect. In agreement with OSMs ability to directly bind gp130, preincubation of BMCs with OSM inhibits progenitor cell growth stimulated by the combination of LIF or IL-6 plus SLF. LIF can also directly enhance the growth of further purified more primitive Lin- c-kit+ progenitor cells in the presence of IL-3, GM-CSF, or SLF. Thus, LIF can directly synergize with growth factors to promote the proliferation of purified hematopoietic progenitors, suggesting that the direct effects of LIF on hematopoietic cell growth can, in part, explain the observed hematopoietic effects in vivo. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use.
    Blood 09/1996; 88(3):863-9. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While it is well established that Raf-1 kinase is activated by phosphorylation in growth factor-dependent hematopoietic cell lines stimulated with a variety of hematopoietic growth factors, little is known about the biological effects of Raf-1 activation on normal hematopoietic cells. Therefore, we examined the requirement for Raf-1 in growth factor-regulated proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells using c-faf antisense oligonucleotide. Raf-1 required for the proliferation of growth factor dependent cell lines stimulated by IL-2, IL-3, G-CSF, GM-CSF and EPO that bind to the hematopoietin class of receptors. Raf-1 is also required for the proliferation of cell lines stimulated by growth factors that use the tyrosine kinase containing receptor class, including SLF and CSF-1. In addition, Raf-1 is also required for IL-6, LIF- and OSM-induced proliferation whose receptors share the gp 130 subunit. In contrast to previous results which demonstrated that IL-4 could not activate Raf-1 kinase, c-raf antisense oligonucleotides also inhibited IL-4-induced proliferation of T cell and myeloid cell lines. Using normal hematopoietic cells, c-raf antisense oligonucleotides completely suppressed the colony formation of murine hematopoietic progenitors in response to single growth factors, such as IL-3, CSF-1 or GM-CSF. Further, c-raf antisense oligonucleotides inhibited the growth of murine progenitors stimulated with synergistic combinations of growth factors (required for primitive progenitor growth) including two, three and four factor combinations. In comparison to murine hematopoietic cells, c-raf antisense oligonucleotides also inhibited both IL-3 and GM-CSF-induced colony formation of CD 34+ purified human progenitors. In addition, Raf-1 is required for the synergistic response of CD 34+ human bone marrow progenitors to multiple cytokines; however, this effect was only observed when additional antisense oligonucleotides were added to the cultures at day 7 of a 14 day assay. Finally, Raf-1 is required for the synergistic response of human Mo-7e cells and of normal human fetal liver cells to five factor combinations. Thus, Raf-1 is required to transduce growth factor-induced proliferative signals in factor-dependent progenitor cells lines for all known classes of hematopoietic growth factor receptors, and is required for the growth of normal murine and human bone marrow-derived progenitors.
    Current topics in microbiology and immunology 02/1996; 211:43-53. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this report, we describe a novel gene therapy approach for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells using a specific receptor-mediated gene transfection procedure to target c-kit+ cell lines. The vector consists of plasmid DNA containing a luciferase reporter gene that is condensed by electrostatic forces with polylysine (PL) covalently linked to streptavidin (binds biotinylated ligand) and PL covalently linked to adenovirus (AD; to achieve endosomal lysis) with the final addition of biotinylated steel factor (SLF-biotin). Targeted transfection of growth factor-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell lines that express c-kit showed specific luciferase gene expression over cell lines that did not express c-kit. This effect was dependent on the dose of SLF-biotin and was competed by excess SLF or with monoclonal antibodies that recognize c-kit and block the binding of SLF to its receptor. Maximum transfection efficiency (> 90%) requires a 2-hour incubation period of the vector with the cells, and maximum gene expression occurred 30 hours later. Removal of the endosomalytic agent, AD, from the vector resulted in the loss of gene expression. Vector targeting was versatile and could be changed by the addition of other biotinylated ligands. In principle, this vector should be broadly applicable to deliver genes to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo.
    Blood 02/1996; 87(2):472-8. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Demonstration of the ability of fresh human hematopoietic cells to engraft severe combined immuno-deficient (scid) mice has provided an in vivo assay for expansion and maturation of early human progenitor cells. However, engraftment of cultured hematopoietic cells has been difficult to achieve. We wished to further develop this model as an in vivo assay for efficiency of retroviral gene transfer and expression in the differentiated progeny of adult human bone marrow progenitor cells. Human bone marrow cells were cultured in vitro for six days under conditions suitable for infection by retroviral vectors prior to transfer to irradiated scid mice. Cultured human bone marrow cells introduced by both intravenous (i.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection persisted in the bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum of recipient animals up to four weeks after transfer. Following irradiation scid mice receiving cultured human bone marrow cells by either i.v. or i.p. routes demonstrated engraftment of the bone marrow and spleen as determined by the growth of human hematopoietic progenitors in soft agar. By flow cytometric analysis human cells were also detected in the peritoneum of mice receiving cultured human bone marrow cells i.p. These results suggest that the transfer of cultured human bone marrow cells to scid mice with the subsequent engraftment of these cells in the bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum of recipients can routinely occur. This provides an in vivo model for retroviral gene transfer to human cells.
    Leukemia 11/1995; 9 Suppl 1:S43-7. · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Raf-1 is a 74-kD serine/threonine kinase located in the cell cytoplasm that is activated by phosphorylation in cells stimulated with a variety of mitogens and growth factors, including hematopoietic growth factors. Using c-raf antisense oligonucleotides to block Raf-1 expression, we have established that Raf-1 is required for hematopoietic growth factor-induced proliferation of murine cell lines stimulated by growth factors whose receptors are members of several different structural classes: (a) the hematopoietin receptor family, including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-3, IL-4, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and erythropoietin; (b) the tyrosine kinase receptor class, including Steel factor and CSF-1; and (c) IL-6, leukemia inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M, whose receptors include the gp130 receptor subunit. Although results of previous experiments had suggested that IL-4 does not phosphorylate or activate the Raf-1 kinase, c-raf antisense oligonucleotides inhibited IL-4-induced proliferation of both myeloid and T cell lines, and IL-4 activated Raf-1 kinase activity in an IL-4-dependent myeloid cell line. In colony assays, c-raf antisense oligonucleotides completely inhibited colony formation of unseparated normal murine bone marrow cells stimulated with either IL-3 or CSF-1 and partially inhibited cells stimulated with GM-CSF. In addition, c-raf antisense oligonucleotides completely inhibited both IL-3- and GM-CSF-induced colony formation of CD34+ purified human progenitors stimulated with these same growth factors. Thus, Raf-1 is required for growth factor-induced proliferation of leukemic murine progenitor cell lines and normal murine and human bone marrow-derived progenitor cells regardless of the growth factor used to stimulate cell growth.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 07/1995; 181(6):2189-99. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) have been shown to be multifunctional regulators of hematopoiesis that can either inhibit or enhance the growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). We report here the spectrum of activities of these two cytokines on different hematopoietic progenitor and stem cell populations, and whether these effects are direct or indirect. MIP-1 alpha enhances interleukin-3 (IL-3)/and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/induced colony formation of normal bone marrow progenitor cells (BMC) and lineage-negative (Lin-) progenitors, but has no effect on G-CSF or CSF-1/induced colony formation. Similarly, TGF beta enhances GM-CSF/induced colony formation of normal BMC and Lin- progenitors. In contrast, TGF beta inhibits IL-3/ and CSF-1/induced colony formation of Lin- progenitors. The effects of MIP-1 alpha and TGF beta on the growth of Lin- progenitors were direct and correlate with colony formation in soft agar. Separation of the Lin- cells into Thy-1 and Thy-1lo subsets showed that the growth of Thy-1lo Lin- cells is directly inhibited by MIP-1 alpha and TGF beta regardless of the cytokine used to stimulate growth (IL-3), GM-CSF, or CSF-1). In contrast, two other stem cell populations (0% to 15% Höechst 33342/Rhodamine 123 [Hö/Rh123] and Lin-Sca-1+ cells) were markedly inhibited by TGF beta and unaffected by MIP-1 alpha. Furthermore, MIP-1 alpha has no effect on high proliferative potential colony-forming cells 1 or 2 (HPP-CFC/1 or /2) colony formation in vitro, whereas TGF beta inhibits both HPP-CFC/1 and HPP-CFC/2. Thus, MIP-1 alpha and TGF beta are direct bidirectional regulators of HPC growth, whose effects are dependent on other growth factors present as well as the maturational state of the HPC assayed. The spectrum of their inhibitory and enhancing activities shows overlapping yet distinct effects.
    Blood 11/1994; 84(7):2175-81. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present studies investigated the balance of positive and negative growth signals in direct regulation of hematopoiesis. Interleukin-3 (IL-3) combined with Steel factor (SLF) optimally stimulated proliferation of Lin-Thy-1+ murine bone marrow progenitors in single-cell assays, and that proliferation was inhibited more than 90% by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1, or IL-6 as a third stimulatory growth factor was incapable of counteracting the TGF-beta 1-mediated inhibition of IL-3-plus-SLF-stimulated growth, while G-CSF slightly enhanced the number of TGF-beta 1-resistant clones. As a fourth factor, only IL-1 could partially overcome the TGF-beta 1-induced growth inhibition. While the presence of a cocktail of five additional stimulatory growth factors did not enhanced the frequency of single Lin-Thy-1+ progenitors proliferating in response to IL-3 plus SLF, the number of responding progenitors in the presence of TGF-beta 1 was enhanced nine-fold. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), cooperated with TGF-beta 1 to reverse the proliferative effects of multiple stimulatory cytokines, resulting in 76% inhibition. Thus, the direct effects of single inhibitory factors on hematopoietic progenitor cell growth can be reversed by multiple stimulatory growth factors, and negative growth factors can directly cooperate to suppress progenitor cell growth stimulated by multiple positive-acting factors.
    Experimental Hematology 10/1994; 22(10):985-9. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been shown to stimulate hematopoietic progenitor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Although IL-1 alone lacks the ability to promote hematopoietic progenitor growth in vitro, it is a potent synergistic factor in combination with other colony-stimulating factors (CSFs). Because it was unknown whether type I (p80), type II (p68), or other IL-1-binding proteins mediated the synergistic effects of IL-1 on purified progenitor cells, we used the difference in immunoreactivity between type I and type II IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) to better assess the role of these receptors in hematopoietic progenitor growth. Therefore, the synergistic effects of IL-1 alpha on IL-3-, CSF-1-, and granulocyte macrophage (GM)-CSF-induced progenitor growth, both in CFU-c and single-cell assays, were determined in the presence of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) 35F5 and 4E2 that block the binding of IL-1 alpha to type I and type II IL-1R, respectively. The synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on IL-3 responsive Lin- and Lin(-)-Thy-1+ progenitors was indirectly mediated and could be inhibited by MoAb 35F5. In contrast, IL-1 alpha directly synergized with CSF-1 and GM-CSF to promote progenitor cell growth. The direct synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on CSF-1-induced progenitor growth was observed in all progenitor populations examined (Lin-, Lin-Thy-1+, and Lin-Thy-1-) and was inhibited by MoAb 35F5. However, the direct synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on GM-CSF-responsive progenitors. Lin- and Lin-Thy-1+, was partially inhibited by MoAb 35F5. In contrast, the MoAb antitype II IL-1R (MoAb 4E2) could not inhibit the direct synergistic effects of IL-1 alpha on CSF-1- or GM-CSF-induced progenitor growth. Thus, IL-1 alpha directly and indirectly stimulates the growth and differentiation of purified progenitors through the type I IL-1R but not the type II IL-1R.
    Blood 08/1994; 84(1):125-32. · 9.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

379 Citations
153.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Center for Cancer Research
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2007
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Immune Cell Biology
      Maryland, United States
  • 1997–2006
    • Leidos Biomedical Research
      Maryland, United States