David D Anderson

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States

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Publications (12)52.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pladienolide B (PB) is a potent cancer cell growth inhibitor that targets the SF3B1 subunit of the spliceosome. There is considerable interest in the compound as a potential chemotherapeutic, as well as a tool to study SF3B1 function in splicing and cancer development. The molecular structure of PB, a bacterial natural product, contains a 12-member macrolide ring with an extended epoxide containing side chain. Using a novel concise enantioselective synthesis, we created a series of PB structural analogs and the structurally related compound herboxidiene. We show that two methyl groups in the PB side chain, as well as a feature of the macrolide ring shared with herboxidiene, are required for splicing inhibition in vitro. Unexpectedly, we find that the epoxy group contributes only modestly to PB potency, and is not absolutely necessary for activity. The orientations of at least two chiral centers off the macrolide ring have no effect on PB activity. Importantly, the ability of analogs to inhibit splicing in vitro directly correlated with their effects in a series of cellular assays. Those effects likely arise from inhibition of some, but not all, endogenous splicing events in cells, as previously reported for the structurally distinct SF3B1 inhibitor spliceostatin A. Together, our data support the idea that the impact of PB on cells is derived from its ability to impair the function of SF3B1 in splicing, and also demonstrate that simplification of the PB scaffold is feasible.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Arun K Ghosh, David D Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: An enantioselective and convergent total synthesis of pladienolide B (1) is described. Pladienolide B binds to the SF3b complex of a spliceosome and inhibits mRNA splicing activity. The synthesis features an epoxide opening reaction, an asymmetric reduction of a β-keto ester, and a cross metathesis strategy for the side chain synthesis.
    Organic Letters 09/2012; 14(18):4730-3. · 6.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The structure-based design, synthesis, and X-ray structure of protein-ligand complexes of exceptionally potent and selective β-secretase inhibitors are described. The inhibitors are designed specifically to interact with S(1)' active site residues to provide selectivity over memapsin 1 and cathepsin D. Inhibitor 5 has exhibited exceedingly potent inhibitory activity (K(i) = 17 pM) and high selectivity over BACE 2 (>7000-fold) and cathepsin D (>250000-fold). A protein-ligand crystal structure revealed important molecular insight into these selectivities. These interactions may serve as an important guide to design selectivity over the physiologically important aspartic acid proteases.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2012; · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of drug resistance is one of the most fundamental problems in medicine. In HIV/AIDS, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants is a major obstacle to current treatments. HIV-1 protease inhibitors are essential components of present antiretroviral therapies. However, with these protease inhibitors, resistance occurs through viral mutations that alter inhibitor binding, resulting in a loss of efficacy. This loss of potency has raised serious questions with regard to effective long-term antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS. In this context, our research has focused on designing inhibitors that form extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions with the enzyme's backbone in the active site. In doing so, we limit the protease's ability to acquire drug resistance as the geometry of the catalytic site must be conserved to maintain functionality. In this Review, we examine the underlying principles of enzyme structure that support our backbone-binding concept as an effective means to combat drug resistance and highlight their application in our recent work on antiviral HIV-1 protease inhibitors.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 02/2012; 51(8):1778-802. · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Die Entstehung von Arzneimittelresistenzen ist eines der grundlegenden Probleme der Medizin. Dass sich bei HIV/AIDS so schnell resistente HIV-1-Varianten einstellen, ist ein großes Hindernis für die modernen Therapien. Wichtige Zielmoleküle der derzeitigen antiretroviralen Therapien sind Inhibitoren der HIV-1-Protease. Das Virus entwickelt Resistenzen, wenn Mutationen die Inhibitorbindung des Enzyms verändern und somit die Effizienz mindern. Um diese Resistenzbildung zu vermeiden, haben wir Inhibitoren erforscht, die am aktiven Zentrum der Protease Wasserstoffbrücken zum Proteinrückgrat bilden. Weil sich die Geometrie am katalytischen Zentrum ohne Funktionsverlust nicht ändern kann, schränken solche Wechselwirkungen die Möglichkeiten der Protease zur Resistenzbildung erheblich ein. Hier diskutieren wir das enzymatische Strukturprinzip, auf dem unser Konzept der Rückgratbindung beruht. Besonderes Augenmerk richten wir auf die Anwendung des Konzepts in unseren jüngeren Arbeiten zu antiviralen Inhibitoren der HIV-1-Protease.
    Angewandte Chemie 02/2012; 124(8).
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    Arun K Ghosh, David D Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: HIV/AIDS remains a formidable disease with millions of individuals inflicted worldwide. Although treatment regimens have improved considerably, drug resistance brought on by viral mutation continues to erode their effectiveness. Intense research efforts are currently underway in search of new and improved therapies. This review is concerned with the design of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors that incorporate heterocyclic scaffolds and which have been reported within the recent literature (2005-2010). Various examples in this review showcase the essential role heterocycles play as scaffolds and bioisosteres in HIV-1 protease inhibitor drug development. This review will hopefully stimulate the widespread application of these heterocycles in the design of other therapeutic agents.
    Future medicinal chemistry 07/2011; 3(9):1181-97. · 3.31 Impact Factor
  • Arun K. Ghosh, David D. Anderson, Hiroaki Mitsuya
    08/2010; , ISBN: 9780471266945
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    ABSTRACT: Natural products with macrocyclic structural features often display intriguing biological properties. Molecular design incorporating macrocycles may lead to molecules with unique protein-ligand interactions. We generated novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) containing a macrocycle and bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane. Four such compounds exerted potent activity against HIV-1LAI and had 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of as low as 0.002 microM with minimal cytotoxicity. GRL-216 and GRL-286 blocked the replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by up to 5 microM saquinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, or atazanavir; they had EC50s of 0.020 to 0.046 microM and potent activities against six multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 (HIVmPIr) variants with EC50s of 0.027 to 0.089 microM. GRL-216 and -286 also blocked HIV-1 protease dimerization as efficiently as darunavir. When HIV-1NL4-3 was selected by GRL-216, it replicated progressively more poorly and failed to replicate in the presence of >0.26 microM GRL-216, suggesting that the emergence of GRL-216-resistant HIV-1 variants is substantially delayed. At passage 50 with GRL-216 (the HIV isolate selected with GRL-216 at up to 0.16 microM [HIV216-0.16 microM]), HIV-1NL4-3 containing the L10I, L24I, M46L, V82I, and I84V mutations remained relatively sensitive to PIs, including darunavir, with the EC50s being 3- to 8-fold-greater than the EC50 of each drug for HIV-1NL4-3. Interestingly, HIV216-0.16 microM had 10-fold increased sensitivity to tipranavir. Analysis of the protein-ligand X-ray structures of GRL-216 revealed that the macrocycle occupied a greater volume of the binding cavity of protease and formed greater van der Waals interactions with V82 and I84 than darunavir. The present data warrant the further development of GRL-216 as a potential antiviral agent for treating individuals harboring wild-type and/or HIVmPIr.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2010; 54(8):3460-70. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of nonpeptidic macrocyclic HIV protease inhibitors are described. The inhibitors are designed to effectively fill in the hydrophobic pocket in the S1'-S2' subsites and retain all major hydrogen bonding interactions with the protein backbone similar to darunavir (1) or inhibitor 2. The ring size, the effect of methyl substitution, and unsaturation within the macrocyclic ring structure were assessed. In general, cyclic inhibitors were significantly more potent than their acyclic homologues, saturated rings were less active than their unsaturated analogues and a preference for 10- and 13-membered macrocylic rings was revealed. The addition of methyl substituents resulted in a reduction of potency. Both inhibitors 14b and 14c exhibited marked enzyme inhibitory and antiviral activity, and they exerted potent activity against multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants. Protein-ligand X-ray structures of inhibitors 2 and 14c provided critical molecular insights into the ligand-binding site interactions.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2009; 52(23):7689-705. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors are described. In an effort to enhance interactions with protease backbone atoms, we have incorporated stereochemically defined methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and methyl oxazolidinone as the P1'-ligands. These ligands are designed to interact with Gly-27' carbonyl and Arg-8 side chain in the S1'-subsite of the HIV protease. We have investigated the potential of these ligands in combination with our previously developed bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) and cyclopentanyltetrahydrofuran (Cp-THF) as the P2-ligands. Inhibitor 19b with a (R)-aminomethyl-2-pyrrolidinone and a Cp-THF was shown to be the most potent compound. This inhibitor maintained near full potency against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants. A high resolution protein-ligand X-ray crystal structure of 19b-bound HIV-1 protease revealed that the P1'-pyrrolidinone heterocycle and the P2-Cp-ligand are involved in several critical interactions with the backbone atoms in the S1' and S2 subsites of HIV-1 protease.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2009; 52(13):3902-14. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2009; 40(12).
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    ABSTRACT: L-selectride reduction of a chiral or achiral enone followed by reaction of the resulting enolate with optically active alpha-alkoxy aldehydes proceeded with excellent diastereoselectivity. The resulting alpha,alpha-dimethyl-beta-hydroxy ketones are inherent to a variety of biologically active natural products.
    Organic Letters 11/2008; 10(21):4811-4. · 6.14 Impact Factor